3D PRINTING IN KOREA - Ipsos

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3D PRINTINGIN KOREAOverview of the Componentand Service AftermarketIpsos Business ConsultingBuild · Compete · Grow

June 2017The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particularindividual or entity. Although we endeavour to provide accurate and timely information, there can be no guarantee thatsuch information is accurate as of the date it is received or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. No one shouldact upon such information without appropriate professional advice after a thorough examination of the particular situation. 2017 Ipsos. All rights reserved. Contains Ipsos’ Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be disclosed orreproduced without the prior written consent of Ipsos.

A NEW INDUSTRY FINDS ITS WAY:PLOTTING A COURSE FOR3D PRINTING IN KOREAMARKET POTENTIAL OFTHE 3D PRINTING INDUSTRYThe groundbreaking technology of 3D printing is still in itsinfancy, and massive rewards seem assured for the firstcompanies to develop the powerful and versatile toolsnecessary to disrupt the current manufacturing paradigm.With 3D printing’s holy grail of speed, accuracy, highvolume and affordable up-front costs coming closer witheach passing year, questions surrounding the technologybecome less a matter of if than when – and for the playersinvolved, the focus inevitably turns to the ever morecritical question of who.With eventual success expected across all sectors ofcommerce and society, the most realistic avenues ofsuccess for the early years of 3D printing are likely to comein the form of B2B undertakings, namely health care,public services (national defense, railway, firefighting, etc.)and the manufacturing industry.With Korea acting as a fast follower rather than an innovatorin this industry, Korean companies are now setting theirsights on catching up to the field in this quickly-developingsector. In this paper, we review the Korean 3D printingindustry in its present state, including its most promisingopportunities as well as the barriers to success it currentlyfaces. We then put a special focus on the major Koreanplayers, the parts of industry where the technology is mostlikely to take hold in the coming years, and how bothgovernment and business are stepping up to the challenge.Ipsos Business ConsultingThe Korean 3D printing market is expected to undergo a22.9% CAGR from 2016 to 2019, which is lower than thatof the global market at 31%. This difference is mainly dueto the relatively late adoption of the technology comparedto other advanced countries, which means a longer initialstage is required within the Korean market.Following current projections, 3D printing is on course toreach a total industry value of US 376 million by 2018.This continuing rise highly correlates with the understandingshared by both government and the general public thatthe fourth industry revolution, including 3D printing, is thekey to future growth.3D Printing in Korea 3

BARRIERS TO GROWTH2main reasonsfor this growth1.) A rapid increase of interest within the educationsectorThe general public’s interest is generated from themedia and early adopters: 3D printing is frequentlyreported in the media, and 3D printing departmentshave appeared in several universities. Also, interestfrom primary, middle, and high schools has increased3D printer sales in the education sector.2.) The government’s strong support for the industryThe government’s commitment to the 3D printing industrybegan in 2014, and is becoming more concrete in itseffect on industrial performance: Although the Koreangovernment started somewhat behind the worldwidecurve in embracing this burgeoning field, it now seesthe potential in 3D printing’s anticipated rewards ofconcrete technology R&D, industry infrastructurereinforcement, and relational base foundation. Detailsare on page 9.Sources: Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP).Note: Korea’s May 2017 national election and subsequent fallout (the election has not yettaken place at the time of this writing) may prove to be a significant moment in the government’srelationship to this industry, as new leadership could result in government incentives takinga different direction in the years to come. Positive government involvement is crucial whenguiding a young industry toward success, and observers will be keeping a close eye on thenew administration for any changes in its level of support.In a fast-moving field, Korea’s 3D printing industrystill remains at an early stage and requires strongsupport from the government. The Korean governmentdecided to begin earnest support of the 3D printingindustry in 2014, which lagged slightly compared toother countries. Shortfalls from the supplier sidemay be just as consequential, as Korea’s 3D printingindustry currently remains highly dependent onimports for relevant equipment and materials.Overseas manufacturers presently account formore than 80% of total 3D printer sales in Korea.3D printing suppliers face several additional barriersto development, such as:Low quality of 3D printing equipmentand infrastructure SMEs (Small and medium-sizedenterprises) are the majority: 68% of thecompanies in the Korean 3D printingindustry are start-up firms that wereestablished within the past 7 years.Also, about 90% are SMEs with less than1B KRW ( approx. 0.9M USD) in annualsales and fewer than 10 employees.2Inadequate talent pool in the workforce Shortage of 3D printing professionals: Dueto its short history, the industry isperceived to lack 3D printing experts. In a2017 survey, 96 out of 194 3D printingrelated SMEs answered that they havedifficulty sourcing their 3D printingworkforce, and the most heavily citedreasons for explaining the inadequacy ofIpsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 4

