Relations Of The Ottoman Empire With The Indian Rulers 1750-1924 - Core

1y ago
5.54 MB
151 Pages
Last View : 1m ago
Last Download : 7m ago
Upload by : Hayden Brunner


x'*''zlS /66 DS1664-A.6'' * - .- A NOV 99 /

C O N T E N T S toman R e l a t i o n s w i t hI althe15Court.Chapter-II:Ottoman R e l a t i o n s v i t h t h eof Mysore and H y d e r a b a d .States46Chapter- III:Ottoman R e l a t i o n s w i t h ttieIndia.British7ZMapBibliographyAppendix.101102A —K

PREFACEThe prcijcnt work throws l i g l i t on t h e r e l a t i o n s betweenthe rulor!3 ol' the Ottoman Empire and I n d i a , e c p c c i a l l y d u r i n g t h ee i g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .In t h i s disjser t a t i on e f f o r thao been made t o a n a l y s e the impact ol' i h i ; ; r e l a t i o n on l otli t h e countries.The Otl-om m Empire and IndJa hud -friondlyover t h e l a s t f i v e hundred y e a r s .diplomatic missionsrelationfjDuring t h i s p e r i o d a number ofwere exchanged betweenI n d i a and Turkey,One who i n t e n d s t o work on the r e l a t i o n s of t h e OttomanEmpire with the v a r i o u s s t a t e s of I n d i a i s faced with the d e a r t hof txjurct! m a t e r i a l ,I have n o t been a}jle t o trac«-j any p r o p e r workon t h i y s u b j e c t so Ear,Tlicre ir;. s t i l l more d e a r t h ofm a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r i o d with which my d i s s e r t a t i o nsourcedeals.While t h e r e i s enough m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e on t h e l a t e r p a r t of t h eOttoman r e l a t i o n s with I n d i a ,e s p e c i a l l y during theWorld War I ,t h e m a t e r i a l in e i g h t e e n t h and n i n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s which i s t h et h r u s t p e r i o d of my d i s s e r t a t i o n i s very s c a r c e . Whatever m a t e r i a li s a v a i l a b l e most of i t i s A r c h i v e s .work on t h e s u b j e c t ,collectDue t o n o n a v a i l a b i l i t y of anyi t was v e r y d i f f i c u l tarchival material in Archives, 3ational A r c h i v e s off o r me t o s e a r c h andI n t h i s connection I v i s i t e dI n d i a Neiv D e l h i , Andhra Pradesh S t a t e Archives

-il-Hyderabad, KJiuda Dakhch l i b r a r y , Potna,Of course I coulo notconsult some m a t e r i a l s available in Archives of I s t a n b u l . However,I have been able to use of these m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e in p r i n t e dform.I entered i n t o correspondence with some Turkish scholarssuch as Doc. Doctor Erkan Turkman of Jonya, Seljuk University andDirector of Archives I s t a n b u l but unfortunately i t did not provefruitful.If these archival m a t e r i a l s were avoidable t o me I couldhave been able to make t h i s study more s u b s t a n t i a l .My d i s s e r t a t i o n c o n s i s t s of three c h a p t e r s .I t i s basedon the material which I was able to c o l l e c t from these Archives,The f i r s t chapter deals with the r e l a t i o n s h i p the OttomanSultans and the Mughal emperors of I n d i a ,In the second chapterI have t r i e d to emphasize the diplomatic exchanges between theOttoman Empire and the S t a t e s Mysore and Hyderabad. The t h i r dbut the l a s t deals with the a t t i t u d e of the Ottoman Empire towardsBritish India,The emphasis in these chapters i s to examine thevarious l e v e l s of r e l a t i o n betv;een the two c o u n t r i e s and toi n v e s t i g a t e the basic o b j e c t i v e s of these r e l a t i o n s .These chapters are mainly based on the s t u d i e s of thel e t t e r s of the rulers* of both the countries, d i a r i e s of emissaries,sxommaries of newspapers* a r t i c l e s and the r e p o r t s of various

