Publication 936ContentsHomeMortgageInterestDeductionReminders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Cat. No. 10426GDepartmentof theTreasuryInternalRevenueServiceFor use in preparing2021 ReturnsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Part I. Home Mortgage Interest .Secured Debt . . . . . . . . . .Qualified Home . . . . . . . . .Special Situations . . . . . . .Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mortgage Insurance PremiumsForm 1098, Mortgage InterestStatement . . . . . . . . . .How To Report . . . . . . . . .Special Rule forTenant-Stockholders inCooperative HousingCorporations . . . . . . . .Index.234458. 8. 9. 9Part II. Limits on Home MortgageInterest Deduction . . . . . . .Home Acquisition Debt . . . . .Grandfathered Debt . . . . . . .Worksheet To Figure YourQualified Loan Limit andDeductible Home MortgageInterest For the Current YearHow To Get Tax Help. 9. . . 10. . . 10. . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18RemindersMortgage insurance premiums. The itemized deduction for mortgage insurance premiums has been extended through 2021. You canclaim the deduction on line 8d of Schedule A(Form 1040) for amounts that were paid or accrued in 2021.Home equity loan interest. No matter whenthe indebtedness was incurred, you can no longer deduct the interest from a loan secured byyour home to the extent the loan proceedsweren't used to buy, build, or substantially improve your home.Home mortgage interest. You can deducthome mortgage interest on the first 750,000( 375,000 if married filing separately) of indebtedness. However, higher limitations ( 1 million( 500,000 if married filing separately)) apply ifyou are deducting mortgage interest from indebtedness incurred before December 16,2017.Future developments. For the latest information about developments related to Pub. 936,such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to IRS.gov/Pub936.Get forms and other information faster and easier at: IRS.gov (English) IRS.gov/Spanish (Español) IRS.gov/Chinese (中文)Dec 07, 2021 IRS.gov/Korean (한국어) IRS.gov/Russian (Pусский) IRS.gov/Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt)Photographs of missing children. The IRS isa proud partner with the National Center forMissing & Exploited Children (NCMEC). Photographs of missing children selected by theCenter may appear in this publication on pagesthat would otherwise be blank. You can helpbring these children home by looking at thephotographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST(1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child.
IntroductionThis publication discusses the rules for deducting home mortgage interest.Part I contains general information on homemortgage interest, including points and mortgage insurance premiums. It also explains howto report deductible interest on your tax return.Part II explains how your deduction for homemortgage interest may be limited. It containsTable 1, which is a worksheet you can use tofigure the limit on your deduction.Comments and suggestions. We welcomeyour comments about this publication and suggestions for future editions.You can send us comments throughIRS.gov/FormComments. Or, you can write tothe Internal Revenue Service, Tax Forms andPublications, 1111 Constitution Ave. NW,IR-6526, Washington, DC 20224.Although we can’t respond individually toeach comment received, we do appreciate yourfeedback and will consider your comments andsuggestions as we revise our tax forms, instructions, and publications. Don’t send tax questions, tax returns, or payments to the above address.Getting answers to your tax questions.If you have a tax question not answered by thispublication or the How To Get Tax Help sectionat the end of this publication, go to the IRS Interactive Tax Assistant page at IRS.gov/Help/ITA where you can find topics by using thesearch feature or viewing the categories listed.Getting tax forms, instructions, and publications. Go to IRS.gov/Forms to downloadcurrent and prior-year forms, instructions, andpublications.Ordering tax forms, instructions, andpublications. Go to IRS.gov/OrderForms toorder current forms, instructions, and publications; call 800-829-3676 to order prior-yearforms and instructions. The IRS will processyour order for forms and publications as soonas possible. Don’t resubmit requests you’ve already sent us. You can get forms and publications faster online.Useful ItemsYou may want to see:Publication523 Selling Your Home523Page 2527 Residential Rental Property527530 Tax Information for Homeowners530535 Business Expenses535See How To Get Tax Help at the end of thispublication for information about getting thesepublications.Part I. HomeMortgage InterestThis part explains what you can deduct ashome mortgage interest. It includes discussionson points, mortgage insurance premiums, andhow to report deductible interest on your tax return.Generally, home mortgage interest is any interest you pay on a loan secured by your home(main home or a second home). The loan maybe a mortgage to buy your home, or a secondmortgage.You