applicants are their lack of technical skills(56.3%) and working experience (25.0%).3Under-developed support system for3D printing business development No centralized controlling unit of thegovernment regarding budget execution:There is no sole body tasked with overseeingexecution of the budget surroundingthe Korean government’s 3D printingworking groups, despite more than 11relatedgovernmentauthoritiesinvolved. It is therefore difficult to forma coherent overall strategy to ensurethe validity, efficiency and effectivenessof the budget as executed.Insufficient technological capability Low level of 3D printing technologycapability compared to leading countries:Korea is behind the US by 2.6 years interms of the 3D printing technologylevel. Furthermore, by 2014, Koreaonly accounted for 6% of total patentapplications for 3D printing technology,compared to 35% from the US and 29%from Japan.4Another barrier exists from the customer side:Manufacturing companies do not feelthe need to introduce 3D printing intheir manufacturing sites Insufficient expected benefits to justifythe risk: To introduce 3D printing in themanufacturing site is to change themanufacturing process that has driventhe industry forward up to this point.Strong incentives are required beforecompanies will agree to make thediverse investments necessary (money,employees’ agreements, etc.) for sucha dramatic transition in operatingprocedure, and there are as yet nodistinct success cases among Koreancompanies to show the way forward.These hurdles represent a clear challenge to the effectivedevelopment of Korea’s 3D printing industry. However, byfocusing their efforts on the delivery of quality productsand services for the most promising individual businesssectors, Korean 3D printing companies can neverthelessset realistic and potentially very lucrative targets forthemselves over the coming years.DETAILED TRENDS BY SECTORSoftwareMaterial3D PrinterServiceSupplierCustomer[3D Printing Sales Share by Segment in South Korea]The first step toward identifying the right avenues forexploration is to give a clear review of how the widerlandscape presently looks. The market is divided by product(3D printer and material), software and service. Theservicesector includes manufacturing services, such asdesign services, acting as a print agent, and deliveringeducation. Through design services, the end-user cansubmit a sketch drawing or 2D drawing and receive aconverted version as a 3D drawing. The service sectorcompany that prints the end-user’s 3D drawing andcreates the printed output, is referred to as the printagent. Through 3D printing education, end-users learn theprocesses of design and manufacturing through 3D printing.2Source: MSIP.3Source: 3D Printing Human Resource Development Council.4Source: MSIP.Ipsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 5

Moreover, compared to the industry leading products, thequality of Korean products is relatively low. In a 2016survey, the companies that use 3D printers in their processindicated that their preference of overseas products is dueto “Output surface quality (38.5%)”, “Diverse products(21.9%)”, and “Convenience of after-sales service (9.4%)”.6In contrast to current Korean output, Chinese products arealready cost-competitive, and their quality is improving.201479%66%21%14%13%7%Service172.3(M USD)MaterialsSofwareNon-product3D PrinterProductHowever, while industry-leading countries’ services aremainly geared towards assisting manufacturing-relatedindustries (by providing print agents, design services, etc.),Korean companies are finding fertile ground for expansionin other areas. Current trends show the software/servicemarket to be rapidly increasing in Korea, especially in theservice sector where education-centered services havetaken a main role.201568%54%16%14%32%16%Service197.0(M USD)MaterialsSofwareNon-product3D PrinterProductOver 80% of productssales are derived fromoverseas manufacturers(Note: 3D printing sales also include overseas companies’ sales in Korea)5Despite changes in the market, product continues toaccount for a high proportion of total industry sales. In2015, however – the last year for which figures are available– its standing at 68% of the market is down significantlyfrom the previous year. It is noteworthy that over 80% ofproduct sales are derived from overseas manufacturers.The stated reason for this high dependence on overseasproducts is “cost-effectiveness”.5Source: MSIP.6Source: 3D printing industry condition survey from Korea’s National IT Industry Promotion Agency (NIPA).Ipsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 6

