State of Health in the EUSwedenCountry Health Profile 2017Europeanon Health Systems and Policiesa partnership hosted by WHO
b . Health in SwedenThe Country Health Profile seriesContentsThe State of Health in the EU profiles provide a concise andpolicy-relevant overview of health and health systems in the EUMember States, emphasising the particular characteristics andchallenges in each country. They are designed to support theefforts of Member States in their evidence-based policy making.1 HIGHLIGHTS12 HEALTH IN SWEDEN23 RISK FACTORS44 THE HEALTH SYSTEM65 PERFORMANCE OF THE HEALTH SYSTEM8The Country Health Profiles are the joint work of the OECD andthe European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, incooperation with the European Commission. The team is gratefulfor the valuable comments and suggestions provided by MemberStates and the Health Systems and Policy Monitor network.5.1 Effectiveness85.2 Accessibility115.3 Resilience136 KEY FINDINGS16Data and information sourcesThe data and information in these Country Health Profiles arebased mainly on national official statistics provided to Eurostatand the OECD, which were validated in June 2017 to ensurethe highest standards of data comparability. The sources andmethods underlying these data are available in the EurostatDatabase and the OECD health database. Some additional dataalso come from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation(IHME), the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control(ECDC), the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC)surveys and the World Health Organization (WHO), as well asother national sources.The calculated EU averages are weighted averages of the28 Member States unless otherwise noted.To download the Excel spreadsheet matching all thetables and graphs in this profile, just type the followingStatLinks into your Internet graphic and socioeconomic context in Sweden, 2015Demographic factorsSocioeconomic factorsSwedenEUPopulation size (thousands)9 799509 277Share of population over age 65 (%)19.618.9Fertility rate¹1.91.6GDP per capita (EUR PPP2)35 70028 900Relative poverty rate3 (%)8.010.8Unemployment rate (%)7.49.41. Number of children born per woman aged 15–49.2. Purchasing power parity (PPP) is defined as the rate of currency conversion that equalises the purchasing power of different currencies by eliminating the differences in price levels between countries.3. Percentage of persons living with less than 50% of median equivalised disposable income.Source: Eurostat Database.Disclaimer: The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein are solely those of the authorsand do not necessarily reflect the official views of the OECD or of its member countries, or of theEuropean Observatory on Health Systems and Policies or any of its Partners. The views expressedherein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union. This document, aswell as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty overany territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of anyterritory, city or area.Additional disclaimers for WHO are visible at http://www.who.int/bulletin/disclaimer/en/ OECD and World Health Organization (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies)STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE SWEDEN – 2017
SwedenHighlights . 11 HighlightsLife expectancy in Sweden is among the highest in the EU. Both men and women enjoy the highest healthy life expectancy at age65 of all EU countries. The Swedish health system is characterised by large financial and human resources, but it faces challenges tostrengthen care and coordination across providers and levels of care to better respond to the needs of population ageing.Health statusLife expectancy at birth, yearsSE8282.2YEARSEU82.2818080.679.87978Life expectancy at birth was 82.2 years in 2015, up almost 2.5 years from 2000,1.6 years above the EU average. Life expectancy gains have mainly been driven byreduced mortality rates after the age of 65. Stroke is decreasing as a cause of death, buta growing number of people are dying from Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.77.37720002015Risk factors% of adults in 2014SmokingEU12%Binge drinkingObesitySE20%Only 12% of adults in Sweden smoke daily, a decrease from 19% in 2000, and the lowestrate among all EU countries. Overall alcohol consumption per adult has increased andone-fifth of adults report heavy alcohol consumption on a regular basis. The obesity rateamong adults has also increased but remains below the EU average. Many risk factors aremore pronounced among people with low income and education, contributing to healthinequalities.13%Health systemPer capita (left axis) Share of GDP (right axis)5 00012104 000863 0002 0004201 0000EUR PPPSEEUSweden has the third highest health spending in the EU as a share of GDP (11.0% in2015 compared to the EU average of 9.9%), and the fifth highest in per capita spending(EUR 3 932 compared to the EU average EUR 2 797). Public expenditure accounts for 84%of all health spending, a share which is also higher than the EU average (79%). Voluntaryhealth insurance has a small but rapidly increasing role in funding health.