can’t deduct home mortgage interestunless the following conditions are met. You file Form 1040 or 1040-SR and itemize deductions on Schedule A (Form1040). The mortgage is a secured debt on a qualified home in which you have an ownershipinterest. Secured Debt and QualifiedHome are explained later.Both you and the lender must intend that theloan be repaid.Note. Interest on home equity loans andlines of credit are deductible only if the borrowed funds are used to buy, build, or substantially improve the taxpayer’s home that securesthe loan. The loan must be secured by the taxpayer’s main home or second home (qualifiedresidence), and meet other requirements.category.) If one or more of your mortgagesdoesn’t fit into any of these categories, use PartII of this publication to figure the amount of interest you can deduct.The three categories are as follows.1. Mortgages you took out on or before October 13, 1987 (called grandfathered debt).2. Mortgages you (or your spouse if marriedfiling a joint return) took out after October13, 1987, and prior to December 16, 2017(see binding contract exception below), tobuy, build, or substantially improve yourhome (called home acquisition debt), butonly if throughout 2021 these mortgagesplus any grandfathered debt totaled 1million or less ( 500,000 or less if marriedfiling separately).Exception. A taxpayer who enters intoa written binding contract before December 15, 2017, to close on the purchase ofa principal residence before January 1,2018, and who purchases such residencebefore April 1, 2018, is considered to haveincurred the home acquisition debt prior toDecember 16, 2017.3. Mortgages you (or your spouse if marriedfiling a joint return) took out after December 15, 2017, to buy, build, or substantiallyimprove your home (called home acquisition debt), but only if throughout 2021these mortgages plus any grandfathereddebt totaled 750,000 or less ( 375,000 orless if married filing separately).The dollar limits for the second and third categories apply to the combined mortgages onyour main home and second home.See Part II for more detailed definitions ofgrandfathered debt and home acquisition debt.You can use Figure A to check whether yourhome mortgage interest is fully deductible.Fully deductible interest. In most cases, youcan deduct all of your home mortgage interest.How much you can deduct depends on the dateof the mortgage, the amount of the mortgage,and how you use the mortgage proceeds.If all of your mortgages fit into one or more ofthe following three categories at all times duringthe year, you can deduct all of the interest onthose mortgages. (If any one mortgage fits intomore than one category, add the debt that fits ineach category to your other debt in the samePublication 936 (2021)
Figure A. Is My Home Mortgage Interest Fully Deductible?(Instructions: Include balances of ALL mortgages secured by your main home and second home.)Start Here:Do you meet the conditions1 to deduct homemortgage interest?NoYou can’t deduct the interest payments as homemortgage interest. 2YesYesWere all of your home mortgages taken outon or before October 13, 1987?Your home mortgage interest is fully deductible. Youdon’t need to read Part II of this publication.NoWere all of your home mortgages taken out afterOctober 13, 1987, used to buy, build, or substantiallyimprove the main home secured by that main homemortgage or used to buy, build, or substantiallyimprove the second home secured by that secondhome mortgage, or both?NoGo to Part II of this publication to determine thelimits on your deductible home mortgage interest.YesWere your (or your spouse’s if married filing a jointreturn) mortgage balances 750,000 or less( 375,000 or less if married filing separately)(or 1 million or less ( 500,000 if married filingseparately) if all debt was incurred prior toDecember 16, 2017) at all times during the year? 3NoWere your (or your spouse’s if married filing a jointreturn) grandfathered debt plus home acquisitiondebt balances 750,000 or less4 ( 375,000 or less ifmarried filing separately) (or 1 million or less( 500,000 if married filing separately) if all debt wasincurred prior to December 16, 2017) at all timesduring the year? 3YesNoYes1 You must itemize deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). The loan must be a secured debt on a qualified home. See Part I, Home Mortgage Interest, earlier.2 See Table 2 in Part II of this publication for where to deduct other types of interest payments.3 A taxpayer who enters into a written binding contract before December 15, 2017, to close on the purchase of a principal residence before January 1, 2018,and who purchases such residence before April 1, 2018, is considered to have incurred the home acquisition debt prior to December 16, 2017, and may usethe 2017 threshold amounts of 1,000,000 ( 500,000 for married filing separately).4See Part II of this publication for more information about grandfathered debt and home acquisition debt.Secured DebtYou can deduct your home mortgage interestonly if your mortgage is a secured debt. A secured