-IJli-govemment o f f i c i a l s .The documents - Foreign Home and P o l i t i c a lDepartment of the Government of India -which I have been ableto u t i l i z e in my d i s s e r t a t i o n are in the custody of the NationalArchives of India, New Delhi and A,p, S t a t e Archives HyderabadSpecific references of these doctiments have been given in f o o t notes.Apart from these, I have also u t i l i z e d some importantp u b l i c a t i o n s such as Calender of Documents on Indo Persian Relationsby Riazul Islam;Manazll i Rum edited by Mohibbul Hajcian;'The Mughal and the Ottoman's, (P Cj) by Bernard lewis; Tarikh-eSaltanat;-e-Khudadad (Mysore) by Muhmud CongloriyDritaln, Indiaand Turkish Empire by R,I. Shukla, The Caliphate by Araold,AllAbout the Khllafat by fl.H. Abba/i, The Eaf.tern Cuection by J,A. Marrioand a number of other socondaiy source.'-.At the end I f e e l bound t o acknowledge the great Obligationt h a t I owe to my well wishers and f r i e n d s ,I have f i r s t of a l l t oexpress my deep sense of g r a t i t u d e to my supervisorHaq,Frof, MahmudulI n s p i t e of h i s numerous engagements he took keen and activei n t e r e s t a t every stage f o r the preporation of my d i s s e r t a t i o n . I amalso thankful to Professor M.A, Saleem Khan f o r h i s kindness andh e l p , I am highly obliged to Professor I r f a n Habib f o r h i s suggestionto work on thetheme of Indo-Turkish r e l a t i o n .My thanks are also due to Professor I q t i d a r Alam Khan,Professor M, Athar A l i , Prof, (Miss) Shereen Mosvi, Prof, AMK Shaharyc

-iv-Prof, Mucjhni Tabo:ji;uin (LaLo) Prof. NXziuiiuddin Maghrabi,D r . R.K. T r i v c d i , Mrs,-Najnia Shaharyar and D r . Saiyed Ahsan f o rt h e i r h e l p and k i n d n e s s .My g r a t e f u l t h a n k s a r e a l s o due t o my r e s e a r c h c o l l e a g u e se s p e c i a l l y Mr, Ahsanul Haq, Mr, Najaf H a i d e r andand a l s p my f r i e n d Nizamuddin S a b i r .Mr, S h a h a r y a rI do n o t know how t o thank myf a t h e r Mr. Abdul Mujeeb My b r o t h e r s D r , Ghazanfar Ali Dr .M . A . S i d d i q i ,i'lr, Naoimul Ha', for t h e i r c o n s t a n t h e l p and encouragement.I am v e r y much i n d e b t e d t o t h e s t a f f of N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s ofI n d i a New D e l h i , AP S t a t e A r c h i v e s of Hyderabad, L i b r a r y of C e n t r eof West Asian S t u d i e s , A.M,U., Research L i b r a r y , Department ofH i s t o r y , L i b r a r y , I n s t i t u t e I s l a m i c S t u d i e s , F a u l a n a Azad L i b r a r y ,A.M.U. Sapru House L i b r a r y , New D e l h i L i b r a r y ICHR New D e l h i ,L i b r a r y S a l am Jang Museum Hyderabad and Khuda Bakhsh L i b r a r y , P a t n a .L a s t b u t n o t t h e l e a i ; t I wish to e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k st o M/s. S,M,Ali and Mohd.l.Khan f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e with my s c r i p t sand Mr. Mohd. TauseefAugust 1, 1988(Cartographer) a l s o .SHAMSHAD ALIRESEARCH SCHOLAR

ABBREVIATIONSAPSAAndhra PradeshS t a t e Archives.CDIPRCalendar of Documents on Indo-Persian Relations.EHREnglish H i s t o r i c a l Review,ICIslamic C u l t u r e .IHRCIndian H i s t o r i c a l Records Commission.JAOSJournal of American O r i e n t a l SocietyJIHJournal of Indian History Congress.MWMualimNAINational Archives of I n d i a ,P QPc\KiGtcm UUfULorlySFRIStudies in tho Foreign Re lotion L; of I n d i a ,TRASTransactions of Royal A s i a t i c SocietyVJorld.