% of GDPHealth system performanceEffectivenessAmenable mortality in Sweden remainsbelow most other EU countries, indicatingthat the health care system is moreeffective in avoiding deaths from conditionslargely treatable in modern health care.Amenable mortality per 100 000 population175SEAccessAlthough waiting times and care coordinationcontinue to be issues, access to health care inSweden is generally good, with low numbersreporting unmet needs for medical care andrelatively little variation between income groups.EU% reporting unmet medical needs, 2015High income175AllLow income160145130SE13210512698ResilienceSweden has largenumbers of doctorsand nurses, althoughchallenges persist tomake the most efficient use of healthworkforce. For a long time, there hasbeen a substantial shift of resources andactivities from inpatient to outpatient (orambulatory) care, although strengtheningprimary care remains a challenge.EU90200520140%3%6%STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017SWEDEN– SWEDEN– 2017
Sweden2 . Health in Sweden2 Health in SwedenLife expectancy is increasing and remainsamong the highest in the EULife expectancy at birth in Sweden increased by two and a halfyears from 2000–15, to 82.2 years (Figure 1). Swedish lifeexpectancy is 1.6 years longer than the EU average and is the fifthhighest across the EU.The gap in life expectancy between men and women is 3.7 years(80.4 years for men and 84.1 years for women), which is among thesmallest in the EU. However, there is a sizeable gap in life expectancybetween socioeconomic groups, particularly among men. Lifeexpectancy at birth among Swedish men with university education isalmost five years higher than among those who have not completedtheir secondary education.1 This gap is a bit less pronounced amongwomen (less than three years).Most of the life expectancy gains in Sweden since 2000 have beendriven by reduced mortality rates after the age of 65. Swedishwomen at this age can expect to live another 21.5 years in 2015(up from 20.2 years in 2000) and Swedish men another 18.9 years(up from 16.7 years in 2000). The number of years spent in goodhealth is high compared to other EU countries, with healthy lifeexpectancy at age 65 being the highest among all EU countries forboth men (15.7 compared to the EU average 9.4) and women (16.8compared to the EU average 9.4).21. Lower education levels refer to people with less than primary, primary or lowersecondary education (ISCED levels 0–2) while higher education levels refer to people withtertiary education (ISCED levels 5–8).2. These are based on the indicator of ‘healthy life years’, which measures the number ofyears that people can expect to live free of disability at different ages.Figure 1. Life expectancy in Sweden is the fifth highest in the .9SloveniaHungary81.0United Kingdom76.781.1BelgiumSlovak ndsEstonia81.8CyprusEU Average 80.6 years of age78.781.9Malta80Czech Republic82.2years of FranceItalySpain60Source: Eurostat Database.Cardiovascular diseases and cancer are thelargest contributors to mortalityCardiovascular diseases and cancer are the leading causes of deathamong women and men in Sweden (Figure 2). In 2014, 32 600people died from cardiovascular diseases (accounting for 37%of all deaths among women and 36% of all deaths among men)and 22 400 from cancer (accounting for 23% of all deaths amongwomen and 27% of all deaths among men).STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 – SWEDENLooking at more specific causes of death, since 2000 the top fiveleading causes of death in Sweden remain the same but theirrankings have changed. Ischaemic and other heart diseases arestill the largest causes of death. But, Alzheimer’s disease and otherdementias have replaced stroke in the top three causes (Figure 3).The strong rise in the number of deaths from Alzheimer’s diseaseand other dementias reflects population ageing, better diagnosis,lack of effective treatments and more precise coding of theseconditions as the cause of death.