debt is one in which you sign an instrument (such as a mortgage, deed of trust, orland contract) that: Makes your ownership in a qualified homesecurity for payment of the debt; Provides, in case of default, that yourhome could satisfy the debt; andPublication 936 (2021) Is recorded or is otherwise perfected underany state or local law that applies.In other words, your mortgage is a secureddebt if you put your home up as collateral toprotect the interests of the lender. If you can'tpay the debt, your home can then serve as payment to the lender to satisfy (pay) the debt. Inthis publication, mortgage will refer to secureddebt.cause of a lien on your general assets or if it is asecurity interest that attaches to the propertywithout your consent (such as a mechanic's lienor judgment lien).A debt isn’t secured by your home if it oncewas, but is no longer secured by your home.Wraparound mortgage. This isn’t a secured debt unless it is recorded or otherwiseperfected under state law.Debt not secured by home. A debt isn’t secured by your home if it is secured solely bePage 3
Example. Beth owns a home subject to amortgage of 40,000. She sells the home for 100,000 to John, who takes it subject to the 40,000 mortgage. Beth continues to make thepayments on the 40,000 note. John pays 10,000 down and gives Beth a 90,000 notesecured by a wraparound mortgage on thehome. Beth doesn't record or otherwise perfectthe 90,000 mortgage under the state law thatapplies. Therefore, the mortgage isn't a secureddebt and John can't deduct any of the interesthe pays on it as home mortgage interest.Choice to treat the debt as not secured byyour home. You can choose to treat any debtsecured by your qualified home as not securedby the home. This treatment begins with the taxyear for which you make the choice and continues for all later tax years. You can revoke yourchoice only with the consent of the IRS.You may want to treat a debt as not securedby your home if the interest on that debt is fullydeductible (for example, as a business expense) whether or not it qualifies as home mortgage interest. This may allow you, if the limits inPart II apply, more of a deduction for interest onother debts that are deductible only as homemortgage interest.Cooperative apartment owner. If you ownstock in a cooperative housing corporation, seethe Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations near the end ofthis Part I.Qualified HomeFor you to take a home mortgage interest deduction, your debt must be secured by a qualified home. This means your main home or yoursecond home. A home includes a house, condominium, cooperative, mobile home, housetrailer, boat, or similar property that has sleeping, cooking, and toilet facilities.The interest you pay on a mortgage on ahome other than your main or second homemay be deductible if the proceeds of the loanwere used for business, investment, or otherdeductible purposes. Otherwise, it is considered personal interest and isn't deductible.Main home. You can have only one mainhome at any one time. This is the home whereyou ordinarily live most of the time.Second home. A second home is a home thatyou choose to treat as your second home.Second home not rented out. If you havea second home that you don’t hold out for rentor resale to others at any time during the year,you can treat it as a qualified home. You don'thave to use the home during the year.Second home rented out. If you have asecond home and rent it out part of the year,you must also use it as a home during the yearfor it to be a qualified home. You must use thishome more than 14 days or more than 10% ofthe number of days during the year that thehome is rented at a fair rental, whichever is longer. If you don't use the home long enough, it isconsidered rental property and not a secondPage 4home. For information on residential rentalproperty, see Pub. 527.More than one second home. If you havemore than one second home, you can treat onlyone as the qualified second home during anyyear. However, you can change the home youtreat as a second home during the year in thefollowing situations. If you get a new home during the year, youcan choose to treat the new home as yoursecond home as of the day you buy it. If your main home no longer qualifies asyour main home, you can choose to treat itas your second home as of the day youstop using it as your main home. If your second home is sold during the yearor becomes your main home, you canchoose a new second home as of the dayyou sell the old one or begin using it asyour main home.Divided use of your home. The only part ofyour home that is considered a qualified homeis the part you use for residential living. If youuse part of your home for other than residentialliving, such as a home office, you must allocatethe use of your home. You must then divideboth the cost and fair market value of yourhome between the part that is a qualified homeand the part that isn't. Dividing the cost may affect the amount of your home acquisition debt,which is limited to the cost of your home plusthe cost of any improvements. (See