INTRODUCTIONThe Ottoman Empire d u r i n g t h e l a t e r medieval p e r i o d V7asn o t o n l y t h e Centre of power of Muslim c o u n t r i e s b u t i t was a l s ot h e most powerful empire of t h e e a s t . The I n d i a nsub-continentd u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was a l t h o u g h ober-whelmingly non-muslim b u ti t was mostly r u l e d by t h e Muslim r u l e r s .The Ottoman emperors r u l e d whole of t h e Muslim world, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r througha l l e g i a n c e s and d e p u t a t i o n s . The I n d i a n s u b - c o n t i n e n t somwhow o ro t h e r remained untouched from t h e i r d i r e c t r u l e .Most oftheI n d i a n Muslim r u l e r s enjoyed independence, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mughalr u l e r s , from t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,( t h e y seemed t o beta)cen enough, p a r t i c u l a r l y ) t h e r u l e r of G u j a r a t andSouthernI n d i a e s t a b l i s h e d d i p l o m a t i c and t r a d e r e l a t i o n s with t h e OttomanEmpire, One of t h e c a u s e s why t h e Muslim r u l e s of I n d i a were keent o e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s with t h e Ottomans was t h e I s l a m i c r e l i g i o nwhich t h e y s h a r e d i n common.I t was only n a t u r a l f o rt o e:qpress t h e i r r e l i g i o u s t i e s with t h e l a t t e r ,i n view of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Ottomans were g a r d e dthemparticularlyas thel e a d e r s of t h e Muslim World. B e s i d e s , t h e Muslim r u l e r s soughtt o a f f i r m l e g i t i m a c y t o r u l e o v e r t h e Muslims through t h e Ottomans a n c t i o n . The p o l i t i c a l and d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s between I n d i aand t h e Ottoman Empire were a l s o v e r y f r i e n d l y o v e r t h e l a s tf i v e hundred y e a r s .With t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e BahmanidKingdom i n s o u t h e r n I n d i a i n t h e f o u r t t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e d i s c o v e r y

of the Cape of Good Hope Route in 1498 and the appearance oft h e Portuguese in the Eastern seas, the conquest of Egypt bythe Ottoman Turks in 1516-17, the founding of Safawid Empire inPersia and the Maghal Empire in I n d i a , the i s o l a t i o n in whichthe I n d i a had stood so f a r was broken and a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l ,economic and c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d .The Bahraanids were the f i r s t Indian r u l e r s to e s t a b l i s hdiplomatic contacts with the Ottomans.Later on they were followedby the Muslim . r u l e r s of Gujarat and a f t e r them by the Mughals*The r e l a t i o n s were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d by the Nizam of Hyderabad,Tipu Sultan of Mysore and the Nawab of Arcot,Even during theB r i t i s h occupation of India, there were b i l a t e r a l exchanges ofdiplomatic missions between India and the Ottoman Empire.The Ottoman Empire was one of the most important 'key's t a t e s of Europe and Asia,The s t r a t e g i c a l , economical and p o l i -t i c a l importance of "this cotintry has been s i g n i f i c a n t i n i n t e r national affairs.The Ottoman Empire achieved a commandingp o s i t i o n only because of the possession of narrow s t r a i t s vdiichu n i t e and separate the Black Sea and the Mediterranian,For over one thousand years I s t a n b u l , the c a p i t a l of theOttoman Empire, remained one of the chief c e n t r e s of c u l t u r e andcommerce.The Turks encouraged the s e t t l e m e n t s of foreigncolonies t o b u i l d tJieir t r a d e and commerce and thus i t became a

