Research And Implementation Of LBS For Mobile Virtual Navigation System .

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IT 14 026Examensarbete 30 hpMaj 2014Research and Implementationof LBS for Mobile Virtual NavigationSystem Based on AndroidJunlin LiInstitutionen för informationsteknologiDepartment of Information Technology

AbstractResearch and Implementation of LBS for MobileVirtual Navigation System Based on AndroidJunlin LiTeknisk- naturvetenskaplig orietLägerhyddsvägen 1Hus 4, Plan 0Postadress:Box 536751 21 UppsalaTelefon:018 – 471 30 03Telefax:018 – 471 30 00Hemsida:http://www.teknat.uu.se/studentWith the development of GPS and 3G network, mobile navigation systems are widelyused in people’s daily life. From 2D electronic map to 3D simulation map, thenavigation services based on real-scene information is becoming the mainstream. Dueto the rapid growth of mobile navigation systems, users are not satisfied with thebasic navigation services any more, such as locating places and devising paths. Theyput forward higher demands on location-based services (LBS for short). Thus, LBSapplications based on mobile navigation systems has attracted more and moreattention.This thesis studies the drawbacks and relevant technologies of LBS, then designs andimplements the LBS application for mobile virtual navigation systems based onAndroid platform. First of all, it analyzes the current status of LBS services, and comeup with a self-adapting individuation LBS proposal based on user interests. Secondly,according to the requirements of LBS functional integrity and type diversity, it designsthree function modules of the LBS application, including Mobile LBS Module, LocationSharing Module and Designated Reconstruction of Real Scene Module. What’s more,Mobile LBS Module is aimed to provide basic and extended location services to users,as well as user interest-based LBS information. Location Sharing Module puts forwarda new check-in mode using physical medium, such as 2D barcodes and Bluetoothdevices to share users’ current position. Designated Reconstruction of Real SceneModule is responsible for navigation route review and historical track queries, via thetechnology of SVG image compression and dynamic caching mechanism. Finally, theLBS application invokes Augmented Reality Module to show the location data, serviceresults and navigation route in 3D form.The LBS application for mobile virtual navigation system based on Android platform inthis thesis can provide navigation and location-based services of high quality directlyand clearly, as well as bring users new experiences of mobile function. It has alreadyachieved good results in experimental environment.Key Words: LBS, Location sharing, positioning, check-in, Designated reconstructionof real sceneHandledare: Huijuan ZhangÄmnesgranskare: Ivan ChristoffExaminator: Olle ErikssonIT 14 026Tryckt av: Reprocentralen ITC

Contents1Introduction .11.1 Research Motivation . 11.2 Research Status . 31.3 Thesis Overview . 62Related Technologies .92.1 LBS Overview . 92.2 Positioning Technology. 112.2.1 Positioning Methods and Precision Comparison . 112.2.2 GPS . 132.3 Image Processing . 142.3.1 Image Compression . 152.3.2 SVG . 162.4 Android Operating System . 173Requirements analysis .193.1 Requirements Analysis of System architecture. 193.2 Functional Requirements Analysis . 213.2.1 Mobile LBS Module . 213.2.2 Location Sharing Module . 223.2.3 Designated Reconstruction of Real Scene Module . 233.3 Performance Requirements Analysis . 244LBS Application Design .264.1 Architecture Design . 264.2 Design of Mobile LBS Module. 284.2.1 System Design . 284.2.2 Design of Server Application . 314.2.3 Design of Mobile Client Application . 344.2.4 Design of LBS Based on User Interests . 364.3 Design of Location Sharing Module . 404.3.1 Location Sharing Module Based on Physical Media . 424.3.2 Location Sharing Based on 2D Barcodes. 454.3.3 Location Sharing Based on Bluetooth Devices . 47I

4.4 Design of Designated Reconstruction of Real Scene Module . 504.4.1 Data Acquisition and Processing . 514.4.2 Data Compression and Storage . 524.4.3 Data Search and Reappearance . 575Experimental Results .605.1 Development and Runtime Environment. 605.2 Realization of Mobile LBS Module . 605.2.1 Server and Client . 615.2.2 User Interest-based LBS . 655.3 Realization of Location Sharing Module . 675.4 Realization of Designated Reconstruction of Real Scene Module . 706Conclusion .736.1 Summary . 736.2 Future Work . 73References .75II