Home Acquisition Debt in Part II, later.)Renting out part of home. If you rent outpart of a qualified home to another person (tenant), you can treat the rented part as being usedby you for residential living only if all of the following conditions apply. The rented part of your home is used bythe tenant primarily for residential living. The rented part of your home isn't aself-contained residential unit having separate sleeping, cooking, and toilet facilities. You don't rent (directly or by sublease) thesame or different parts of your home tomore than two tenants at any time duringthe tax year. If two persons (and dependents of either) share the same sleepingquarters, they are treated as one tenant.Office in home. If you have an office inyour home that you use in your business, seePub. 587, Business Use of Your Home. It explains how to figure your deduction for the business use of your home, which includes the business part of your home mortgage interest.Home under construction. You can treat ahome under construction as a qualified homefor a period of up to 24 months, but only if it becomes your qualified home at the time it isready for occupancy.The 24-month period can start any time onor after the day construction begins.Home destroyed. You may be able to continue treating your home as a qualified homeeven after it is destroyed in a fire, storm, tornado, earthquake, or other casualty. Thismeans you can continue to deduct the interestyou pay on your home mortgage, subject to thelimits described in this publication.You can continue treating a destroyed homeas a qualified home if, within a reasonable period of time after the home is destroyed, you: Rebuild the destroyed home and move intoit, or Sell the land on which the home was located.This rule applies to your main home and to asecond home that you treat as a qualifiedhome.Time-sharing arrangements. You can treat ahome you own under a time-sharing plan as aqualified home if it meets all the requirements.A time-sharing plan is an arrangement betweentwo or more people that limits each person's interest in the home or right to use it to a certainpart of the year.Rental of time-share. If you rent out yourtime-share, it qualifies as a second home only ifyou also use it as a home during the year. SeeSecond home rented out, earlier, for the use requirement. To know whether you meet that requirement, count your days of use and rental ofthe home only during the time you have a rightto use it or to receive any benefits from therental of it.Married taxpayers. If you're married and file ajoint return, your qualified home(s) can beowned either jointly or by only one spouse.Separate returns. If you're married filingseparately and you and your spouse own morethan one home, you can each take into accountonly one home as a qualified home. However, ifyou both consent in writing, then one spousecan take both the main home and a secondhome into account.Special SituationsThis section describes certain items that can beincluded as home mortgage interest and othersthat can't. It also describes certain special situations that may affect your deduction.Late payment charge on mortgage payment. You can deduct as home mortgage interest a late payment charge if it wasn't for aspecific service performed in connection withyour mortgage loan.Mortgage prepayment penalty. If you pay offyour home mortgage early, you may have topay a penalty. You can deduct that penalty ashome mortgage interest provided the penaltyisn't for a specific service performed or cost incurred in connection with your mortgage loan.Sale of home. If you sell your home, you candeduct your home mortgage interest (subject toany limits that apply) paid up to, but not including, the date of the sale.Example. John and Peggy Harris sold theirhome on May 7. Through April 30, they madehome mortgage interest payments of 1,220.The settlement sheet for the sale of the homeshowed 50 interest for the 6-day period in Mayup to, but not including, the date of sale. Theirmortgage interest deduction is 1,270 ( 1,220 50).Publication 936 (2021)
Prepaid interest. If you pay interest in advance for a period that goes beyond the end ofthe tax year, you must spread this interest overthe tax years to which it applies. You can deduct in each year only the interest that qualifiesas home mortgage interest for that year. However, there is an exception that applies topoints, discussed later.Mortgage interest credit. You may be able toclaim a mortgage interest credit if you were issued a mortgage credit certificate (MCC) by astate or local government. Figure the credit onForm 8396, Mortgage Interest Credit. If youtake this credit, you must reduce your mortgageinterest deduction by the amount of the credit.See Form 8396 and Pub. 530 for more information on the mortgage interest credit.Ministers' and military housing allowance.If you're a minister or a member of the uniformed services and receive a housing allowance that isn't taxable, you can still deduct yourhome mortgage interest.Hardest Hit Fund and Emergency Homeowners' Loan