cosmopolitan c i t y and an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o r t .I t s p o s i t i o n as thec r o s s - r o a d s of Asia and Europe enabled i t t o p r o f i tenormouslyby the t r a d e flowing from Russia, I r a n , I r a q and I n d i a , and a l s oin e a r l i e r times by t h e g r e a t over-land t r a d e route to inner Asiaand the Far E a s t ,Thus the geographical location of the OttomanEmpire has conferred on i t the p o s i t i o n of a bridge between Asia"*and Europe, A glance at the map of the world discloses the factthat it separates and at the same time it connects Europe, Asiaand Africa. Armenia was the meeting place of all the inner traderoutes, Syria was the rich maritime hinterland whose ports provided an outl6t to Europe for Asiatic trade.Although there had been commercial relations betweenIndia, the Arab World,Turkey and Europe since the time immemorial,the Arab lands stood at the cross roads of the trade route between India and Europe, The luxurious living style of the Arabsand the Turkish ruling classes had an impact on fashions andstyle of living of the European ruling classes. In the meantimethe town life in Europe which had declined after the fall of theRoman Empire had begun to revive. This resulted in increasingtrade with Asia, The transportation of Indian and Chinese goods4across Central Asia was frequent. The principal carriers of goodsfrom India by sea route were the Arab merchants. The Indiansalso used to carry merchandise across the Arabian Sea,

The arrival of Portugese in the Arabian Sea led to farreaching consequences with regard to the pattern of trade andcommerce.The search for a direct route to India was begun bythe rulers of Portugal such as Don Henrique known as Henerytowards the beginning of the fifteenth century.The growing tradeactivities and power of the Portuguese caused serious concern tothe Ottoman Turks. It was the time when Ottomans themselves wererising rapidly to become a world power. The Ottoman had not onlycaptured Constantinople in 1453 but they had also completed theconquest of Asia Minor, The expansion of the Turkish power onthe coast ot the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf made inevitable aconflict between the Turks and the Portuguese for supremacy in theIndian Ocean. The Portuguese were fully aware of this.In viewof the growing Portuguese threat to the Gujarat trade and thecoastal areas, the ruler of Gujarat (Bahadur Shah) sent an embassyto the Ottoman Sultan, Sulayman the Magnificent congratulatinghim on his victories and seekinghis support. In return theOttoman Sultan expressed a desire to combat the 'infidels', i.e.the Portuguese who had "disturbed the chores of Arabia" .The Turks were major beneficiaries of trade between Europeand the East.But thediversion of trade from this area threatedtheir interests. In 1566, the Portuguese and the Ottomans cameto an agreement to share the spice and the Indian trade and not toclash in the Arab seas. The Ottomans shifted their interest once

again to Europe and came to an agreement with the Portuguese ford i r i v i n g the o r i e n t a l trade between them.Towards the middle of the t h i r t e e n t h century a small t r i b eof Mangol Turks migrated from Khorasan to West Asia vinder the leadership of Sulayman Shah,drowned in the r i v e r Khanva.of Byzantine Empire.But a c c i d e n t a l l y t h e i r leader wasThis land j o i n i n g the e a s t e r n bordersDuring the l a s t decade of the t h i r t e e n t hcentury when Saljukan Empire was being encroached by the continuous invasions of Mongol,E r t h o g r u l ' s son Osman s e t t l e d at Karachiand conquered several provinces p a r t i c u l a r l y of h i s master. According to the ancient orthography (Osman) Othman i s regarded as thefoxinder of the Ottoman Empire,s i x c e n t u r i e s (1299-1918),The empire e x i s t e d more thanIn the course of f i r s t t h r e e c e n t u r i e sof i t s existence i t became the world's most powerful country bygradually expanding from a small domination in Antatolia to thet h r e e known c o n t i n e n t s - Europe, Asia and Africa.The empireproduced ten b r i l l i a n t and great s u l t a n s who ruled in the fourteenthf i f t e e n t h and sixteenth c e n t u r i e s over a vast strech of land,Sultan Saliro came to the throne in 1512,2He was thef i r s t Ottoman Sultan who turned h i s a t t e n t i o n towards the e a s t .2 Creasy, E , S , , History of the Ottoman Turks, London, 18543 b i d . , p,205.

