Comphrensive Framework For Addressing The School Nutrition Environment .

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Comprehensive Frameworkfor Addressing theSCHOOLNUTRITIONENVIRONMENTAND SERVICESRevised February 2019

ODV E R AG E MD BEARKETINÀ LACARTEFOODSVENDINGMACHINESKACNS IN SCHOOLSETGSSMAINRTTSIN-SCHOOLFUNDRAISERSTO HEALTHY FOODSSAND BEVERAGESITIEAT SCHOOLLPOPEINODSCHOOLMEALSGACCESS TODRINKINGWATERH E A LT H Y E AT IGMOCLASSROOMCELEBRATIONS,EVENTS, &NONFOODREWARDSRTEUNLS TA F F R OSTUDENT ACCESSSCHOOLSTORES &SNACK BARSGNGALERNINComprehensive Framework for Addressing theFOANSCHOOL NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICESComponents of the School Nutrition EnvironmentThe figure above shows how many different parts of the school nutrition environment influence students’access to healthy foods and beverages at school. The circle around the figure represents the boundary of the school grounds. The colorful components inside the figure represent different ways that foods and beverages are sold,served, or offered to students during the school day:y G reen is for the settings where foods and beverages must meet the Smart Snacks inSchool standards. Purple is for school meals (breakfast and lunch). Blue is for access to drinking water. Orange is for other opportunities where students can receive or consume foods and beveragesat school.The floating text around the figure—like Food and Beverage Marketing—indicates components ofthe school nutrition environment that can affect all settings. These components help build demand fornutritious foods and beverages at school, and they can help students build healthy eating habits for life.2

The WSCC model includes the school nutrition environment and services,3 which refers toy The foods and beverages that are available to students throughout the school day.I nformation and messages about food, beverages, and nutrition that students encounter onschool grounds.A healthy school nutrition environment makes it easier for students to make healthy choices by givingthem access to nutritious and appealing foods and beverages, consistent and accurate messages aboutgood nutrition, and ways to learn about and practice healthy eating.4-5 Within a healthy school nutritionenvironment, school nutrition services provide meals that meet federal nutrition standards for theNational School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program, as well as the health and nutrition needsof all students.3 They also help make sure that foods and beverages sold outside of school meal programsmeet Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards.3Components of the School Nutrition EnvironmentThe school nutrition environment includes the components described in this section.School MealsSchool meals are the lunches and breakfasts served through the National School LunchProgram and School Breakfast Program.6 These meals must meet federal nutritionstandards set by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). These standards require avariety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; set limits on saturated fat and sodium; andset both minimum and maximum calorie levels.7 All students can participate in schoolmeal programs, and some students are eligible to receive free or reduced-price meals.2,8Smart Snacks in SchoolSmart Snacks in School refers to the national nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold duringthe school day outside of school meal programs.9 (For the purpose of competitive food standardsimplementation, the school day is defined as the period from midnight before to 30 minutes after theend of the official school day.) These items are called competitive foods because they can compete withparticipation in school meal programs.10 As of the 2014–2015 school year, these foods and beveragesmust meet or exceed Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards, which include limits on fat, sugar,sodium, and calorie content.9 The following are all considered competitive foods:Comprehensive Framework for Addressing theUS children attend school for at least 6 hours a day and are exposed to multiple opportunities to makedecisions that affect their health during this time.1,2 Schools can use the Whole School, Whole Community,Whole Child (WSCC) model to create environments that help students make healthy choices.3SCHOOL NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICESIntroduction IN-SCHOOL FUNDRAISERS Many schools raise money during the school day for school-led extracurricularactivities, and these fundraisers often involve the sale of food to students (suchas bake sales).11 Although all foods sold as part of fundraisers during the schoolday must meet Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards, state agencies thatadminister school meal programs have the authority to exempt an infrequentnumber of fundraisers from meeting these standards each year.93