SwedenHealth in Sweden . 3Figure 2. C ardiovascular diseases and cancer account for nearly two-thirds of deaths in SwedenWomenMen(Number of deaths: 45 407)(Number of deaths: 42 985)16%4%37%6%14%15%Cardiovascular diseasesCancerNervous system (incl. dementia)Respiratory diseasesExternal causesOther causes7%36%6%8%27%23%Note: The data are presented by broad ICD chapter. Dementia was added to the nervous system diseases’ chapter to include it with Alzheimer’s disease (the main form of dementia).Source: Eurostat Database (data refer to 2014).Figure 3. Heart diseases remain the most common cause of death followed by Alzheimer’s diseaseand other dementias2000 ranking2014 ranking% of all deaths in 201414%11Ischaemic heart diseases22Other heart diseases33Alzheimer and other dementia9%44Stroke7%55Lung cancer4%66Lower respiratory diseases3%77Colorectal cancer3%88Prostate cancer3%99Diabetes2%1010Pancreatic cancer2%1211Pneumonia2%10%Source: Eurostat Database.Musculoskeletal problems and depressionare among the leading causes of poor healthAfter the burden of diseases caused by fatal conditions,musculoskeletal problems (including low back and neck pain) arean increasing cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)3 lostin Sweden (IHME, 2016). Major depressive disorders are anotherleading health problem that, even if not fatal, have serious lifelimiting consequences.3. DALY is an indicator used to estimate the total number of years lost due to specificdiseases and risk factors. One DALY equals one of healthy life lost (IHME).Based on self-reported data from the European Health InterviewSurvey (EHIS), one in six people in Sweden live with hypertension,one in ten live with chronic depression, and one in thirteen live withasthma. More positively, less than 5% of people report living withdiabetes, a lower rate than in most other EU states. People with thelowest level of education are 6% more likely to live with asthmaand more than two and a half times as likely to live with diabetesthan those with the highest level of education.44. Inequalities by education may partially be attributed to the higher proportion ofolder people with lower educational levels; however, this alone does not account for allsocioeconomic disparities.STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 – SWEDEN
Sweden4 . Risk factors3 Risk factorsMost of the population report being in goodhealth, but the gap between high- and lowincome populations is largeThe proportion of the Swedish population reporting to be in goodhealth (80% in 2015) is much higher than the EU average (67%)and third highest in the EU behind Ireland and Cyprus (Figure 4). Asin other EU countries, there is a substantial gap in self-rated healthby socioeconomic status: 89% of people in the highest incomequintile report to be in good health, compared with 67% of those inthe lowest income quintile.Figure 4. Most people in Sweden report to be in goodhealth, but there are disparities by income groupLow incomeTotal populationBehavioural risk factors in Sweden are belowmost EU countriesBased on IHME estimations, over one quarter (26%) of the overallburden of disease in Sweden in 2015 (measured in terms of DALYs)can be attributed to behavioural risk factors, with dietary risks,smoking, alcohol use and physical inactivity contributing the most(IHME, 2016). This is, however, a lower share than in most other EUcountries.Smoking rates continue to declineHigh incomeThe proportion of adults who smoke in Sweden has decreasedsubstantially since 2000 (from 19% to 12%) and is the lowestamong all EU countries (Figure 5). Smoking rate among adolescentsis also the lowest in the EU, with steep declines in regular smokingamong 15-year-olds girls (from 19% in 2001–02 to 7% in2013–14) and boys (from 11% in 2001–02 to 6% in 2013–14).These low smoking rates in Sweden are the result of acomprehensive tobacco control policy in place for many years(see Section ndUnited KingdomFranceEUSlovak RepublicItaly¹BulgariaSloveniaGermanyCzech ithuania2030405060708090% of adults reporting to be in good health1. The shares for the total population and the low-income population are roughly the same.2. The shares for the total population and the high-income population are roughly the same.Source: Eurostat Database, based on EU-SILC (data refer to 2015).STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 – SWEDEN100