At the same time Shah I s m a ' i l Safawi I was r u l i n g over P e r s i a ,He conquered Azarbijan,In t h i s way the coundaries of theOttoman Empire and P e r s i a were adjoined.I n 1624 Kurdistan hadalso been annexed t o the Ottoman Empire,This led to a t h r e e -ypar. war between the Ottoman and Shah I s m a ' i l of Persia whichi s c r u c i a l in so many r e s p e c t s e s p e c i a l l y in respect of i t simpa'ct upon future Indo-Ottoman r e l a t i o n .Meanwhile,SultanSalim captured Northern Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria and Arabia,3The r e s u l t of t h i s was t h a t the Caliphate was t r a n s f e r r e d t o theOttoman Sultans who became henceforth p r o t e c t o r s or the servantsof the two Holy PlacesKhadim al-Harmayan al-Sharifaynandtho r e l i g i o u s and s p i r i t u a l head of the Muslim world.However, the p o l i t i c a l and s t r a t e g i c complications of thewhole region makes i t d i f f i c u l t to completely comprehend thesituation.The proper understanding of the Indo-Ottoman r e l a t i o n sr e q u i r e s a study of wider A s i a t i c environment.The diplomaticbackground not only of the Indian Mughals and the Ottoman butalso of the contemporary neighbouring powers, the P e r s i a n s , theUzbeks, the Ilkhanids of Khorasan and the o t h e r s .The beginningof the 16th century c o n s t i t u t e d an important landmark in Islamicp.86.3 J.A.R., Karriot , The Eastern Question, London, 1930,

as veil as world history.The Ottomans, the Uzbeks and theSafawids had established themselves in Central Asia, The Uzbekswere the natural enemies of the Mughals, having been responsiblefor the expulsion of Babur and the other Tiinurid princes fromSamarqand and the adjoining areas including Khorasan, At the sametime, the Uzbeks clashed with the rising power of the Safawidswho claimed Khorasan.The Khorasanian Plateau linked Persia withCentral Asia, The trade routes to China and India passed acrossit.It was natural for the Safawids and the Mughals to allyagainst the Uzbek danger, especially as there was no frontierdispute between them with the exception of Qandhar, The Uzbekstried to exploit the Qcctarian differences with the Safawid rulersof Iran who had ruthlessly persecuted the Sunnis, Persia made theOttoman Sultans conscious of the danger to their eastern flank.The Ottoman threat from the west made the Persians keen to befriendthe Mughals, particularly when they had to face an aggressiveUzbek power in the east. This led the Ottoman rulers to proposea tripartite alliance including the Uzbeks and the Vighals or itsother two members. The Mughals refused to be drawn in the tripartite alliance against the Persians as it would have upset theAsian balance of power and left them alone to face the might ofthe Uzbeks, The alliance with Iran was also helpful in promotingtrade with Central Asia.

8These three empires with a common Turko-Mongol h e r i t a g ewere almost co-extensive with the e n t i r e d a r - u l Islam exceptsome outlying areas down to the end of the 18th centuiry.All ofthese powers, the Ottomans the Uzbeks and t h e Mughals, wereorthodox Sunnis while the Safawids were the S h i ' i t e s ,Whilep o l i t i c s overborne r e l i g i o u s differences at tiroes, the l a t t e rcame tq the surface whenever p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y passed away.The Uzbeks, h o s t i l e to Persia, friendly t o the Ottomanand everwatchful of the \ighals, played an important part in shaping thebalance of power.The maintenance of the trade r e l a t i o n s with the countriesaround the Indian Ocean, West Asia and Africa, p o l i t i c a l l y theOttoman s t a t e used to i t s economic powers of i t s European a l l i e s .During the whole of t h i s formative period the foreign policy ofthe Ottoman Sultans was motivated mainly by three o b j e c t i v e s .Firstrto extend the Turkish power in the west and thereby f i n a l l ydefeating and destroying the European c o a l i t i o n against them.Secondly, to c o n t r o l a l l the t r a d e r o u t e s from e a s t t o the west;and t h i r d l y t o become undisputed leaders of t h e i r c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s4by wrestling the Caliphate from the Abbasids.4 M.H., Rahman, op, c i t . , p . B l .