SCHOOL STORES AND SNACK BARSS ome schools have school stores, snack bars, canteens, and snack carts wherestudents can buy foods and beverages.12 Similar to vending machines, these storesand snack bars may be located in the cafeteria or in other areas on the school grounds.Foods and beverages sold in school stores and snack bars must meet Smart Snacks inSchool nutrition standards.9Classroom Celebrations, Events, and Nonfood RewardsStudents are sometimes given foods and beverages during classroom celebrations, parties,and special events or as rewards for academic achievement or positive classroom behavior.These items are not sold to students, but are offered by teachers or parents. Examples includecupcakes or other treats for birthday celebrations and coupons from local restaurants. Schools andparents can work together to ensure that celebrations, events, and rewards support health.2 For example,they can provide only healthy foods and beverages at celebrations andevents and offer nonfood items for rewards. Ideas for nonfood rewards include extra time forrecess, stickers, or a note of recognition from a teacher or principal.Access to Drinking WaterSchools participating in school meal programs must make plain drinking water available tostudents at no cost during lunch periods and when breakfast is served in the cafeteria.2,14 Allschools can further increase access to drinking water and support adequate hydration by making surethat drinking fountains are clean and maintained and by allowing studentsto carry water bottles.15Comprehensive Framework for Addressing theVENDING MACHINEST he majority of middle and high schools and some elementary schools have vendingmachines with foods and beverages that students can buy.12 Vending machines maybe located in the cafeteria or in other areas of the school. Most school districts restrictwhen students can access these machines.13 Foods and beverages sold to studentsin vending machines must meet Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards.9 Vendingmachines in areas that are not accessible to students,such as teacher break rooms, arenot included in these standards.SCHOOL NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICES À LA CARTE FOODS ost schools offer students the option to buy foods and beverages in the cafeteriaMthat are not a complete school meal. These items may be an entrée or side item froma school meal (such as a vegetable side dish) or other items that are not part of theschool meal (such as chips). All à la carte foods must meet Smart Snacks in Schoolnutrition standards.9 (Any entrée item offered as part of the lunch program or the breakfastprogram is exempt from all competitive food standards if it is serviced as a competitivefood on the day of service or the day after service in the lunch or breakfast program.)Staff Role ModelingWhen teachers, staff, and administrators demonstrate healthy eating, it can help to reinforce this behaviorwith students and contribute to consistent messages in schools about the importance of consuminghealthier foods and beverages.2 Teachers, staff, and administrators can model healthy behaviors tostudents by being physically active, consuming healthy foods and beverages, and getting involved in theschool’s employee wellness program.Food and Beverage MarketingMarketing for foods and beverages can be seen in schools on posters, the fronts of vending machines,in-school television advertisements, textbook covers, sports equipment, and scoreboards and as part ofcoupon giveaways and contests to win food prizes (such as pizza parties).16 Experts have recommendedthat school districts put policies and practices into place that promote foods and beverages that support4

