DNVGL-CG-0051 Non-destructive Testing - Rules And Standards

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CLASS GUIDELINEDNVGL-CG-0051Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingThe electronic pdf version of this document, available free of chargefrom http://www.dnvgl.com, is the officially binding version.DNV GL AS

FOREWORDDNV GL class guidelines contain methods, technical requirements, principles and acceptancecriteria related to classed objects as referred to from the rules. DNV GL AS December 2015Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.comIf any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of DNV GL, then DNV GL shallpay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to tentimes the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compensation shall never exceed USD 2 million.In this provision "DNV GL" shall mean DNV GL AS, its direct and indirect owners as well as all its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers,employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of DNV GL.

Changes - currentCHANGES – CURRENTThis is a new document.Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 3

Changes – current. 3Section 1 General. 71 Preamble.72 References. 73 Definitions and symbols. 104 Safety. 115 Personnel qualifications.116 Information required prior to testing. 127 Extent of testing.138 Materials. 139 Selection of testing method.1310 Time of testing. 1411 Final report. 14Section 2 Eddy current. 161 Scope. 162 Definitions. 163 Personnel qualifications.174 Information required (prior to testing). 175 Surface conditions. 176 Equipment.177 Testing. 188 Acceptance Criteria.219 Evaluation of indications. 2110 Reporting. 21Section 3 Magnetic particle testing. 271 Magnetic particle testing on welds. 272 Magnetic particle testing on components. 37Section 4 Penetrant testing.411 Scope. 412 Personnel qualifications.413 Equipment/testing material.414 Compatibility of testing materials with the parts to be tested.425 Preparation, pre-cleaning and testing.43Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 4ContentsCONTENTS

7 Acceptance criteria. 468 Post cleaning and protection. 479 Retesting. 4710 Reporting. 48Section 5 Radiographic testing.501 Scope. 502 Personnel qualifications.503 Classification of radiographic techniques.504 General. 515 Techniques for making radiographs.566 Acceptance criteria. 657 Reporting. 65Section 6 Ultrasonic testing. 661 Scope. 662 Definitions and symbols. 663 Personnel qualifications.674 Requirements for equipment. 675 Preparation of scanning surfaces. 716 Testing volume. 727 Welds in austenitic stainless and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainlesssteel. 858 Evaluation of imperfections in weld connections. 909 Acceptance criteria, weld connections. 9010 Reporting, weld connections.9111 Ultrasonic testing of rolled steel plates. 9212 Ultrasonic testing of castings. 9613 Ultrasonic testing of forgings. 98Section 7 Visual testing.1031 Scope. 1032 Information required prior to testing. 1033 Requirements for personnel and equipment. 1034 Testing conditions.1035 Testing volume. 1046 Preparation of surfaces. 1047 Evaluation of indications.1048 Visual testing of repaired welds. 105Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 5Contents6 Inspection.46

10 Reporting. 105Appendix A Guidelines regarding ultrasonic testing of thermo mechanicallycontrolled, processed (TMCP) materials and determination of the root area insingle sided welds. 1061 Ultrasonic testing of TMCP materials. 1062 Ultrasonic testing and determination of single welded root areas. 108Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 6Contents9 Acceptance criteria. 105