Sulaimon's reign was not only the climax of the Ottomanglory but i t opened a new chapter in the empire's foreign r e l a tions.The reign of Sulayman coincides with the beginning ofa prolonged contest with the major powers of the world.Two ofthem were European - the Habsburg Empire, Venice - and the otherwas ' A s i a t i c P e r s i a ' .The growth of the Habsburg and i t s r i v a l r ysimultaneously with Ottoman on the one hand, and the France onthe other hand made i t only n a t u r a l t h a t France and the Ottomansshould look towards each other as f r i e n d s and a l l i e s againstthe t h r e a t of t h e Central European power of A u s t r i a .The d e t e r i o r a t i n g p o s i t i o n of the Ottoman Empire was b e s ti l l u s t r a t e d perhaps during the t h i r t y - y e a r s war (1618-1648), whicha l s o threw the Europeans i n t o unprecented turmoil and considerablyweakened the Roman Empire,But the B a t t l e of Vienna and theTreaty of Carlowitz closed a chapter in the h i s t o r y of the OttomanEmpire,On the contrary, t h e i r various weaknesses r e s u l t e d i n t odiminishing the r o l e of the Empire in Europe.Henceforth, i t wasEurope t h a t threatened the i n t e g r i t y of the Ottoman Empire. Amongthe European powers the most ambitious in t h i s respect was Russiawhile Austria was never pro-Turkish but she began to play l e s sprominent r o l e .She wanted t o enlarge her possession in theBalkans and prevent Russian expansionism.This new diplomaticchapter in the h i s t o r y of the Ottoman Empire l a s t e d over twoc e n t u r i e s and came to be termed as the Eastern Question.The

10Eastern question may be narroved down t o the meaneuvering ofvarious European powers t o prevent Russia from encroaching toomuch upon t h e i n t e g r i t y of the Ottoman Empire.The war which broke out in 1768 r e s u l t e d in Ruspitinv i c t o r i e s , both land and sea, in the Rumanian p r i n c i p a l i t i e s .This was concluded in 1774 by the Treaty of Kuchuk K a i n a r j i , Thet r e a t y was a milestone in Russo-Turkish r e l a t i o n s and must beconsidered as a major p o l i t i c a l event in the h i s t o r y ofand Europe,TurkeyThe t r e a t y obviously gave Russia enormous advantagesand t e r r i t o r i a l a c c r e t i o n s .control of t h e Black Sea,I t put an end t o exclusive TxirkishFrom t h a t time on,Russia exercisedr e l e n t l e s s pressure on the Ottoman Empire,The outbreak of the French Revolution gave a somewhatp l e a s a n t r e l i e f t o Turkey, since i t d i v e r t e d the a t t e n t i o n ofTurkey's enemies - Russia and Austria - towardFrance,TheTreaty of Jassy closed one important chapter in t h e h i s t o r y of theEastern Question.The next opens with the advent of Napoleon,By the year 1797 he had began t o a r r i v e n o t only in m i l i t a r y butin a p o l i t i c a l sense.expedition t o Egypt.In 1798, Napoleon organized a m i l i t a r yThis n a t u r a l l y meant an invasion of Ottoman5 George Lenczowski, The Middle East in \fJorld Affairs London, 1980, p , 3 5 , "

11territory.And a f t e r c e n t u r i e s of friendship, put France a todds with the Sultan of Turkey.In 1801 the French armiessurrendered t o the B r i t i s h in Egypt.A temporary B r i t i s h occu-pation of Egypt followed; but in 1802 the country was r e s t o r e dto the Sultan of Turkey. The evacucition - J 'rench forces fromOttoman t e r r i t o r y made p o s s i b l e a gradual r e s t o r a t i o n of thet r a d i t i o n a l f r i e n d l y feeling between the two c o u n t r i e s ,Frenchascendency in the Ottoman c a p i t a l was r e e s t a b l i s h e d and in 1806.Napoleon was able to induce the Porte to take arras against Russia,with whom France was then at war.But t h e Turks were disappointedwhen Napoleon concluded the Treaty of T i l s i t with Tsar Alexander Iin 1807.The B r i t i s h power which emerged in the nineteenth centuryas R u s s i a ' s p r i n c i p a l competitor in Asia, England found a friendlypower in France weakened a f t e r the Napoleonic wars.Throughoutthe nineteenth century the two c o u n t r i e s presented a common frontagainst Russian imperialism.Despite the t r a d i t i o n a l a l l i a n c e between t h e OttomanEmpire and France, the l a t t e r was not r e l u c t a n t to take advantageof the empire's weakness in those areas deemed important toFrench i n t e r e s t s .The B r i t i s h record in r e l a t i o n to the OttomanEmpire, must a t i t s best described as "ambiguous" and a t i t sworst as " i n s i n c e r e " ,IThile the preservation of the Ottoman Empire