SwedenRisk factors . 5Alcohol consumption is the lowest in Europe,but binge drinking remains a problemAlcohol consumption among Swedish adults is the lowest in the EUwith adults consuming 7.2 litres per capita in 2015, although this isup from 6.2 litres in 2000. Alcohol consumption among 15-year-oldsis also among the lowest in the EU, with 18% of girls and 15% ofboys reporting having been drunk at least twice in their life (comparedto an EU average of 23% among girls and 27% among boys).However, there remains a challenge in reducing regular bingedrinking5 among a sizeable proportion of adults. Over 20% ofadults in Sweden (12% of women and 29% of men) report heavyalcohol consumption on a regular basis, which is slightly higherthan the EU average. Sweden has already put in place a rangeof alcohol control policies (see Section 5.1), but more targetedmeasures may be needed to reduce alcohol abuse among specificsegments of the population.Growing rates of obesity and physicalinactivity among adolescents present amajor challengeSwedish 15-year-olds have above EU average rates of obesity andoverweight (19% combined, up from 11% in 2002) and less thanEU average of physical activity. This is of particular concern giventhat being overweight or obese during childhood or adolescence is astrong predictor of becoming overweight or obese as an adult.Many behavioural risk factors are morecommon among disadvantaged populationsAs in other EU countries, many behavioural risk factors are muchmore prevalent among populations with low level of income oreducation. The prevalence of smoking is three times higher andobesity is over 50% more prevalent among the population withthe lowest level of education compared to those with the highestlevel of education. Currently, the government has a strong focus onreducing inequalities in risk factors to health (see Section 5.1).Figure 5. Overweight and obesity combined with lack of physical activity among adolescentsis a growing public health issueSmoking, 15-year-oldsPhysical activity, adultsSmoking, adultsDrunkenness, 15-year-oldsPhysical activity, 15-year-oldsObesity, adultsBinge drinking, adultsOverweight/obesity, 15-year-oldsNote: The closer the dot is to the centre the better the country performs compared to otherEU countries. No country is in the white ‘target area’ as there is room for progress in allcountries in all areas.5. Binge drinking behaviour is defined as consuming six or more alcoholic drinks on asingle occasion, at least once a month over the past year.Source: OECD calculations based on Eurostat Database (EHIS in or around 2014), OECDHealth Statistics and HBSC survey in 2013–14. (Chart design: Laboratorio MeS).STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 – SWEDEN
4 The health systemUniversal coverage is achieved through adecentralised national health servicePublic expenditure accounts for 84% of the total, a share whichhas been fairly stable over the past decade and is above the EUaverage (79%). Most private expenditure (93%) is paid out-ofpocket directly by households and voluntary health insurance stillonly plays a minor (but growing) role (see Section 5.2). The 290municipalities fund elderly care, home care and social care, whilethe regions are responsible for primary, psychiatric and specialisthealth care. Local and regional taxes are supplemented by thecentral government and by user charges. Subsidies for prescriptiondrugs are paid for through designated state grants to the regions.The responsibility for financing, purchasing and providing allindividual health services in Sweden is decentralised to 21 regions.Regionally and locally established taxes are the basis for revenuecollection, but a national redistribution scheme is designed toequalise the capacity to provide health services across the country.The state is responsible for regulation and supervision. It providesadditional funding through general block grants, earmarked fundingfor outpatient pharmaceuticals and specific national programmes.The regions increasingly undertake initiatives to work cooperativelyto share investments and cluster services. This is often initiatedand supported by the national government, for example whensix regional cancer centres were founded in 2011 to improveprevention and service coordination in cancer care.Population coverage is high but user chargesvary across regionsHealth services are covered for all legal residents and emergencycare is provided to all patients from the EU/EEA and nine othercountries with bilateral agreements. There are direct user charges(flat-rate payments) for primary and specialist care, which are setby the regions, leading to variation across the country. In 2014,the fees for consulting a primary care physician varied betweenSEK 100–300 (EUR 11–33), for an outpatient hospital specialistbetween SEK 200–350 (EUR 22–37), and per day of hospitalisationfor an adult between SEK 80–100 (EUR 9–11). There is a cap ofSEK 1 100 (EUR 120) over 12 months on cost-sharing for healthservices and a separate cap for prescribed medicines, which areHealth spending is relatively high, and theshare of public funding is above averageSweden has the third highest spending on health as a share of GDPin the EU, 11.0% compared to 9.9% in the EU in 2015. In terms ofspending per capita, Sweden spent EUR 3 932 per capita on healthin 2015 (adjusted for differences in purchasing power), which is thefifth highest in the EU (Figure 6).Figure 6. Sweden is among the highest spenders on health in the EUEUR PPPPer capita (le axis)6 000% of GDPShare of GDP (right axis)12Source: OECD Health Statistics, Eurostat Database, WHO Global Health Expenditure Database (data refer to 2015).STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 – huaniaHungarySlovak RepublicCyprusGreeceCzech 2United Kingdom1 000France4Belgium2 000Denmark6Austria3 000Sweden8Ireland4 000Netherlands10Germany5 000LuxembourgSweden6 . The health system