Section 1SECTION 1 GENERAL1 PreambleThis class guideline applies for non-destructive testing using the following methods:——————eddy current testingmagnetic particle testingpenetrant testingradiographic testingultrasonic testingvisual testing.In general, this class guideline shall be adhered to, as far as applicable, when non-destructive testingis required by the Society. The use of other standards or specifications may, however, be granted if anequivalent testing procedure is ensured or is more fit for the purpose.Whenever acceptance criteria are defined in the rules, approved drawings, IACS recommendations or otheragreed product standards, these criteria are mandatory. If no acceptance criteria are defined, acceptancecriteria specified in this class guideline may be applied.The definitions and requirements stated below may satisfy the need of a written procedure. Where this isnot the case, or where the techniques described in this class guideline are not applicable to the object tobe examined, additional written procedures shall be used and accepted by the Society before the testing iscarried out.2 ReferencesThis class guideline incorporates references from other publications. These normative and informativereferences are cited at the appropriate places in the text and constitute provisions of this class guideline.Latest edition of the publications shall be used unless otherwise agreed. Other recognised publications maybe used provided it can be shown that they meet or exceed the requirements for the publications referencedbelow.2.1 Normative referencesTable 1 Normative referencesEN ISO 17636-1Non-destructive examination of welds– Radiographic testing – Part 1: X- and gamma-ray techniques with filmEN ISO 17636-2Non-destructive testing of welds- Radiographic testing - Part 2: X- and gamma-ray techniques with digital detectorsEN ISO 5579Non-destructive testing - Radiographic testing of metallic materials using film and X- or gamma rays- Basic rulesEN ISO 19232Non-destructive testing – Image quality of radiographsEN ISO 15626Non-destructive testing of welds - Time- of-flight diffraction technique (TOFD) - Acceptance levelsEN ISO 10863Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing - Use of time-of-flight diffraction technique(TOFD)EN ISO 17637Non-destructive examination of fusion welds – Visual examinationEN ISO 11699Non-destructive testing – Industrial radiographic filmClass guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 7

Non-destructive testing; Industrial radiographic illuminators; Minimum requirementsISO 17643Non-destructive examination of welds – Eddy Current Examination of welds by complex planeanalysis.EN ISO 15549Non-destructive testing – Eddy Current Testing – General PrinciplesEN ISO 17635Non-destructive examination of welds – General rules for metallic materialsEN ISO 23277Non-destructive examination of welds – Penetrant testing– Acceptance levels.EN ISO 16828Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Time-of-flight diffraction technique as a method fordetection and sizing of discontinuitiesEN ISO 23278Non-destructive examination of welds – Magnetic particle testing - Acceptance levelsEN ISO 5817Arc-welded joints in steels – Guidance on quality levels for imperfections. Welding – Fusionwelded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) – Quality levels forimperfectionsEN ISO 6520-1Welding and allied processes – Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials – Part1: Fusion weldingEN ISO 10042Welding – Arc-welded joints in aluminium and its alloys – Quality levels for imperfectionsEN 1330Non-destructive testing – TerminologyISO 15548Non-destructive testing – Equipment for eddy current examination.ISO 17638Non-destructive testing of welds – Magnetic particle testingISO 9934-1Non-destructive testing – Magnetic particle testing – Part 1: General principlesEN 10160Ultrasonic testing of steel and flat product of thickness equal or greater than 6 mm (reflectionmethod)EN ISO 9712Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of NDT personnelEN ISO 11666Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Acceptance levelsISO 23279Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Characterization of indications in weldsEN ISO 17640Non-destructive examination of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Techniques, testing levels, andassessmentEN 12668Non-destructive testing – Characterisation and verification of ultrasonic of ultrasonic equipment;Part 1: Instruments; Part 2: Probes; Part 3: Combined equipmentEN ISO 3059Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing – Viewing conditionsEN ISO 3452Non-destructive testing - Penetrant testing – Part 1: General principles; – Part 2: Testing ofpenetrant materials; – Part 3: Reference test blocks; – Part 4: EquipmentIACS rec. no. 68Guidelines for non-destructive examination of hull and machinery steel forgingsEN ISO 12706Non-destructive testing – Penetrant Testing – VocabularyISO 14096-1Non-destructive testing - Qualification of radiographic film digitalisation systems - Part 1:Definitions, quantitative measurements of image quality parameters, standard reference film andqualitative controlIACS rec. no. 69Guidelines for non-destructive examination of marine steel castingsEN ISO 16811Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Sensitivity and range settingClass guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASSection 1ISO 5580Page 8

Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Part 1: Magnetic particle inspection; - Part 2: Penetranttesting; - Part 3: Ultrasonic testing of ferritic or martensitic steel forgings; - Part 4: Ultrasonictesting of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic stainless steel forgingsEN ISO 13588Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing - Use of automated phased array technologyISO 4993Steel castings; Radiographic inspectionClass guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 9Section 1EN 10228

Section 12.2 Informative referencesTable 2 Informative referencesASTM A609 /A609M-12Standard Practice for Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless Steel, UltrasonicExamination ThereofStandard Practice for Castings, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and Martensitic Stainless Steel, UltrasonicExaminationASTM A388 /A388M-11Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Steel ForgingsASTM E1316Standard Terminology for Non-destructive ExaminationsSNT-TC-1APersonnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing3 Definitions and symbolsThe following definitions apply:— Testing: Testing or examination of a material or component in accordance with this class guideline, or astandard, or a specification or a procedure in order to detect, locate, measure and evaluate flaws— Defect: One or more flaws whose aggregate size, shape, orientation, location or properties do not meetspecified requirements will be rejected— Discontinuity: A lack of continuity or cohesion; an intentional or unintentional interruption in the physicalstructure or configuration of a material or component— Flaw: An imperfection or discontinuity that may be detectable by non-destructive testing will notnecessarily be rejected— Indication: Evidence of a discontinuity that requires interpretation to determine its significance— False indication: An indication that is interpreted to be caused by a discontinuity at a location where nodiscontinuity exists— Non relevant indication: An indication that is caused by a condition or type of discontinuity will not berejected. False indications are non-relevant— Imperfections: A departure of a quality characteristic from its intended condition— Internal imperfection: Imperfection that is not open to a surface or not directly accessible.— Quality level: Fixed limits of imperfections corresponding to the expected quality in a specific object. Thelimits are determined with regard to type of imperfection, their amount and their actual dimensions— Acceptance level: Prescribed limits below which a component is accepted— Planar discontinuity: Discontinuity having two measurable dimensions— Non-planar discontinuity: Discontinuity having three measurable dimensions.The following definitions relevant to MT or PT indications apply:— Linear indication: An indication in which the length is at least three times the width— Nonlinear indication: An indication of circular or elliptical shape with a length less than three times thewidth— Aligned indication: Three or more indications in a line, separated by 2 mm or less edge-to-edge— Open indication: An indication visible after removal of the magnetic particles or that can be detected bythe use of contrast dye penetrant— Non-open indication: An indication that is not visually detectable after removal of the magnetic particlesor that cannot be detected by the use of contrast dye penetrant— Relevant indication: An indication that is caused by a condition or type of discontinuity that requiresevaluation. Only indications which have any dimension greater than 1.5 mm shall be considered relevant.Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 10

Section 13.1 CPNDT eddy current testing alternating current field measurement magnetic particle testing penetrant testing radiographic testing ultrasonic testing visual testing phased Array digital Radiography time-of-flight diffraction automated ultrasonic testing heat affected zone welding Procedure Specification thermo mechanically controlled processed non-destructive testing.4 SafetyInternational, national and local safety and environmental protection regulation shall be observed at alltimes.5 Personnel qualificationsAll testing shall be carried out by qualified and certified personnel. The NDT operators and the supervisorsshall be certified according to a 3rd party certification scheme based on EN ISO 9712 or ASNT CentralCertification Program (ACCP). SNT-TC-1A may be accepted if the NDT company's written practice is reviewedand accepted by the Society. The Supplier's written practice shall as a minimum, except for the impartialityrequirements of a certification body and/or authorised body, comply with EN ISO 9712. The certificateshall clearly state the qualifications as to which testing method, level and within which industrial sector theoperator is certified.NDT operators shall be certified at minimum Level 2 in the testing method and industrial sector concerned.Supervisors shall, unless otherwise agreed, be certified Level 3 in the testing method and industrial sectorconcerned.The supervisor shall be available for scheduling and monitoring the performed NDT. The supervisor shallbe available for developing, verifying and/or approving the NDT procedures in use and make sure theseprocedures are in compliance with the rules.As a minimum the following applies:Level 1An individual certificated to Level 1 has demonstrated competence to carry out NDT according to writteninstructions and under the supervision of level 2 or 3 personnel. Within the scope of the competence definedon the certificate, level 1 personnel may be authorised to:————set up NDT equipmentperform the testrecord and classify the results of the tests in terms of written criteriareport the resultsClass guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 11

