Health Insurance Coverage In The United States: 2014

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%#Health Insurance Coveragein theUnitedStates: 2014in the UnitedStates:2014Current PopulationPopulationReportsReportsCurrentBy Jessica C. Smith and Carla MedaliaIssued September 2015P60-253U.S. Department of CommerceEconomics and Statistics AdministrationU.S. CENSUS BUREAUcensus.gov

AcknowledgmentsJessica Smith and Carla Medalia prepared this report under the direction ofMarina Vornovitsky, Chief of the Health and Disability Statistics Branch.Jennifer Cheeseman Day, Assistant Division Chief for EmploymentCharacteristics, of the Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division, providedoverall direction.David E. Adams, Vonda M. Ashton, Susan S. Gajewski, and Richard Lee,Demographic Surveys Division, and Tim J. Marshall and Lisa Cheok, AssociateDirectorate Demographic Programs, processed the Current Population Survey 2015Annual Social and Economic Supplement file. Christopher J. Boniface,Kirk E. Davis, Raymond Dowdy, Van P. Duong, Thy K. Le, andChandararith R. Phe programmed and produced the detailed and publication tables under the direction of Hung X. Pham, Chief of the Tabulation andApplications Branch.Deborah M. Stempowski, current Chief of the American Community SurveyOffice, and James B. Treat, former Chief of the American Community SurveyOffice, provided overall direction for the implementation of the 2014 AmericanCommunity Survey. Jennifer W. Reichert, Judy G. Belton, Donna M. Daily, andDameka M. Reese of the American Community Survey Office oversaw the data collection including content, group quarters, and mail and automated collection.Kenneth B. Dawson, Gail M. Denby, and Arumugam Sutha of the DecennialInformation Technology Division directed the edit and processing tasks for the2014 1-Year American Community Survey file.Stephen Clark, under the supervision of David V. Hornick, both of theDemographic Statistical Methods Division, conducted sample review of all CurrentPopulation Survey data.B. Dale Garrett, under the supervision of Karen E. King, both of the DecennialStatistical Studies Division, conducted the statistical review of all AmericanCommunity Survey data.Lisa Clement, Survey Director of the Current Population Survey, provided overalldirection for the survey implementation. Greg Weyland, Tim J. Marshall,Lisa Cheok, and Aaron Cantu, Associate Directorate Demographic Programs, andRoberto Picha, Agatha Jung, and Johanna Rupp, Technologies ManagementOffice, prepared and programmed the computer-assisted interviewing instrumentused to conduct the Annual Social and Economic Supplement.Additional people within the U.S. Census Bureau also made significant contributionsto the preparation of this report. Joelle Abramowitz, Alfred Gottschalck,Kelly Holder, Jeongsoo Kim, Brett O’Hara, Adam Smith, Amy Steinweg,Sharon Stern, Danielle Taylor, Victoria Udalova, Susan Walsh, andMonica Wiedemann reviewed the contents.Census Bureau field representatives and telephone interviewers collected the data.Without their dedication, the preparation of this report or any report from theCurrent Population Survey would be impossible.Linda Chen of the Census Bureau’s Center for New Media and Promotion andDonna Gillis and Anthony Richards of the Public Information Office providedpublication management, graphics design and composition, and editorial reviewfor print and electronic media. George E. Williams of the Census Bureau’sAdministrative and Customer Services Division provided printing management.

Health Insurance Coverage inthe United States: 2014Issued September 2015P60-253U.S. Department of CommercePenny Pritzker,SecretaryBruce H. Andrews,Deputy SecretaryEconomics and Statistics AdministrationMark Doms,Under Secretary for Economic AffairsU.S. CENSUS BUREAUJohn H. Thompson,Director

Suggested CitationSmith, Jessica C. and Carla Medalia,U.S. Census Bureau,Current Population Reports, P60-253,Health Insurance Coveragein the United States: 2014,U.S. Government Printing Office,Washington, DC,2015.ECONOMICSAND STATISTICSADMINISTRATIONEconomics and StatisticsAdministrationMark Doms,Under Secretary for Economic AffairsU.S. CENSUS BUREAUJohn H. Thompson,DirectorNancy A. Potok,Deputy Director and Chief Operating OfficerEnrique Lamas,Associate Director for Demographic ProgramsVictoria Velkoff,Chief, Social, Economic, and Housing Statistics Division