List of FiguresFigure 1.1 Framework of Mobile Virtual Navigation System . 6Figure 2.1 Categories of LBS . 10Figure 2.2 Positioning methods, accuracy and application [14](AGPS: Assisted GPS,AOA: Angle of Arrival, TOA: Time of Arrival, E-OTD: Enhanced ObservedTime Difference) . 13Figure 2.3 System architecture of Android . 18Figure 3.1 System architecture of LBS application . 20Figure 3.2 Relationships among LBS modules. 21Figure 4.1 Software architecture of LBS application . 27Figure 4.2 System architecture of Mobile LBS Module . 29Figure 4.3 Workflow of Mobile LBS Module . 31Figure 4.4 Frame of Mobile LBS Server . 32Figure 4.5 Data Flow Diagram between Mobile Client and Server . 33Figure 4.6 Structure of Mobile LBS Client. 34Figure 4.7 Structure of User Interest Model . 37Figure 4.8 Work Process of Module I . 38Figure 4.9 Process of Actively Sharing Location . 41Figure 4.10 Workflow of Location Sharing Module . 42Figure 4.11 Architecture of Physical Media-Based Location Sharing Module . 43Figure 4.12 Structures of Site Database and User Database . 44Figure 4.13 Flow Diagram of Creating 2D Barcode. 46Figure 4.14 Flow Diagram of Check-in Based on Bluetooth Devices . 48Figure 4.15 Structure of Bluetooth Database . 50Figure 4.16 Work Process of Designated Reconstruction of Real Scene Module . 51Figure 4.17 Sequential Chart of Data Acquisition and Processing . 52Figure 4.18 Sequential Chart of Data Compression and Storage . 54Figure 4.19 Workflow of SVG Transformation . 55Figure 4.20 Structure of SVG Database. 56Figure 4.21 Sequential Chart of Data Search and Reappearance . 59Figure 5.1 Example of LBS Virtual Navigation System . 61III

Figure 5.2 Display of Received JSON Object on Mobile Client . 65Figure 5.3 Relationship between Operation Frequency and Object Weight . 66Figure 5.4 Example of Customized LBS Research . 67Figure 5.5 UI of Location Sharing Service . 69Figure 5.6 Example of Designated Reconstruction Service . 70IV

List of TablesTable 5.1 Pros and Cons of Different Check-in Methods . 68Table 5.2 Comparison of image compression ratio. 72V

1 Introduction1.1 Research MotivationThe maturing Global Positioning System (GPS) technology has expanded itsapplicable spectrum from conventional military use and navigation in air or at sea tocivilian use. Among myriad civilian applications, automotive navigation system is themost popular. The continuous developments of telecommunications and wirelesstechnologies as well as the ever enhanced computing power on electronic mobileterminal have been facilitating the widespread application of GPS technology onhand-held devices. However, the navigation applications can only perform betterwithin the limits of hand-held devices when they are programmed with optimizedalgorithms for presenting the map and also how they respond to the users’ servicerequests.The current map for navigation on mobile phones is typically categorized into threetypes i.e. two-dimensional navigation map, 3D simulation navigation map and virtualnavigation map. The conventional two-dimensional map applies two-dimensionaltechnologies to present geographical information and locations. The flat map gives asense of wholeness, simplicity and bird's-eye view, but it fails to describe preciselythe real scenario of the 3D world, leading to the absence of spatial information on a3D scale which materially affects the navigation results and path planning. Whereasthe 3D simulation navigation map makes use of processing technologies of 3D data,building data collected on site into 3D virtual models on the basis of 2D map.Although the 3D map is intuitive with explicit direction indication, it stilldistinguishes itself from the real scenario. Furthermore, 3D map navigation posesother challenges, such as laborious data collecting, harsh demand on processing power,and burdensome maintenance and upgrading for map.Combining 2D map with the real time street view obtained via phone-equippedcamera, the virtual navigation map not only provides geographical information on a3D scale but integrates the navigation information into real scenario, accuratelydescribing the ambient environment, which is intuitive and convenient. It is theavailable technologies and the needs that spawn the 3D virtual navigation system onsmart phones. Therefore, we are of the opinion that the prospect for 3D virtual1