3D Printing Sales Share by Technology Type in South ME)BinderJetting(BJ)MaterialJetting(MJ)Powder BedFusion(PBF)Directed %17.1%39.7%1.7%0.9%0.2%100%Within the 3D printing hardware market, clear trends havealready begun to emerge, as Korean manufacturers’ 3Dprinter sales are presently limited to PP (Photopolymerization)and ME (Material Extrusion), which are highly related topolymer material technology and B2C needs.7In general, polymer material related technology isfirst-generation technology, having high popularity amongthe general public. Polymer material allows for lowerprices and significantly faster 3D manufacturing time thanmetal materials. Technology related to polymer materialcan be used to check prototypes, but is not sufficient foruse at actual manufacturing sites. To utilize 3D printingtech at the actual manufacturing site, metal-relatedtechnologies should be developed further.Current industry leading 3D printing companies in Korea are listed below, together with their sales y Sale(ThousandsUSD, 2015)4,587EstablishedBusiness Details2013- Established manufacturer of controllers for CNC (Computernumerical control) machines- Introduced and sold powder bed fusion systems for sand,plastic, and metal in 2015- Developed a hybrid system that combines metal powder bedfusion with CNC milling2,1231983- Started film processor (Photo Photoconductor Development)company- Announced its continuous additive 3D printing technology(C-CAT) in 2015- Working to increase the industrial application and market forits precision DLP photopolymer machines3422001- Refers to the technology as laser-aided direct metal tooling(DMT)- Provided 3D printers to LGOther companies, such as Hyvision, Hebsiba, and TPC,invest in 3D printing while simultaneously operating astable business in another field. Currently, Hyvision’s mainbusiness focuses on image test/measurement services anddigital imaging devices. For TPC, pneumatic equipmentand motion sectors’ robot/cylinder/motors are the mainproducts. Hebsiba mostly operates portable air conditionersand renewable energy inverters.7Source: Korean 3D printing market report from the Korea Evaluation Institute of IndustrialTechnology (KEIT).Ipsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 7

ndsUSD, 2015)77,15665,63120,350Details reated to 3D PrintingManufacture and SalesEstablishedMain Business Areas2002- Image test and measurementservice- Digital imaging device- 3D printer- 3D printer line called'Cubicon' (DLP)- 3D printer materials andaccessories1973- Pneumatic equipment (Actuator,directional control valve,air preparation unit, etc.)- Motion (Cartesian robot,electric cylinder, linear motor,linear stage, etc.)- 3D printer- 3D printer line called'Finebot' (FFF)- 3D printer materials1986- Portable air conditioner(Far infrared rays heater,large-capacity dehumidifier)- Renewable energy (Inverter,solar photovoltaic powergeneration system, small windturbine)- 3D printer, 3D solution educationbusiness- 3D printer (ME(FFF), DLP,Stereo LithographyApparatus)- 3D scanners- 3D printer accessoriesEDUCATION AND HEALTH SECTORSARE RECEIVING SPECIAL ATTENTIONFROM GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRYEducationThe Korean 3D printing market is currently being led bythe education sector, which represents the highestproportion (21.4%) of the 2015 Korean 3D printingmarket.8 The success within education is due to highsales of devices related to PP and ME 3D printers, whichare linked to B2C needs. In 2014, the governmentestablished 3D printing as an important plan, whichgenerated high interest from the press. Also, as thegeneral public became receptive to 3D printing, ittriggered the increase in demand for 3D printing in theeducation sector.Although the education sector is leading the Korean 3Dprinting industry due to high B2C demand, B2B needsfrom the industrial side will increase in the future. Thisdevelopment is expected to lead to a shift of focus withinthe industry, facilitating growth in the healthcare, public,manufacturing (aviation/energy), and automotivesectors for 3D printing companies.Medical IndustryLargely due to the strong support from the government,medical industries have taken a leading role in adoptingand implementing 3D printing technologies. Healthcareaccounts for the highest proportion in the government’s10 priority sectors, which were announced in 2014.Furthermore, the government’s pilot project to ‘fosternew demands’ is mainly intended for the healthcareindustry. This clear emphasis implies that from thegovernment’s standpoint, healthcare is the best optionto drive visible and quantifiable output in the Koreanmarket at the initial stage.It is notable that all of the successful 3D printing R&Dcases in 2015 and 2016 belong to the healthcare industry,as described below:- The first 3D printing implantable biodegradable medicalstructure localization (Sep, 2016, Korea PolytechnicUniversity)- Metal materials related 3D printer tech development andexportation. Bio 3D printing technology development(2015, 2016)- Development of implantable bio ink for damaged spinalcord tissue parts (Oct, 2015, Ulsan National Institute ofScience and Technology)- Development of 3D printed temporal bone for dissectionpractitioners’ use (May, 2016, Samsung Medical Center)8Source: NIPA.Ipsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 8