12was axiom of the nineteenth century B r i t i s h policy,i n t e r e s t inBritain'sOttoman t e r r i t o r y originated, of course, in herd e s i r e t o p r o t e c t her imperial line to the E a s t ,Between 1833and 1878 B r i t a i n was i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d in e s t a b l i s h i n g Englishc o n t r o l l e d land and r i v e r route through Mesopotamia t o I n d i a .In the nineteenth century, while Turkey's i n t e r n a t i o n a land i n t e r n a l s i t u a t i o n was s t e a d i l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g , a few attemptswere made at reform.foimtf' inA s e r i e s of i n t e r n a l reforms including r e -m i l i t a r y and administrative organizations followed. Theother a l t e r n a t i v e remained, t h a t of a r a d i c a l change by r e v o l u t i o n .The task of shaking the empire out of i t s lethargy was taken upby the Young Turk ftoveroent.The young Turk Party drew i t s i n s p i -r a t i o n from the west and wanted to remodel the empire i n t o al i b e r a l constitvitional monarchy.The outbreak of world War Ifound the empire reduced t e r r i t o r i a l l y .The Ottoman p o l i t i c a ls t r a t e g y in war-time could be summoned up in two terms ; PanIslaraism and Pan-Turanism, I t w i l l be remembered t h a t upon Turkey'se n t r y i n t o the war, the Sultan in h i s capacity as Caliph issuedna call to a holy war or jjhad6 Ibid,, p,4l,7 Ibid,, p,62addressed to all Muslim of the world.

13The establishment of the Ottoman male in Egypt in1516-17, followed by the extension of t h e i r pov er dovm both theshores of the Red sea involved the Ottomans more i n t i m a t e l y inAsian a f f a i r s .I t brought them i n t o d i r e c t contact with theIndian sub-continent and her problems.Their a r r i v a l on theIndian Ocean coincided with the coming of the Portuguese, andthey soon found themselves committed to a decisive struggle forpowers on eastern waters. Moreover, i t was n a t u r a l to the OttomanSultan as the major sovereign of the day, t h a t Muslim r u l e r s ofIndia turn to him for help against t h e i r domestic o r foreignenemies.One of them was the r u l e of Mysore Tipu Sultan whogsent an embassy to the Ottoman Sultan 'Abdul Hamidin 1785 t oobtain c a l i p h a l i n v e s t i t u r e , and m i l i t a r y help against the B r i t i s h ,Not only Tipu but the Mughal emperors of the eighteenth centuryalso had c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s with the Sultan of Turkey.So manyl e t t e r s of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and Ahmad Shah are9found in Turkish Archives. Apart from t h e s e , l e t t e r s of Nizam-ulMulk Asaf Jaha and h i s sons are preserved in the Turkish Archieves.The diplomatic exchange between the i n e f f e c t i v e Mughal emperorsand t h e r u l e r s of the Ottoman Empire continued u n t i l the end of9 Islara Riazul, Calender of Docvmients on Indq-PersianRelations,V o l , I I , Karachi, 1982; see section 10, MiscellaneousCo rre spondence ,

Hthe eighteenth century.In the nineteenth century the patternof relationship between Turkey and the Muslims of the subcontinent began to change. Even in the first half of the 20thcentury we find a correspondence between the exile Sultan ofTurkey and the Nizam of Hyderabad,10 See Records of Political Departments of A.P, StateArchives Hyderabad.