navigation system is positive [1].In addition, the services provided by the navigation system can greatly affect deviceperformance and user experience. The upgrading hardware and increasingperformance of smart phones have attracted a large number of people usingnavigation system on phones. However, people are not satisfied with the basicnavigation services, such as locating places and devising paths. They want more fromlocation based information service. As a result, people become increasingly interestedin how they can obtain geographical information anywhere anytime via smart phonessupported by GPS services and wireless telecommunication technologies.Against this backdrop, location based service (LBS) springs into being. The serviceuses various positioning methods to acquire the geographical information of mobileterminal user and provide numerous location based services to users with the platformsupport of Geographic Information System. LBS is widely recognized as a criticalemerging value-added business, which transforms people’s lifestyle, except fortelephone and SMS service [2]. Subject to the previous limits on network bandwidthand connection speed, LBS experienced a lukewarm growth. As the widespread of 3Gtechnology around world and thanks to the attention and promotion of global telecomoperators, LBS becomes one of the most profitable value-added business [3]. Therefore,the combination of the high-speed 3G network with the seamless integration of LBSand virtual navigation map leads phone navigation system into a new territory, whichbecomes a hotspot and highlight of related research at present.Undoubtedly, the integration of virtual navigation map and LBS related applicationwill enhance the performance of phone navigation system, bringing brand new userexperiences. Capitalizing on the current phone navigation system and smart phoneloading with Android operating system, this thesis develops a dynamic virtualnavigation system featuring real time 3D and mobility. Meanwhile, the thesis alsodevelops LBS related application, with which users can browse maps, locating andsearching, optimizing path planning and navigating in real time; moreover, theapplication provides extended geographic information services with richness andfunctionalities, such as customized LBS based on user’s interest, location sharing anddesignated reconstruction of real scene.In summary, the virtual navigation system loaded on Android phones with LBSpresents a new fashion of browsing maps, enriches the functions of LBS applications,extends the service types of LBS, boosts the servicing capabilities of phone navigation2

system and improves user experience. The research is worthwhile and practicable,because it demonstrates huge potential in business which bodes well for futureeconomic outcome and will transform people’s lifestyle in a positive manner.1.2 Research StatusBandwidth and speed of network had greatly limited the development of LBS during2G/2.5G network period. With the rapid growth of 3G network, the practicability ofLBS has been improved significantly. Nowadays LBS can be integrated seamlesslywith the electronic map, and provide more various geographic information andreal-time location update to mobile phone users.The implementation of LBS comprises two processes: 1)Determine the user's currentlocation; 2)Provide users with all kinds of location-related information service.Therefore, the LBS technology research focuses on positioning and services. Thepositioning is to obtain the location information of mobile terminal user by means ofvarious techniques, such as latitude and longitude or the specific location. Whileservices reflect the performance of LBS applications, which is the profit- key to LBSindustry.At the present time, there are mainly three types of LBS positioning technology [4]:1) Positioning based on the mobile terminal.This method is achieved by the GPS satellite positioning. And the positioningoperation is completed on the mobile device. This process is of high precision andinformation-rich, but takes long time.2) Positioning based on the mobile network.This method determines the location by calculating the distance between the userand multiple mobile network base stations, completed on the positioning softwareplatform provided by mobile switching network equipment suppliers. It is fast but notprecise enough. The network solutions include Cell of Origin (Cell-ID), Arrival ofAngle (AOA), Time of Arrival (TOA), Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and so on.3) Hybrid Positioning.This method combines two or more positioning technologies, mainly GPS andmobile network based technology, to obtain more precise location information. Thetypical representative is Assisted GPS (A-GPS). The hybrid way can improve thepositioning accuracy, and also shorten the computation time, as well as save power3