ContentsTEXTIntroduction 1National Changes in Health Insurance Coverage 1What Is Health Insurance Coverage? 1Two Measures of Health Insurance Coverage 2Health Insurance Coverage and the Affordable Care Act 2Highlights 3Estimates of the Population Without Health Insurance Coverage 4Multiple Coverage Types 6Health Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics 6Age 6Marital Status 8Disability Status 9Work Experience 9Educational Attainment 11Household Income 11Income-to-Poverty Ratios 13Family Status 14Residence 16Race and Hispanic Origin 16Nativity 16Children and Adults Without Health Insurance Coverage 17State Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage 18More Information About Health Insurance Coverage 21Additional Data and Contacts 21State and Local Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage 21Health Insurance Coverage Dynamics 21Comments 22Sources of Estimates 222014 and 2015 CPS ASEC Estimates 22Statistical Accuracy 23TEXT TABLESTable 1. Coverage Rates by Type of Health Insurance:2013 and 2014 5Table 2. Percentage of People by Type of Health InsuranceCoverage by Age: 2013 and 2014 7Table 3. Percentage of People by Type of Health InsuranceCoverage for Working-Age Adults: 2013 and 2014 10Table 4. Percentage of People by Type of Health InsuranceCoverage by Household Income andIncome-to-Poverty Ratio: 2013 and 2014 12Table 5. Percentage of People by Type of Health InsuranceCoverage by Selected Demographic Characteristics:2013 and 2014 15U.S. Census BureauHealth Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014 iii

FIGURESFigure 1. Uninsured Rate: 2008 to 2014 3Figure 2. Percentage of People by Type of Health Insurance Coverage andChange From Last Year: 2014 4Figure 3. Percentage With One or Multiple Coverage Types: 2014 6Figure 4. Uninsured Rate by Single Year of Age: 2013 and 2014 9Figure 5. Uninsured Rate by Poverty Status and Medicaid Expansion of State forAdults Aged 19 to 64 Years: 2013 and 2014 14Figure 6. Children Under 19 Years of Age and Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years WithoutHealth Insurance Coverage by Selected Characteristics: 2014 17Figure 7. Uninsured Rate by State: 2014 19Figure 8. Decrease in the Uninsured Rate by State: 2013 to 2014 20APPENDIXESAppendix A. Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage 25Quality of Health Insurance Coverage Estimates 25Appendix B. Replicate Weights 31Appendix C. Additional Data and Contacts 32Customized Tables 32The CPS Table Creator 32American FactFinder 32DataFerrett 32Public Use MicroData 32CPS ASEC 32ACS 32Topcoding 32APPENDIX TABLESTable A-1. Population Without Health Insurance Coverage by State: 2013 and 2014 26Table A-2. Number of People by Type of Health Insurance Coverage by Age: 2013 and 2014 27Table A-3. Number of People by Type of Health Insurance Coverage for Working-Age Adults:2013 and 2014 28Table A-4. Number of People by Type of Health Insurance Coverage by Household Income andIncome-to-Poverty Ratio: 2013 and 2014 29Table A-5. Number of People by Type of Health Insurance Coverage by Selected DemographicCharacteristics: 2013 and 2014 30iv Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014U.S. Census Bureau