fully funded by the patient up to SEK 1 100 (EUR 120) per year,after which the copayment decreases step-wise until reaching theceiling of SEK 2 200 (EUR 240).Cost-sharing exemptions apply for children, adolescents, pregnantwomen and older people. Dentistry has separate and less generouscoverage and no cap in cost-sharing. Private supplementaryinsurance is held by 6% of the population, mostly in the form ofcoverage from employers to provide quicker access to specialistsand elective treatment (see Section 5.2).Primary care is provided by over 1 100 primary care units, of which42% are private, although the ownership structure differs widelybetween regions. The share of private primary care providers hasincreased rapidly in recent years. Some regions allowed unrestrictedestablishment for accredited providers already ten years ago and in2010 this right to freely establish new primary care clinics with publicreimbursement became national law. Public and private physicians(including hospital specialists) and other health workers arepredominantly salaried employees. Capital investments are generallydecided upon and funded by the regions.Most hospitals are publicly owned, but manyprimary care providers are privateThe number of physicians and nurses isrelatively highIn Sweden, there is a mix of publicly and privately owned healthcare facilities, but they are all publicly funded. Highly specialisedcare, requiring the most advanced technical equipment, isconcentrated in seven public university hospitals. There are alsoabout 70 public hospitals at the regional level of which about twothirds provide acute care on a 24/7 basis. In addition, Sweden hassix private hospitals of different size and profile.As shown in Figure 7, the number of physicians and nurses perpopulation in Sweden is well above the EU average with 4.2 practicingdoctors per 1 000 population (compared with an EU average of 3.6)and 11.1 practicing nurses per 1 000 population (compared withan EU average of 8.4). Most physicians (70%) have a recognisedspecialisation, and almost one-quarter of them are specialists ingeneral medicine.Figure 7. Sweden has more doctors and nurses than most EU countriesEU average: 3.6Practising nurses per 1 000 population, 2015 (or nearest year)20Doctors HighNurses HighDoctors LowNurses UCZEU average: 8.4MTLTPTITESCYATBGELDoctors HighNurses LowDoctors LowNurses Low01234Practising doctors per 1 000 population, 2015 (or nearest year)567Note: In Portugal and Greece, data refer to all doctors licensed to practice, resulting in a large overestimation of the number of practising doctors (e.g. of around 30% in Portugal). In Austriaand Greece, the number of nurses is underestimated as it only includes those working in hospital.Source: Eurostat Database.STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 – SWEDENSwedenThe health system . 7
Sweden8 . The health systemSweden has a very low level of hospital bedsSince 1990, Sweden has reduced the number of acute carehospital beds and the ratio per population is now the lowest of allEU countries, with only 2.3 acute care beds per 1 000 population,compared to an EU average of 4.2. The average length of hospitalstay is also very low at 5.9 days, which is third lowest among EUcountries (see Section 5.3).High use of electronic patient records doesnot prevent fragmented health informationsystemsPatient records are kept electronically with most primary careproviders using electronic patient records for diagnostic data. Moreover,ePrescriptions are used with few exceptions. Efforts are being madetowards harmonising patient records across all provider levels. Atthe national level, there are efforts to integrate various informationsystems. However, these efforts have been costly and cumbersome,have encountered complaints about functionality and user-friendlinessand have not yet been implemented on a larger scale.Free choice of provider and timely access areguaranteedA free choice of primary care provider and freedom ofestablishment for accredited primary care providers is nationallymandated in Sweden. There is no formal gatekeeping role inmost regions and patients are free to contact specialists directly.Furthermore, a health care guarantee act stipulates maximumwaiting times for a range of services. This is intended to strengthenthe patient’s position in accessing services. The act describes a‘0–7–90–90’ rule, meaning same day contact with the health caresystem; seeing a GP within seven days; consulting a specialistwithin 90 