Programs. You can use a special method to figure your deduction for mortgage interest and real estate taxes on yourmain home if you meet the following two conditions.1. You received assistance under:a. A State Housing Finance Agency(State HFA) Hardest Hit Fund program in which program paymentscould be used to pay mortgage interest, orb. An Emergency Homeowners' LoanProgram administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) or a state.2. You meet the rules to deduct all of themortgage interest on your loan and all ofthe real estate taxes on your main home.If you meet these conditions, then you can deduct all of the payments you actually made during the year to your mortgage servicer, theState HFA, or HUD on the home mortgage (including the amount shown in box 3 of Form1098-MA, Mortgage Assistance Payments), butnot more than the sum of the amounts shownon Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, inbox 1 (mortgage interest received frompayer(s)/borrower(s)), box 5 (mortgage insurance premiums), and box 10 (real propertytaxes). You may first allocate amounts paid tomortgage interest up to the amount shown onForm 1098. You may then use any reasonablemethod to allocate the remaining balance of thepayments to real property taxes, mortgage insurance premiums, and principal. Regardless ofhow you determine the deductible amount under this special safe harbor method, anyPublication 936 (2021)amount allocated to state or local propertytaxes is subject to the limitation on the deduction for state and local taxes. However, you'renot required to use this special method to figureyour deduction for mortgage interest and realestate taxes on your main home.Mortgage assistance payments under section 235 of the National Housing Act. If youqualify for mortgage assistance payments forlower-income families under section 235 of theNational Housing Act, part or all of the intereston your mortgage may be paid for you. Youcan't deduct the interest that is paid for you.No other effect on taxes. Don’t includethese mortgage assistance payments in your income. Also, don't use these payments to reduce other deductions, such as real estatetaxes.Divorced or separated individuals. If a divorce or separation agreement requires you oryour spouse or former spouse to pay homemortgage interest on a home owned by both ofyou, the payment of interest may be alimony.See the discussion of Payments for jointlyowned home under Alimony in Pub. 504, Divorced or Separated Individuals.Redeemable ground rents. In some states(such as Maryland), you can buy your homesubject to a ground rent. A ground rent is an obligation you assume to pay a fixed amount peryear on the property. Under this arrangement,you're leasing (rather than buying) the land onwhich your home is located.If you make annual or periodic rental payments on a redeemable ground rent, you candeduct them as mortgage interest.A ground rent is a redeemable ground rent ifall of the following are true. Your lease, including renewal periods, isfor more than 15 years. You can freely assign the lease. You have a present or future right (understate or local law) to end the lease and buythe lessor's entire interest in the land bypaying a specific amount. The lessor's interest in the land is primarilya security interest to protect the rental payments to which he or she is entitled.Payments made to end the lease and to buythe lessor's entire interest in the land aren't deductible as mortgage interest.Nonredeemable ground rents. Paymentson a nonredeemable ground rent aren't mortgage interest. You can deduct them as rent ifthey are a business expense or if they are forrental property.Reverse mortgages. A reverse mortgage is aloan where the lender pays you (in a lump sum,a monthly advance, a line of credit, or a combination of all three) while you continue to live inyour home. With a reverse mortgage, you retaintitle to your home. Depending on the plan, yourreverse mortgage becomes due, with interest,when you move, sell your home, reach the endof a pre-selected loan period, or die. Becausereverse mortgages are considered loan advances and not income, the amount you receiveisn't taxable. Generally, any interest (includingoriginal issue discount) accrued on a reversemortgage is considered interest on home equitydebt and isn’t deductible.Rental payments. If you live in a house beforefinal settlement on the purchase, any paymentsyou make for that period are rent and not interest. This is true even if the settlement paperscall them interest. You can't deduct these payments as home mortgage interest.Mortgage proceeds invested in tax-exemptsecurities. You can't deduct the home mortgage interest on grandfathered debt if you usedthe proceeds of the mortgage to buy securitiesor certificates that produce tax-free income.