Level 2An individual certificated to Level 2 has demonstrated competence to perform non-destructive testingaccording to established or recognised procedures. Within the scope of the competence defined on thecertificate, level 2 personnel may be authorised to:————————select the NDT technique for the test method to be useddefine the limitations of application of the testing methodtranslate NDT standards and specifications into NDT instructionsset up and verify equipment settingsperform and supervise testsinterpret and evaluate results according to applicable standards, codes or specificationsprepare written NDT instructionscarry out and to supervise all level 1 duties.Level 3An individual certificated to Level 3 has demonstrated competence to perform and direct non-destructivetesting operations for which he is certificated. An individual certificated to level 3 may:—————assume full responsibility for a test facility or examination centre and staffestablish and validate NDT instructions and proceduresinterpret standards, codes, specifications and proceduresdesignate the particular test methods, procedures and NDT instructions to be usedcarry out and to supervise all level 1 and 2 duties.Procedures and techniques shall be established by competent personnel and be either verified or approved bypersonnel certified to Level 3 in the applicable NDT method.The operator shall provide evidence of satisfactory vision. The near vision acuity shall permit reading aminimum of Jaeger number 1 or Times Roman N 4.5 or equivalent letters at not less than 300 mm withone or both eyes, either corrected or uncorrected. In addition the colour vision shall be sufficient that theoperator can distinguish and differentiate contrast between the colours used in the NDT method concerned asspecified by the employer. The documented test of visual acuity shall be carried out at least annually.Site test/mock-up test is recommended carried out. For special methods such as ToFD, DR, PAUT, AUT, UT ofaustenitic stainless steel/duplex materials site test should be carried out. The site test/mock-up tests haveboth the purpose of qualifying the procedure and also verify the technicians' ability to apply the technique ina proper way.6 Information required prior to testingBefore carrying out non-destructive testing, the following items, if applicable, shall be agreed between themanufacturer and the Society.————————specific testing procedure, if requiredextent of testingtesting plantesting equipmentcalibration of the equipmentcalibration and reference blocksacceptance levelactions necessary for unacceptable indications.Prior to testing, the following information is usually required:— manufacturing method (weld, casting, forging, rolled product, etc.)Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 12Section 1— Level 1 certificated personnel shall not be responsible for the choice of test method or technique to beused, nor for the assessment of the test results.

heat treatmentgrade of parent materialwelding parameters and conditions used to make the weldlocation and extent of welds to be testedweld surfacegeometry.coating type and thickness.casting detailsforging detailsrolling directionsSection 1——————————Operators may ask for further information that will be helpful in determining the nature of discontinuities.7 Extent of testingThe extent of testing shall be given in the relevant parts of the rules or drawings or as agreed between themanufacturer and the Society.The extent of NDT shall be increased if repeated occurrence of cracks or other significant weld defects arerevealed. Corrective actions shall be taken to ensure that all similar defects will be detected.All welds shall be 100% visually tested prior to carrying out other NDT by an operator certified in accordancewith requirements given in Sec.7 (Visual Testing).8 MaterialsThis class guideline is applicable for testing of castings, forgings, rolled materials and fusion welds in thefollowing materials, their alloys and ckeltitanium.The use of this class guideline for other metallic materials shall be approved case by case.9 Selection of testing methodSelection of NDT-method is shown in Table 3.Table 3 Selection of testing XXXXXXXXMTFerromagnetic Cand C-Mn/ Alloy/1)Duplex--XXXXXXXPTAluminium/ CuAlloys/2)SS/ DuplexX-XXXXXXXClass guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 13