consumption. However, it is complicated as the mobile terminal and the networkentity need to be modified [5].Studies on LBS positioning technology mentioned above have been mature. Currently,research hotspots are focused on LBS service. Studies aimed at LBS service aremainly concentrated upon those aspects including the business model, the quality ofservice, types of service, the prolongation of application field and other aspects ofLBS.There are mainly four types of LBS business models including entertainment models,service for life models, social networking services (SNS) models and e-commercemodels. The entertainment models can be divided into check-in model (that is locationsharing) and game model. At the present time, the hotspots of studies on LBS servicesare mainly aiming at providing more abundant types of location information for users.Besides, many new LBS services technologies appear and are applied in differentfields such as inquiring the location of others in order to position and protect the oldand children and some other special groups; public security organization’s gunpositioning, trace tracking and police scheduling for emergency to safeguard thepublic; public transportation and taxi enterprises’ tracking and positioning of vehicles,accident report to the police, real-time scheduling and so on to help supervising andregulating of vehicles.This thesis intends to research relevant LBS technologies of mobile virtual navigationsystem which includes the quality and types of the services, based on current maturepositioning technologies.LBS have grabbed lots of attention due to its wide application and high practicality.However, the present studies on LBS technologies remain in a development stage.There are still many problems like imperfect functions, simplex service type as wellas disordered management and some disadvantages like low-grade services andrelatively poor protection of users’ privacy. The main drawbacks of LBS technologiesin practical applications are as follows:1) Most users prefer to obtain the geographic information via LBS to search andinquire the specific positions and sites all around.However, location information based on present LBS cannot really meet users’demands. It is hard for users to find their interests due to the lack of relativeinformation[6]. Users cannot acquire the information in a high speed for its failure tosort the LBS results dynamically according to the priority of their interests.4

For example, the popular LBS application of Dianping in China though supportsmanual setup and selecting interest types, it only shows relevant information for onespecific interest point without integrated navigation system, thus users cannot get thedetailed routes to the destination.2) Most LBS users hope to share their location with others through the serviceof check-in provided by LBS. Check-in refers to a user’s positioning his currentlocation via some mechanism and posting the result in user space to share it withspecified group members.Nevertheless, check-in cannot work on the condition of lacking in GPS signalsfor it is mainly realized solely through GPS positioning technology.For example, Foursquare, MyTown, and Jiepang are the representatives of LBSapplications with check-in services domestic and abroad. These check-in models arestill based on GPS and sometimes realized via positioning based on mobile network orhybrid positioning. But the signals of GPS and mobile network are weak or there’seven no signal indoors, which greatly affect the application range and users’experience of LBS[7]. Currently, some cell phone manufacturers solve this problemby allocating gyroscopes in smart phones. As a result, the LBS applications rely moreand more on hardware resources of mobile phones and it is difficult for cross-platformimplementation.3) Most LBS users expect to inquire their historical routes by using the locationbased services.However, at the present time, services based on LBS timeline merely rely onusers’ geographic locations kept or shared in a period of time to decide the tracks theyhave passed roughly. Therefore, continuous and precise replaying of historical runningdata cannot be provided for a lot of information has been left out.The drawbacks of LBS in practical use mentioned above have influenced users’experience and service quality. According to the LBS application for mobile virtualnavigation system based on Android platform, this thesis studies the reasons behindthese drawbacks, presents methods to improve the quality of LBS application andstrengthens the capabilities of location-based services of navigation system bydesigning and implementing the LBS application system based on mobile virtualnavigation system.5

1.3 Thesis OverviewThis thesis mainly researches into the implementation of LBS application for mobilevirtual navigation system based on Android phone. The whole project, which built onthe development of current mobile navigation system, combines real street-view andtraditional 2D map to give user the experience of what the screen presents is what yousee. At the same time, it provides various navigation related LBS functions andreturns the LBS results to users in real-scene mode.Major function modules in this project are showed as in figure 1.1. OrientationIdentification Module is responsible for adjusting directions. Feasible Area DetectionModule is used to determine the region which can be accessed. LBS ApplicationModule provides a series of navigation services related to location information.Figure 1.1 Framework of Mobile Virtual Navigation SystemThe thesis focuses on the analysis, design and implement of LBS Application Modulein mobile virtual navigation system. And LBS Application Module is divided intothree submodules: Mobile LBS, Location Sharing, and Designated Reconstruction ofReal Scene. Mobile LBS Submodule, which is the basic module of LBS applicationbased on mobile virtual navigation system, provides fundamental location service andcustomized LBS based on user’s interest. Location Sharing Submodule mainlyexchanges geographical information among users, via posting use’s location aftercheck-in at specified spot. Designated Reconstruction of Real Scene Submoduleallows user to search historical track and replay routes in6real-scene mode along