“Grandfathered debt” is defined in Part II of thispublication.Refunds of interest. If you receive a refund ofinterest in the same tax year you paid it, youmust reduce your interest expense by theamount refunded to you. If you receive a refundof interest you deducted in an earlier year, youmust generally include the refund in income inthe year you receive it. However, you need toinclude it only up to the amount of the deductionthat reduced your tax in the earlier year. This istrue whether the interest overcharge was refunded to you or was used to reduce the outstanding principal on your mortgage. If you need toinclude the refund in income, report it onSchedule 1 (Form 1040), line 8z.If you received a refund of interest you overpaid in an earlier year, you will generally receivea Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement,showing the refund in box 4. For informationabout Form 1098, see Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, later.For more information on how to treat refundsof interest deducted in earlier years, see Recoveries in Pub. 525, Taxable and Nontaxable Income.SBA disaster home loans. Interest paid ondisaster home loans from the Small BusinessAdministration (SBA) is deductible as mortgageinterest if the requirements discussed earlierunder Home Mortgage Interest are met.PointsThe term “points” is used to describe certaincharges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrowerto obtain a home mortgage. Points may also becalled loan origination fees, maximum loancharges, loan discount, or discount points.Page 5
Figure B. Are My Points Fully Deductible This Year?Start Here:Is the loan secured by your main home?NoYesIs the payment of points an establishedbusiness practice in your area?NoYesWere the points paid more than theamount generally charged in your area?YesNoDo you use the cash method ofaccounting?NoYesWere the points paid in place ofamounts that ordinarily are separatelystated on the settlement sheet?YesNoWere the funds you provided (other thanthose you borrowed from your lender ormortgage broker), plus any points theseller paid, at least as much as the pointscharged?*NoYesYesDid you take out the loan to substantiallyimprove your main home?NoDid you take out the loan to buy or buildyour main home?NoYesWere the points figured as a percentageof the principal amount of the mortgage?NoYesIs the amount paid clearly shown aspoints on the settlement statement?NoYesYou can fully deduct the points this yearon Schedule A (Form 1040).You cannot fully deduct the points thisyear. See the discussion on Points,earlier.* The funds you provided are not required to have been applied to the points. They can include a down payment, an escrow deposit, earnest money, and otherfunds you paid at or before closing for any purpose.Page 6Publication 936 (2021)
A borrower is treated as paying any pointsthat a home seller pays for the borrower's mortgage. See Points paid by the seller, later.2. Paying points is an established businesspractice in the area where the loan wasmade.General Rule3. The points paid weren't more than thepoints generally charged in that area.You generally can't deduct the full amount ofpoints in the year paid. Because they are prepaid interest, you generally deduct them ratablyover the life (term) of the mortgage. See Deduction Allowed Ratably next. If the loan is a homeequity, line of credit, or credit card loan and theproceeds from the loan are not used to buy,build, or substantially improve the home, thepoints are not deductible.For exceptions to the general rule, see Deduction Allowed in Year Paid, later.Deduction Allowed RatablyIf you don't meet the tests listed under Deduction Allowed in Year Paid, later, the loan isn't ahome improvement loan, or you choose not todeduct your points in full in the year paid, youcan deduct the points ratably (equally) over thelife of the loan if you meet all of the followingtests.1. You use the cash method of accounting.This means you report income in the yearyou receive it and deduct expenses in theyear you pay them. Most individuals usethis method.2. Your loan is secured by a home. (Thehome doesn't need to be your mainhome.)3. Your loan period isn't more than 30 years.4. If your loan period is more than 10 years,the terms of your loan are the same asother loans offered in your area for thesame or longer period.5. Either your loan amount is 250,000 orless, or the number of points isn't morethan:a. 4, if your loan period is 15 years orless; orb. 6, if your loan period is more than 15years.Example. You use the cash method of accounting. In 2021, you took out a 100,000home mortgage loan payable over 20 years.The terms of the loan are the same as for other20-year loans offered in your area. You paid 4,800 in points. You made 3 monthly payments on the loan in 2021. You can deduct 60[
home mortgage interest. It includes discussions on points, mortgage insurance premiums, and how to report deductible interest on your tax re-turn. Generally, home mortgage interest is any in-terest you pay on a loan secured by your home (main home or a second home). The loan may be a mortgage
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0452 ACCOUNTING 0452/21 Paper 2, maximum raw mark 120 This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an Examiners’ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the .