Health Insurance Coveragein the United States: 2014IntroductionHealth insurance is a means for financing a person’s health care expenses.While the majority of people haveprivate health insurance, primarilythrough an employer, many othersobtain coverage through programsoffered by the government. Other individuals do not have health insuranceat all (see the text box “What Is HealthInsurance Coverage?”).Over time, changes in the rate ofhealth insurance coverage and thedistribution of coverage types mayreflect economic trends, shifts in thedemographic composition of the population, and policy changes that impactaccess to care. Several such policychanges occurred in 2014, when manyprovisions of the Patient Protectionand Affordable Care Act (ACA) wentinto effect (see the text box “HealthInsurance Coverage and the AffordableCare Act”).This report presents statistics onhealth insurance coverage in theUnited States in 2014 and alsofocuses on changes between 2013and 2014. The statistics in this reportare based on information collectedin two surveys conducted by theU.S. Census Bureau, the CurrentPopulation Survey Annual Social andEconomic Supplement (CPS ASEC)and the American Community Survey(ACS) (see the text box “Two Measuresof Health Insurance Coverage”).Throughout the report, unless otherwise noted, estimates come from theCPS ASEC.What Is Health Insurance Coverage?Health insurance coverage in the Current Population Survey AnnualSocial and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) refers to comprehensivecoverage during the calendar year.* For reporting purposes, the CensusBureau broadly classifies health insurance coverage as private insuranceor government insurance. The CPS ASEC defines private health insuranceas a plan provided through an employer or a union and coverage purchased directly by an individual from an insurance company or through anexchange. Government health insurance includes federal programs suchas Medicare, Medicaid, the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP),individual state health plans, TRICARE, CHAMPVA (Civilian Health andMedical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well as careprovided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military. In theCPS ASEC, people were considered “insured” if they were covered by anytype of health insurance for all or part of the previous calendar year.They were considered uninsured if, for the entire year, they were notcovered by any type of health insurance. Additionally, people wereconsidered uninsured if they only had coverage through the Indian HealthService (IHS). For more information, see Appendix A, “Estimates of HealthInsurance Coverage.”* Comprehensive health insurance covers basic healthcare needs. This definition excludessingle service plans, such as accident, disability, dental, vision, or prescription medicine plans.U.S. Census BureauNational Changes in HealthInsurance CoverageThe percentage of people withouthealth insurance coverage decreasedsharply between 2013 and 2014by just under 3.0 percentage points,specifically, by 2.9 percentage pointsas measured by the CPS ASEC. TheACS measured a comparable decline(Figure 1).1The CPS ASEC uninsured rate, whichrepresents the percentage of thepopulation who had no health insurance coverage during the entire year,changed from 13.3 percent in 2013 to10.4 percent in 2014. As expected, theCPS ASEC estimates were lower for bothyears than comparable estimates fromthe ACS, which measures health insurance coverage status at the time of thesurvey interview. However, the uninsured rate between 2013 and 2014 fellin parallel between the two surveys.2After several years of a relativelystable uninsured rate between 2008and 2013, as measured by the ACS,the percentage of the population whowere uninsured dropped between2013 and 2014, marking the largestpercentage-point decline in the uninsured rate during this period (Figure 1and Table A-1).31The decrease of 2.9 percentage points inthe percentage with no health insurance coverage at any time during the year (as measured bythe CPS ASEC) was not statistically different fromthe decrease of 2.8 percentage points in the percentage of people without coverage at the timeof the interview (as measured by the ACS).2With the recent redesign of the CPS ASEChealth insurance questions, the estimates fromthe 2013 calendar year and later are not directlycomparable to 2012 and prior years. However,the health insurance questions in the ACS haveremained unchanged since they were added tothe survey in 2008. Therefore, data from the ACSprovide a longer view of change in health insurance coverage between 2008 and 2014.3Between 2008 and 2013, the uninsured rateranged from 14.5 percent to 15.5 percent.Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014 1