the past navigation path.It covers the following aspects:1) Designs LBS architecture by analyzing user service requirements.As mobile virtual navigation system requires flexibility, quick response andscalability, this LBS application not only provides corresponding navigation servicebut also delivers nearby geographic information according to where the user is, byconfirming user’s position and motion direction. Therefore, the architecture of mobileLBS is constructed using C/S mode through Web Service. At the meantime,self-adaptive map based on user’s interests is set up to meet various requirements,which greatly improve the user experience.2) Puts forward new methods of check-in via physical mediums such as 2Dbarcode and Bluetooth device based on mobile virtual navigation system. It can beaids for user to share location indoor where the signal is lost or not accurate, thusexpanding the range of LBS application.3) Develops the function of designated reconstruction of real scene based onLBS application in navigation system.This service allows user to search historical track by time or location name, andthen reconstructs the real scene of past occasion and site. It is an importantcomplement for street-view navigation, which makes no limit to user’s currentposition and expands service types of LBS.4) Implements all the function modules mentioned above on Android platform.After getting familiar with the features and architecture of Android operationsystem, app developing process and having learnt to combine app with serviceprovided by mobile operators, we develop LBS application based on mobile virtualnavigation system.According to the research contents, the layout of this thesis is as follows:Chapter one is the introduction. It mainly introduces the research background, thesignificance, the current research status and the research contents of the project.Chapter two is about the related technologies. A brief description of correlativetechnologies involved in LBS location services for mobile navigation system will bemade.Chapter three is the requirements analysis. This part will analyze the framework,functions and the performance requirements of the implementation of LBS for mobilevirtual navigation system on the whole.7

Chapter four is the design of LBS application. Based on the demand analysis,designing details of each function module of LBS will be shown in this part.Chapter five is the implementation of LBS application. The realization processes ofthe system will be elaborated and the experiment results will be presented.Chapter six is the conclusion. It will sum up the research work and demonstrate theresearch directions in the future.8

2 Related TechnologiesIn last chapter, we have analyzed the research motivation and put forward the researchcontents on the basis of current status of LBS application studies. The theories andmethods of related critical technologies will be introduced in this chapter.2.1 LBS OverviewLBS, which is short for Location Based Service, refers to providing location relatedservices under the support of GIS platform by using the user’s geographicalinformation obtained through positioning technologies[8], which includes GPS,mobile communication network such as GSM and CDMA. Besides, LBS is alsosupported by connecting mobile terminal devices via technologies like Bluetooth,WLAN and RFID.LBS is available in the need of the following basic elements [9]: Mobile devices:for example, mobile-phone, PDA and notebook which areused to send service requests and receive the required information in theform of image or text. Communication network:to collect user data and service requests from themobile device to service provider and return the required information to theuser. Positioning components:to get user’s location before providing LBS. Thisprocess can be done by GPS, mobile network, as well as edge-cuttingmethods such as though WLAN base station, Bluetooth and 2D barcode toprovide indoor navigation. Service provider:responsible for giving needed service such as positioning,optimum path finding and getting the address or contact of specific siteaccording to user’s requirements. Data provider:including mapping organizations and traffic managementcompanies, etc., which own basic geographic information and location dataas service provider normally do not save or maintain the informationrequested by user.9

LBS,as one of the most promising business after SMS (Short Messaging Service),has been widely used in various fields of daily life。Its major categories are showed infigure 2.1.Figure 2.1 Categories of LBSThe concept of context awareness,which allows two-directional communication andinteraction between users and service provider,has been introduced into LBS. Thewidely accepted definition is put forward by American scientist Anind K. Dey asfollows: “any information that can be used to characterize th

Virtual Navigation System Based on Android Junlin Li With the development of GPS and 3G network, mobile navigation systems are widely used in people's daily life. From 2D electronic map to 3D simulation map, the navigation services based on real-scene information is becoming the mainstream. Due

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