days; and waiting for no more than 90 days after beingdiagnosed to receive treatment. However, compliance with thiswaiting time guarantee varies largely across the country and noregion has fully been able to meet these rules (see Section 5.2).5 Performance of the health system5.1 EFFECTIVENESSLow amenable mortality rate indicates thatthe Swedish health care system is generallyeffectiveSweden has comparatively low rates of amenable mortality6, whichpoints towards an effective health care system in avoiding deathsfrom conditions that are deemed to be treatable in modern healthcare (Figure 8). Amenable mortality rates have been reduced by 25%in Sweden since 2005.More people survive from heart attacks andstrokesSweden has low rates of 30-day mortality following hospitaladmissions for heart attack (acute myocardial infarction, AMI) andstroke. Mortality rates for heart attack have decreased between2005–15 in Sweden, as in many other EU countries (Figure 9).Better access to high-quality acute care for heart attack, includingevidence-based interventions and high-quality specialised healthfacilities, have helped to reduce these 30-day mortality rates(OECD, 2015).STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017SWEDEN– SWEDEN– 2017Chronic care management in primary caresettings face challengesEffective management of patients with one or more chronic diseaseis a commonly debated concern in Sweden. More effective primarycare delivery could increase the overall efficiency and responsivenessof the health system considerably. The results from the 2014Commonwealth Fund International Health Policy Survey show thatthe share of Swedish patients reporting that their medical contact(doctor or other) are often or always informed about the care theyhave received in hospital is much lower than in other countries (53%only, compared to 90% in Germany or 84% in France). Similarly,only 45% report that their doctor always or often provides them helpin coordinating their care with other providers, compared to 58%and 68% in Germany and France respectively (Swedish Agency forHealth and Care Services Analysis, 2014). Even if these problemsare well known and receive attention, Sweden is still struggling withstrengthening primary care delivery, partly because of difficultieswith the recruitment of GPs (see Section 5.3).6. Amenable mortality is defined as premature deaths that could have been avoidedthrough timely and effective health care.
SwedenPerformance of the health system . 9Figure 8. Low amenable mortality rates in Sweden reflect effective health care al83.9Austria138.0Denmark85.4United 4.4United ce168.2Czech Republic119.9PolandPoland121.5Czech RepublicCroatia147.8CroatiaEstonia152.5Slovak RepublicSlovak dised rates per 100 000 population400600Age-standardised rates per 100 000 populationSource: Eurostat Database (data refer to 2014).Figure 9. Mortality rates following hospital admissions for stroke and AMI are among the lowest in the EU30-day mortality rate following admission for ischaemic stroke30-day mortality rate following admission for AMIAge-sex standardised rate per 100 patients aged 45 years and over2020051820102015161412108642Czech RepublicLuxembourgPortugalUnited lyCzech RepublicNetherlandsUnited lyFinland0Note: This indicator is based on patient-level data. Three-year average for Luxembourg. The EU average is unweighted. Source: OECD Health Statistics 2017.STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 – SWEDEN
Sweden10 . Performance of the health systemFigure 11. Sweden has relatively low colorectal cancerscreening ratesEven though Swedish primary care has challenges with ensuringproper care coordination, hospital admission rates for chronicdiseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), diabetes, congestive heart failure (CHF) and hypertension,are below EU averages (Figure 10). Nevertheless, for all thesediagnoses, several countries have lower rates, indicating room forimprovement.ScreenedGermanyAustriaSloveniaCzech RepublicFranceFigure 10. Avoidable hospitalisation for chronicconditions is lower in Sweden than the EU average237LatviaPortugalEUSweden202184Never screenedItalyDenmarkUnited Kingdom184Slovak 36SwedenIrelandFinlandAsthma andCOPDDiabetesCongestive heartfailureHypertensionNote: Data refer to age-sex standardised hospital admission rates per 100 000 population.Source: OECD Health Statistics (data refer to 2015 or nearest year).Cancer care has improved, but screening isstill
STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE SWEDEN - 2017 Highlights . 1 Sweden STATE OF HEALTH IN THE EU: COUNTRY PROFILE 2017 - SWEDEN 1 Highlights Life expectancy in Sweden is among the highest in the EU. Both men and women enjoy the highest healthy life expectancy at age 65 of all EU countries.
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
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Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.