The Korean government encourages relevant institutesand companies to improve and apply 3D technology,particularly in the form of dental equipment, medicaldevices for transplant, and personalized treatment devices.Dental equipment is used for treatment devices such asdental models, temporary teeth, clear aligners, and dentalimplant materials. Medical devices for transplant refers toimplants for the replacement of human tissue, treatmentdevices for permanent/semi-permanent usage such asscaffolds, artificial cartilage, and insert type devices.Personalized treatment devices are external treatmenttools that had been difficult or impossible to developthrough previous manufacturing methods.3D technology enables the production and use of customizedtreatment tools for temporary insertion into the humanbody, as well as tools for surgical procedures. For example,artificial ears and artificial skulls have already beenproduced by 3D printers.In 2016, the MFDS (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety)revised the regulations to shorten the permission processsurrounding the 3D printing of medical devices in emergencysituations. By the end of the year, 19 3D printing medicaldevices were officially registered by the MFDS. The largestproportion consists of orthopedic devices such as artificialears or prosthesis. The companies Medyssey and Cellumedare most actively involved within the private sector of 3Dprinting’s healthcare field.GOVERNMENT POLICY REGARDINGTHE 3D PRINTING INDUSTRYThe Korean government firmly believes that the 3D printingindustry will provide ample opportunity to produce addedvalue in relevant industries.In order to develop the overall 3D printing industry, theKorean government has initiated 4 major strategies and 3corresponding leading achievements, and 12 correspondingaction plans as below. However, there is no sole controllingunit supervising and executing the budget, and the characterof the roadmap could be changed by the direction of thenewly-elected government.3D Printing Roadmap by the GovernmentTo leap for 2019 3D Printing Global Leading CountryFoster global leadingcompany# of companies(”15)1 (”19)5Increase globalSecure independentmarket sharetechnology% of M/S% of M/S(”15)4.0% (”19)6.0% (”15)9.9% (”19)20%4 Strategies1ST. FOERNEEMWDAN1.Plan Find convergent business modeland pilot project Promote leading business(healthcare) Create demands in manufacturingindustryDS2.HT ECC E E N ES SNANH ITIV2. E MPETOC3.ENST RRE4. CGT HATEENALIVITOutstanding AchievementSet up strategical R&D roadmapIOZATNPlan Develop and support nextgeneration R&D Support manufacturing industrytech R&D Lead 3D Printing technologystandard3.REONATIPUTALBA SEOutstanding AchievementEstablish on integrated infra for3D printingPlan Upgrade 3D printing supportinginfra Nurture 3D printing professionalcompanies Nurture 3D printing professionals4.Outstanding Achievement3D printing industry Promotion ActPlanMake the base for Quality certification and assessmentfor reliability Regulation for industry promotion Safe environmentIpsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 9