1JCHAPTER - IOTTOr Nl RELATIONS WITH THE MUGHAL COURTThe earlier record of diplomatic relations between theOttoman Empire and the Muslim rulers of the Indian subcontinentdates back in the year 1481-82, vAien royal embassies, lettersand gifts were exchanged between the Bahmanid Kings Muhammad Shah(1463-82) and Mahmud Shah (1482-1518) and the Ottoman SultansMuhammad II (1451-81) and Bayezid II (1481-1512)/India's isolation from Europe and the West Asian regionhad broken during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuriesthediscovery "Cape of Good Hope Route" in 1498 and the appearancePortuguse in the Eastern seas, the Conquest of Egypt by theOttoman Turks in 1516-17, the founding of Safawid Empire in Persiaand the Mughal Empire in India, Active political, economic andcultural contacts began to be established between Indian and theEuropean peoples. In order to arrive at a more precise understanding of the Mughal relations with the Ottoman Empire, one hasto look at the political map of western and central Asia duringthe medieval period.The regions of central and western Asia1 Bernard Lewis, "The Mughals and the Ottomans", PakistanQuarterly, Karachi (l958), p.4.

lohad undergone important p o l i t i c a l chcmges during the f i f t e e n t hcentury.After the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the Mughal Empire in thefourteenth century, Timur united Iran and Turan under h i s r u l e .His empire included modem Turkey, Transoxiana (the land beyondthe r i v e roxus, also lonovm as Mawara-un-Nahr), I r a n , Afghanistanand p a r t s of the Punjab,The povier of Timurids declined duringthe second half of the f i f t e e n t h century which was l a r g e l y due torepeated p a r t i t i o n i n g of the empire.With t h i s p o l i t i c a l d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n various Tiraurid p r i n c i p a l i t i e s s t a r t e d f i g h t i n gamong themselves.Such a s i t u a t i o n provided an opportunity t othe two new elements t o e n t e r the scene.One were t h e Uzbeks,a Mongol t r i b e which s t a r t e d penetrating i n t o Transoxiana fromthe north and the other were the Safawids, who emerged in thewest of i t under Shah I s r a a ' i l ,Further towards the

India New Delhi, AP State Archives of Hyderabad, Library of Centre of West Asian Studies, A.M,U., Research Library, Department of History, Library, Institute Islamic Studies, Faulana Azad Library, A.M.U. Sapru House Library, New Delhi Library ICHR New Delhi, Library Sal am Jang Museum Hyderabad and Khuda Bakhsh Library, Patna.

Related Documents:

May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)

Silat is a combative art of self-defense and survival rooted from Matay archipelago. It was traced at thé early of Langkasuka Kingdom (2nd century CE) till thé reign of Melaka (Malaysia) Sultanate era (13th century). Silat has now evolved to become part of social culture and tradition with thé appearance of a fine physical and spiritual .

Ottomans captured the Byzantine Empire's last bastion (and capital) of Constantinople (renamed Istanbul in 1930 following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire). o By 1520, the Ottoman Empire was the principal military and naval power in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea. The Ottoman Empire reached its height under Suleiman the .

The Rise of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire was located at between Europe and Asia Because of such geographical location, the Ottoman’s have throughout history interacted with both Eastern and European cultures The Ottoman’s established their capital at Istanbul/Constantinople The ruler of the empire was called a Sultan The Ottoman’s were tolerant of Christians and Jews

On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.

̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions

Dr. Sunita Bharatwal** Dr. Pawan Garga*** Abstract Customer satisfaction is derived from thè functionalities and values, a product or Service can provide. The current study aims to segregate thè dimensions of ordine Service quality and gather insights on its impact on web shopping. The trends of purchases have

EEI-3270 ARMLESS CHAIR/EEI-3318 OTTOMAN/EEI-3319 CORNER Customer Service 609-256-9000︱ Page 2 of 4 STEP 1: THE ASSEMBLY STEPS OF EEI-3270 ARMLESS CHAIR/ EEI-3318 OTTOMAN/ EEI-3319 CORNER ARE THE SAME. THE FOLLOWING ILLUSTRATION SHOWS THE ASSEMBLY STEPS OF EEI-3318 OTTOMAN. 1. Please put Ottoman Body (1) on a carpeted or padded .