Healthy eating learning opportunities are nutrition education strategies and environmental supportsthat help students adopt food and beverage choices that support health and well-being.19 They provideknowledge and skills to help children choose and consume healthy foods and beverages. They can alsobe delivered through multiple venues, such as the cafeteria, classroom, and school gardens.Nutrition education should be part of a comprehensive health education curriculum, but may also beintegrated throughout the school curriculum.2 For example, students could learn how to cook in familyand consumer science classes and how to analyze food advertisements in language arts classes. Schoolgardens and farm to school activities also provide opportunities for hands-on learning about food,nutrition, and healthy eating.Resources to Support a Healthy School Nutrition EnvironmentSchools can use the following resources, which are available online, to create a healthy schoolnutrition environment.General School Nutrition ResourcesSchool Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical ActivityGuidelines that can serve as the foundation for developing, implementing, and evaluating school-basedhealthy eating and physical activity policies and practices for students.Tips for TeachersInformation about low- and no-cost ways that teachers can support healthy eating and physical activityin the classroom.School Health IndexAn online self-assessment and planning tool designed to help schools improve their health and safetypolicies and practices, including those on healthy eating.WellSAT 3.0Online tool that measures the quality of written school district wellness policies.Comprehensive Framework for Addressing theHealthy Eating Learning OpportunitiesSCHOOL NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICEShealthy diets (such as fruits and vegetables and plain water).17,18 Effective approaches include puttingnutritious items where they are easy for students to choose (such as prominent places in cafeteria lines);using verbal prompts, parental outreach, and point-of-purchase promotions; and using pricing strategiesto encourage students to buy healthy items.2USDA School Nutrition Environment and Wellness ResourcesSchool nutrition resources, including best practices, success stories, menu planning, and healthyfundraisers and celebrations.Voices for Healthy KidsFact sheets, infographics, and tool kits to help state agencies and local school boards implement schoolmeals and Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards; increase access to clean, free drinking water;strengthen local wellness policies and wellness councils; and get rid of marketing for unhealthy foodsand beverages in schools.Action for Healthy KidsResources and tools for schools. Free registration required to access these tools.Alliance for a Healthier GenerationInformation about the Healthy Schools Program and resources for schools, including tools for SmartSnacks and school meals.5

USDA School MealsDescription of school meal programs and links to regulations, policy memos, and technicalassistance resources.Smarter Lunchrooms MovementLow- and no-cost strategies to help students choose and eat healthier options.Institute of Child NutritionTrainings, tools, and resources for school food service personnel.Alliance for a Healthier GenerationGuidance and resources for school meals, including sample menus and recipes, information on how tosimplify the purchasing process, and strategies to prepare and promote healthy foods and beverages.FoodCorpsProvides AmeriCorps leaders in schools to teach students about nutrition, gardening, and cooking and tohelp support healthy school meals.Food Research and Action CenterData and reports on school meals and school wellness.SMART SNACKS IN SCHOOLUSDA Smart Snacks in SchoolInformation about the Smart Snacks nutrition standards and a list of resources.Alliance for a Healthier GenerationTools that help identify products that meet the Smart Snacks nutrition standards, including a Smart SnacksProduct Calculator and Product Navigator.CDC Smart SnacksDefines competitive foods, provides links to reports that outline the research behind the competitive foodsnutrition standards, and provides audience-specific fact sheets to support the use of these standards.Comprehensive Framework for Addressing theSCHOOL MEALSSCHOOL NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICESResources by TopicIN-SCHOOL FUNDRAISERSAlliance for a Healthier GenerationMultiple resources related to school fundraisers, including alternate fundraising ideas, a PowerPointpresentation, and a graphic about working with school nutrition services to choose products forin-school fundraisers.Healthy Fundraisers: Promote Family Health and Well-BeingHandout with ideas for healthy fundraisers.A Fundraisers for High Schools: A Guide to Having a Successful Fundraiser WhileKeeping Your Community HealthyGuidance on healthy fundraisers for high school students.6

Healthy Non-Food RewardsFun and healthy ways to recognize students for positive behavior or academic accomplishments.Healthy School CelebrationsIdeas for school celebrations that support healthy eating and physical activity.Alliance for a Healthier GenerationGuidance and resources for healthy celebrations and nonfood rewards.ACCESS TO DRINKING WATERIncreasing Access to Drinking Water in SchoolsBackground information, needs assessment tools, implementation strategies, and evaluationguidance on how to make sure students have access to drinking water as part of a healthy schoolnutrition environment.Keep It Flowing: A Practical Guide to School Drinking Water Planning, Maintenance & RepairGuidance on how to provide adequate numbers of properly maintained drinking fountains and tapwater dispensers in school buildings.FOOD AND BEVERAGE MARKETINGFood and Beverage Marketing Assessment ToolHelps schools identify where food and beverage marketing is happening, determine if it meetsSmart Snacks standards, and develop a plan for replacing noncompliant marketing materials.District Policy Restricting Food and Beverage Advertising on School GroundsGuidance on policy language to limit advertising in schools.HEALTHY EATING LEARNING OPPORTUNITIESTeam NutritionNutrition education lessons and materials for schools.Comprehensive Framework for Addressing theTips for TeachersInformation about low- and no-cost ways that teachers can support healthy eating and physical activityin the classroom.SCHOOL NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICESCLASSROOM CELEBRATIONS, EVENTS, AND NONFOOD REWARDSNational Farm to School Network Resource DatabaseNutrition education, school garden, and other educational materials developed by different organizations.FARM TO SCHOOLUSDA Farm to SchoolTools and resources to help schools (1) buy and serve local or regionally produced foods in schoolcafeterias and (2) provide food, agriculture, and nutrition education through multiple venues, such asschool gardens, field trips to local farms, and cooking classes.National Farm to School NetworkInformation, tools, and resources for communities working to buy local food and add food and agricultureeducation into school systems.7