The above chart maps out a series of milestones that areexpected to affect the market in the coming years, including:Find convergent business model and pilotproject (Plan from 2017)The government will implement a manufacturing pilotproject to print replacement parts for discontinuedcomponents, as well as customized products in nationaldefense, railway, firefighting, and other public industries.These centers offer 3D printing infrastructure and provideconsulting services for efficient usage of 3D printingtechnology.The MSIP will then lead the formation of industry-academiccooperation consultative groups with the regional centeras the central base. Universities, related researchinstitutes, and related associations of each region will bethe stakeholders of these consultative groups.Promote leading business(Healthcare) (Plan from 2017)A 3D printing service platform will be developed foruse in medical institutions, including hospitals.Also, a 3D printing pilot project to replace someexisting standardized medical equipment will belaunched, and the equipment will cover implantableartificial tissues and wearable monitoring devices.Gangwon-doUijeongbuGyeonggi-doCreate demands in manufacturing industry(Plan from 2017)The above plan will be led by the Ministry of Trade,Industry and Energy (MOTIE). It is expected that MOTIEwill lead in the gathering of related Korean companies,establish a concrete plan, and provide monetary andregulative buk-doDaeguJeonjuJeonbuk-doPohangGyeongnam-doSet up strategic R&D roadmap(Announced 2014)GwangjuConsidering the global market demand and domestic 3Dprinting industry structure, 10 priority applicablesectors have been identified. This plan’s final goal differsby application sector, but the overall goal is to createleading global companies from Korea within each sector.BusanJeonnam-doMetropolitan CityCityPriority Applicable Sectors Identified in the PlanIndustriesApplicable SectorsHealthcareDental Equipment, Medical Devices forTransplant, Personalized Treatment Devices(e.g. artificial ears)ManufacturingSmart MoldingIndustrial3D Electronic Components, Power GenerationComponentsAutomotiveVehicle PartsPersonalCustomized Private Supplies (e.g. Customizedsports gear, jewelry)3D Printing3D Printing Design Service, 3D Printing ContentDistribution ServiceEstablish and upgrade integrated infrastructure for 3D printing(Plan from 2017)This plan aims to support existing industry with an integratedinfrastructure that allows players to easily utilize andconnect with 3D printing technology. Central and localgovernments have established 8 ‘K-ICT 3D printing regionalcenters’ in the region, as shown in the map on this page.Ipsos Business ConsultingThe MSIP will also work to develop an online informationsystem to provide businesses and the general public withinformation on the current status of 3D printing equipmentand technologies. The initiative will also cover the latestindustry trends, as well as reference material pertainingto safety education and the function of business registrationdeclaration.Establish and upgrade integrated infrastructure for 3D printing(Plan from 2017)The government has developed and initiated new 3D printingindustry regulation, in addition to carrying out severalproactive measures. These include regularly reporting onthe general status and upcoming plans within the 3D printingbusiness, compiled by sources including the localgovernment as well as central government organizationsincluding the MSIP, MOTIE, MOHW (Ministry for Health,Welfare and Family Affairs), and others. Other benefitsfrom this initiative include the training of professionalswithin the industry, the promotion of new and standardizedtechnologies, and the establishment of a qualitycertification system.3D Printing in Korea 10

GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT WILLFOCUS MORE ON TARGETEDSECTORS, WITH EFFECTS THAT WILLSPREAD TO OTHER INDUSTRIESHOPES AND PROSPECTS FORTHE YEARS AHEAD IN KOREA’S3D PRINTING INDUSTRYThe government’s plan from 2014 to 2016 was intendedto foster the country’s 3D printing industry, in particularthe B2C side. The plan for the next 3 years involvesstrengthening its role in B2B activity, especially as itpertains to healthcare, public services and the widermanufacturing industry.Breaking through companies’ initial hesitation to bet theirfuture on new and unfamiliar technology is always adifficult hurdle to overcome. Ultimately, however, progressfor all parties involved depends on passing through thecrucial stage of confidence-building. Korea’s 3D printingindustry is currently in its infancy, and highly dependenton government assistance to find its way forward. Butwhen larger industries come to accept that 3D printing isan essential upgrade for their production process, themore successful 3D printing companies within Korea willbe poised to grow rapidly.The government should also prepare the wider businesscommunity, as well as society as a whole, for the systematic changes that may come about as a result of 3D printingtechnology becoming a global reality. According to a KoreaEmployment Information Service study in 2014, the development of 3D printing technology will have a negativeimpact on future employment in the molding manufacturing and machine tool industries. Furthermore, the effecton job security will be significant in the near future forworkers involved in the production of orthopedicsmaterials as 3D printing technology is applied with increasingregularity.In short, some industries will face more adverse effectsand increased unemployment rates, depending on theirrelationship with 3D technology. It is therefore critical forthe central government to lead the way in supporting anddeveloping the infrastructure to minimize damages andrisks to the existing workforce in affected industries.That growth could take many forms, considering the varietyand complexity within the 3D printing industry itself.Demand for 3D printers is one area where suppliers maycapitalize, while demand for associated services is also setto create new opportunities. Niche industries such ashealthcare and education have already showed greatinterest in the possibilities provided by the technology,and this appetite can be cultivated and extended to othersectors provided the proper communication techniquesare developed to clearly explain the potential benefits.Government has a central role to play in nurturing theindustry, and its continued enthusiasm for 3D printing isessential if Korea is to expand its influence in the globalmarket. Current plans include an admirable multi-prongedapproach to bring about improvement on the demandside, the supply side, and the infrastructure connectingthem.There are, however, opportunities for improvement withinthe government’s own efforts, and strong leadership inthe years to come could have a significant impact on thefortunes of players within the industry. As the countryrecovers from its recent political turmoil, many are watchingthe incoming administration for signs indicating the extentto which it plans to continue nurturing the young 3D printingindustry – and the wisdom contained in its approach.A consolidation of hitherto disconnected governmentpolicies could add an additional element of strategy, stability,efficiency and confidence to further encourage growthand investment within the industry. Furthermore, aforward-thinking policy of support specifically gearedtowards 3D printing companies attempting to enter newareas within the industry would be helpful in diversifyingKorea’s output within this new field.Ipsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 11