Two Measures of Health Insurance CoverageThis report includes two types of health insurance coverage measures: health insurance coverage during the entirecalendar year and health insurance coverage at the time of the interview.The first measure, coverage at any time during the calendar year, is collected with the Current Population SurveyAnnual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC). The CPS is the longest-running survey conducted by the CensusBureau. The key purpose of the CPS ASEC is to provide timely and detailed estimates of economic well-being, ofwhich health insurance coverage is an important part. The CPS ASEC is conducted annually between February andApril, and the resulting measure of health insurance coverage reflects an individual’s coverage during the entire previous calendar year.The second measure is the health insurance coverage status an individual reported at the time of the interview,which is collected in the American Community Survey (ACS). The ACS is an ongoing survey that collects comprehensive information on social, economic, and housing topics. Due to its large sample size, the ACS provides estimates atmany levels of geography. Estimates reflect an annual average of current health insurance coverage status.As a result of the difference in the collection of health insurance coverage status, the resulting uninsured rates measure different concepts. The CPS ASEC uninsured rate represents the percentage of people who had no healthinsurance coverage at any time during the previous calendar year. The ACS uninsured rate is a measure of the percentage of people who were uninsured at the time of the interview.For more information on health insurance coverage estimates from these two surveys, see the section “NationalChanges in Health Insurance Coverage.”Health Insurance Coverage and the Affordable Care ActSince the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, several provisions of the ACAhave gone into effect at different times. For example, in 2010, the Young Adult Provision enabled adults underage 26 to remain as dependents on their parents’ health insurance plans. Many more of the main provisions wentinto effect on January 1, 2014, including the expansion of Medicaid eligibility and the establishment of health insurance marketplaces (e.g., healthcare.gov).As described in this report, decreases in the uninsured rates between 2013 and 2014 are consistent with what someprovisions of the ACA intended. In 2014, people under age 65, particularly adults aged 19 to 64 years, may havebecome eligible for coverage options under the ACA. Based on family income, some people may have qualified forsubsidies or tax credits to help pay for premiums associated with health insurance plans. In addition, the populationwith lower income may have become eligible for Medicaid coverage if they resided in one of the 24 states (or theDistrict of Columbia) that expanded Medicaid eligibility.** For a list of the states and their Medicaid expansion status as of January 1, 2014, see Table A-1: Population Without Health Insurance Coverage byState: 2013 and 2014.2 Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 1.Uninsured Rate: 2008 to 201416Uninsured at the time of the interview(American Community Survey)Percent12Uninsured for the entire calendar year(Current Population Survey)8402008200920102011201220132014Note: For the American Community Survey, estimates are for the civilian noninstitutionalized population. For the Current Population Survey,estimates reflect the population as of March of the following year. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error,and definitions in the Current Population Survey, see ar15.pdf . For information onconfidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions in the American Community Survey, see www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech docs/accuracy/ACS Accuracy of Data 2014.pdf .Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 and 2015 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements and 2008 to2014 1-Year American Community Surveys.Highlights The uninsured rate decreasedbetween 2013 and 2014 by 2.9percentage points.4 In 2014, thepercentage of people withouthealth insurance coverage for theentire calendar year was 10.4 percent, or 33.0 million, lower thanthe rate and number of uninsuredin 2013 (13.3 percent or 41.8 million) (Figure 2 and Table 1).5, 64Estimates for the 2013 calendar year arefrom the 2014 CPS ASEC and are based on thefull sample of approximately 98,000 addresses.For more information, see the section on“Source of Estimates: 2014 and 2015 CPS ASEC Estimates.”5For a brief description of how the CensusBureau collects and reports on health insurancedata, see the text box “What Is Health InsuranceCoverage?” For a discussion of the quality of theCPS ASEC health insurance coverage estimates,see Appendix A.6For information on recessions, seeAppendix A, P60-252, Income and Poverty in theUnited States: 2014 at ions/2015/demo/p60-252.pdf .U.S. Census Bureau Between 2008 and 2013, theuninsured rate was relativelystable. In 2014, the uninsuredrate sharply decreased, which wasthe largest change in the uninsured rate throughout this period(Figure 1).7 The percentage of people withhealth insurance coverage for allor part of 2014 was 89.6 percent,higher than the rate in 2013 (86.7percent) (Table 1). In 2014, more people had private health insurance coverage(66.0 percent) than governmentcoverage (36.5 percent). Ofthe subtypes of health insurance, employer-based insurancecovered the most people (55.4percent of the population), followed by Medicaid (19.5 percent),Medicare (16.0 percent), directpurchase (14.6 percent), and7Estimates are from the 2008 to 2014 1-YearAmerican Community Surveys.military coverage (4.5 percent)(Table 1 and Figure 2). Between 2013 and 2014, theincrease in the percentage of thepopulation covered by healthinsurance was due to an increasein the rates of both private andgovernment coverage. The rate ofprivate coverage increased by 1.8percentage points to 66.0 percentin 2014 (up from 64.1 percentin 2013), and the governmentcoverage rate increased by 2.0percentage points to 36.5 percent(up from 34.6 percent in 2013)(Table 1 and Figure 2). Between 2013 and 2014, thegreatest changes in coveragerates were the increases in directpurchase health insurance andMedicaid. The largest percentagepoint change in coverage was fordirect-purchase, which increasedby 3.2 percentage points to cover14.6 percent of people for someHealth Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014 3