ational Center for Education Statistics. Digest of Education Statistics, 2013. Alexandria, VA: National Center forNEducation Statistics, US Dept of Education; 2014.2. enters for Disease Control and Prevention. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity.CMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(RR-5):1–76.3. enters for Disease Control and Prevention. Components of the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole ChildC(WSCC) website. htm. Accessed September 21, 2015.4.I nstitute of Medicine. Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation. Washington, DC:National Academies Press; 2012.5. ridging the Gap Research Program. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments. Atlanta, GA:BUS Dept of Health and Human Services; 2014.6. S Department of Agriculture. School Meals: Child Nutrition Programs d-nutrition-programs. Accessed September 21, 2015.7. S Department of Agriculture. School Meals: Nutrition Standards for School Meals ition-standards-school-meals. Accessed September 21, 2015.8. S Department of Agriculture. School Meals: Income Eligibility Guidelines me-eligibility-guidelines. Accessed September 21, 2015.9. S Department of Agriculture. Tools for Schools: Focusing on Smart Snacks y/tools-schools-focusing-smart-snacks. Accessed September 21, 2015.10. I nstitute of Medicine. Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools: Leading the Way Toward Healthier Youth. Washington, DC:Institute of Medicine of the National Academies; 2007.11. O ’Toole TP, Anderson S, Miller C, Guthrie J. Nutrition services and foods and beverages available at school: results fromthe School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. J Sch Health. 2007;77:500–521.12. U S Department of Agriculture. School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study IV: Summary of es/SNDA-IV Findings 0.pdf. Accessed September 21, 2015.13. M erlo CL, Harris DM, Lane KG. Nutrition services and the school nutrition environment. In: Results from the School HealthPolicies and Practices Study 2012. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and HumanServices; 2013:75–90.14. N ational School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in School asRequired by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Fed Regist. 2013;78(125): To be codified at 7 CFR 3-06-28/pdf/2013-15249.pdf. Accessed September 21, 2015.15. C enters for Disease Control and Prevention. Water Access in Schools access.htm. Accessed September 1, 2015.Comprehensive Framework for Addressing the1.SCHOOL NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT AND SERVICESReferences16. T erry-McElrath YM, Turner L, Sandoval A, Johnston LD, Chaloupka FJ. Commercialism in US elementaryand secondary school nutrition environments: trends from 2007 to 2012. JAMA Pediatrics. 2014;168(3):234–242.17. I nstitute of Medicine, National Research Council. Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity?Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005.18. American Academy of Pediatrics, Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight. Policy Opportunities Tool website. 1.html. Accessed September 21, 2015.19. Contento IR. Nutrition Education: Linking Research, Theory, and Practice. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & BartlettLearning; 2007.Suggested Citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ComprehensiveFramework for Addressing the School Nutrition Environment and Services. Atlanta, GA:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2019.Middle photo on cover courtesy of USDACS302043A8

good nutrition, and ways to learn about and practice healthy eating. 4-5. Within a healthy school nutrition environment, school nutrition services provide meals that meet federal nutrition standards for the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program, as well as the health and nutrition needs of all students. 3

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