By clearing the way forward, the Korean government willprovide the best opportunities to its home-grownbusinesses, with potentially massive rewards for suchinvestment in the years ahead. While Korean society mustalso attend to social difficulties that may arise as aconsequence of this new technology, the 3D printingcompanies need share no such concern. They must keepa close eye on the potential within fields they are familiarwith, such as healthcare, education and public services,while also looking to expand outward into other fieldswhen conditions are right.In the near future, a focus on other non-polymer andindustrial needs will provide Korea with its best chance atpositioning itself for success as the market moves towardmanufacturing. The increase in B2B demand for 3D printingtechnologies is a clear sign that industry R&D on metal-relatedtechnologies should be conducted further, for use in theproduction of goods.As the field of 3D printing develops, companies will needmature decision-making skills to navigate a fast-changinglandscape. Even the strongest businesses, however, willlook to government as well as the private sector for valuableadvice and cooperation.Choosing the ideal moments for the adoption of newtechnologies, adaptation to emerging trends, andexpansion into growing markets requires up-to-dateinformation together with a strong infrastructure ofsupport. Long-term growth and success also depend on awise investment strategy and a winning marketingapproach, informed by timely, accurate, and in-depthstudies incorporating management experience andrigorous market analysis.For industrial needs that require metal-related 3D printingtechnologies, companies Winforsys, Hyvision, and Maxrotecare notable for their investments in the field. However,these three companies’ metal-related tech is not a mainbusiness model but rather an investment sector. Toencourage a deeper level of development within this area,the government should provide more active support tocompanies interested in investing in metal-relatedtechnology.Ipsos Business Consulting3D Printing in Korea 12

ssmentOur 7-stageYEARSEXPERIENCE OF GO-TO-MARKETstrategy in emerging anddeveloped plementationGO-TO-MARKETPreparing for market entry has never been so complex.The rise of global connectivity, both online and in termsof real-world trade infrastructure, means that businessesneed to adapt to rapid changes throughout the world ofcommerce. New trade partnerships allow competition tocome from all sides, e-commerce requires a revolution inlogistics, and the rise of internet advertising demandsmastery of this new media platform.These new market realities affect consumer preferencesin terms of products and their method of purchase, advertisingmodels, logistics in an e-commerce world, legal requirementsat every step of the way, and competitors both local andoverseas. Companies must remain ready to respond toreal-time evaluations of sales performance, while continuingto monitor progress toward long-term goals.Now more than ever, a detailed understanding of the marketis an essential element of a winning business mode

the fourth industry revolution, including 3D printing, is the key to future growth. Ipsos Business Consulting 3D Printing in Korea 3. . media and early adopters: 3D printing is frequently reported in the media, and 3D printing departments have appeared in several universities. Also, interest from primary, middle, and high schools has .

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