Figure 2.Percentage of People by Type of Health Insurance Coverage and Change FromLast Year: 2014(Population as of March of the following year)Percentage point change:2014 minus 2013Percent in 2014020406080100–4–2024UninsuredWith health insuranceAny private planEmployment-basedDirect-purchaseAny government planMedicareMedicaidMilitary health care*Note: Between 2013 and 2014, there was not a statistically significant change in the percentage of people covered by employment-basedhealth insurance or military health care.*Military health care includes TRICARE and CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs), as well ascare provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the military.For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions in the Current Population Survey,see ar15.pdf .Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2014 and 2015 Annual Social and Economic Supplements.or all of 2014 (up from 11.4percent in 2013). The percentageof people with Medicaid coverage during all or part of the yearincreased by 2.0 percentagepoints to 19.5 percent in 2014(compared with 17.5 percent in2013) (Table 1 and Figure 2). In 2014, the percentage of uninsured children under age 19was 6.2 percent (Table 2). Thiswas a decrease from 7.5 percentin 2013. In 2014, the uninsured rate forchildren under age 19 in poverty,8.6 percent, was higher than theuninsured rate for children not inpoverty, 5.6 percent (Figure 6). In 2014, non-Hispanic Whites hadthe lowest uninsured rate amongrace and Hispanic-origin groups,at 7.6 percent. The uninsuredrates for Blacks and Asians werehigher than for non-HispanicWhites, at 11.8 percent and 9.3percent, respectively. Hispanicscoverage increased for all raceand Hispanic-origin groups. Theincrease was comparable forBlacks, Asians, and Hispanics (justover 4.0 percentage points), andlower for non-Hispanic Whites(2.1 percentage points).had the highest uninsured rate in2014, at 19.9 percent (Table 5).8 Between 2013 and 2014, theoverall rate of health insurance8Federal surveys give respondents the optionof reporting more than one race. Therefore, twobasic ways of defining a race group are possible. A group such as Asian may be defined asthose who reported Asian and no other race (therace-alone or single-race concept) or as thosewho reported Asian regardless of whether theyalso reported another race (the race-alone-or-incombination concept). The body of this report(text, figures, and tables) shows data using thefirst approach (race alone). Use of the single-racepopulation does not imply that it is the preferredmethod of presenting or analyzing data. TheCensus Bureau uses a variety of approaches.In this report, the term “non-Hispanic White”refers to people who are not Hispanic and whoreported White and no other race. The CensusBureau uses non-Hispanic Whites as the comparison group for other race groups and Hispanics.Since Hispanics may be any race, data in thisreport for Hispanics overlap with data for racegroups. Being Hispanic was reported by 14.6percent of White householders who reported onlyone race, 5.0 percent of Black householders whoreported only one race, and 2.0 percent of Asianhouseholders who reported only one race.Data users should exercise caution wheninterpreting aggregate results for the Hispanicpopulation or for race groups because thesepopulations consist of many distinct groups thatdiffer in socioeconomic characteristics, culture,and recent immigration status. For further information, see www.census.gov/cps .4 Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2014 Between 2013 and 2014, everystate and the District of Columbiaexperienced a decrease in theiruninsured rate (Figure 8 andTable A-1).9Estimates of the PopulationWithout Health InsuranceCoverageIn 2014, 10.4 percent of people (or33.0 million) were uninsured for theentire calendar year (Table 1). Thiswas a decrease of 2.9 percentagepoints from 2013, when 13.3 percent(or 41.8 million) were uninsured forthe entire calendar year.9Estimates are from the 2013 and 20141-Year American Community Surveys.U.S. Census Bureau

Table 1.Coverage Rates by Type of Health Insurance: 2013 and 2014(Numbers in thousands, margins of error in thousands or percentage points as appropriate. Population as of March of the f ollowing year.For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see w r15.pdf)2013Coverage typeAny health plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Any private plan2, 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Employment-based2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Direct-purchase2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Any government plan2, 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .Medicare2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Medicaid2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Military health care2, 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .Uninsured6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2014Margin ofNumber error1 ( )Margin ofRate error1 ( )Margin ofNumber error1 ( )Margin ofRate error1 ( 30.20.2Changein number(2014 less2013)Changein rate(2014 * Changes between the 2013 and 2014 estimates are statistically different from zero at the 90 percent confidence level.Z Represents or rounds to zero.1A margin of error is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the margin of error in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate. This number,when added to and subtracted from the estimate, forms the 90 percent confidence interval. Margins of error shown in this table are based on standard errors calculated usingreplicate weights. For more information, see “Standard Errors and Their Use” at -253sa.pdf .2The estimates by type of coverage are not mutually exclusive; people can be covered by more than one type of health insurance during the year.3Private health insurance includes coverage provided through an employer or union, coverage purchased directly by an individual from an insurance company, or coveragethrough someone outside the household.4Government health insurance coverage includes Medicaid, Medicare, TRICARE, CHAMPVA (Civilian Health and Medical Progra

The CPS ASEC defines private health insurance as a plan provided through an employer or a union and coverage pur-chased directly by an individual from an insurance company or through an exchange. Government health insurance includes federal programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP),

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