UT5)MaterialsAluminium/C and )X3)3)SS/DuplexRTAluminium/C and C-Mn/Alloy/X4)SS/DuplexET3)AllX1)Method is applicable with limitations for Duplex, shall be approved case by case2)May be used for other materials also after special approval in each case3)May be used after special approval in each case4)Recommended for t 40 mm5)Only applicable for welds with t 10 mm10 Time of testingIf not otherwise specified in the applicable rules, the following applies:— when heat treatment is performed, the final NDT shall be carried out when all heat treatments have beencompleted2— for steel grades with minimum yield strength of 420 N/mm (e.g. VL 420 grades and higher), finalinspection and NDT shall not be carried out before 48 hours after completion.11 Final reportAll NDT shall be properly documented in such a way that the performed testing can be easily retraced at alater stage. The reports shall identify the unacceptable defects present in the tested area, and a conclusivestatement as to whether the weld satisfies the acceptance criteria or not.The report shall include a reference to the applicable standard, NDT procedure and acceptance criteria.In addition, as a minimum, the following information shall be given:————————————object and drawing referencesplace and date of examinationmaterial type and dimensionspost weld heat treatment, if requiredlocation of examined areas, type of jointwelding process usedname of the company and operator carrying out the testing including certification level of the operatorsurface conditionstemperature of the objectnumber of repairs if specific area repaired twice or morecontract requirements e.g. order no., specifications, special agreements etc.sketch, photograph, photocopy, video, written description showing location and information regardingdetected defectsClass guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 14Section 1CladNDTmethod

extent of testingtest equipment useddescription of the parameters used for each methoddescription and location of all recordable indicationsexamination results with reference to acceptance levelsignatures (ordinary signatures or electronic signatures) of personnel responsible for the testing.Other information related to the specific method may be listed under each method. The report shall besuch that there is no doubt about what is tested, where it has been carried out and give a clear and exactdescription of reportable defect location.Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 15Section 1——————

1 ScopeThis section defines eddy current testing techniques (ET) for detection of surface breaking and near surfaceplanar defects in:— welds— heat affected zone— parent material.ET can be applied on coated and uncoated objects and the testing can be carried out on all accessiblesurfaces on welds of almost any configuration.For other applications than weld testing, it is recommended that eddy current testing is done according to ENISO 15549.Usually, it can be applied in the as-welded condition. However, a very rough surface may prevent an efficienttesting.The eddy current testing method includes also alternating current field measurement (ACFM). If this methodis applied, written procedures shall be established according to recognised standards and are subjected forapproval by the Society before the testing starts.2 DefinitionsIn addition to definitions given in Sec.1 [3] the following applies:— Balance: Compensation of the signal, corresponding to the operating point, to achieve a predeterminedvalue, for example zero point— Impedance plane diagram: Graphical representation of the focus points, indicating the variation in theimpedance of a test coil as a function of the test parameters— Noise: Any unwanted signal which can corrupt the measurement— Phase reference: Direction in the complex plane display chosen as the origin for the phase measurement— Probe: Eddy current transducer. Physical device containing excitation elements and receiving elements— Lift off: Geometrical effect produced by changes in the distance between the probe and the product to betested.Class guideline — DNVGL-CG-0051. Edition December 2015Non-destructive testingDNV GL ASPage 16Section 2SECTION 2 EDDY CURRENT

Section 23 Personnel qualificationsSee Sec.1 [5] Personnel qualification4 Information required (prior to testing)See general information in

DNV GL class guidelines contain methods, technical requirements, principles and acceptance criteria related to classed objects as referred to from the rules. . EN ISO 23277 Non-destructive examination of welds - Penetrant testing- Acceptance levels. EN ISO 16828 Non-destructive testing - Ultrasonic testing - Time-of-flight diffraction .

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