Effect Of Moisture And Clay On Moulding Properties Of Composite . - Ijser

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-55181219EFFECT OF MOISTURE AND CLAY ONMOULDING PROPERTIES OFCOMPOSITE SAND OF RIVERGONGOLA ALONG ASHAKA FORFOUNDRY USEE. Garba1*, A. Raji2, S. Hamzat3, A.B Usman4, A.O. Donald5 and R. Aliyu6ABSTRACT —This study assessed the effect of moisture and clay and the suitability of river Gongola sand for foundry use. Theobjectives of the study are to determine the chemical properties of the Gongola river sand and the impact of clay and moisturecontents on the properties of the sand. In addition, the study determines the suitability of the sand for foundry use through castingsome engineering components. The American Foundry Men’s Standards (AFS) was adopted for all samples preparation and tests.The tests were conducted with varied amount of binder and water. The result shows that the sand has high silica content of 80.4%and less impurities of 7.49%. The sand also has good Grain finess number ranging from 45 to 61.89 which is considered adequatefor both green and dry casting which is consistent with AFS standard. Gongola sand also exhibits sufficient strength for both ferrousand non ferrous casting at 9% and 12 % clay, but gives weak results at 3% and 6% clay. The findings of the study indicate that riverGongola sand have high silica content with less impurities, good grain finess number as well as good moulding propertie such as;low moisture content, good mouldability and good. Therefore, these findings would be useful to foundries in Nigeria as the sand hasgood moulding properties and can thus, substitute the imported sand from abroad.IJSERIndex Terms— Flowability, Grain finess number, Moisture Content, Mouldability, permeability, refractoriness,thermal shock resistance.—————————— ——————————1. INTRODUCTIONFoundry is the field of engineering that deals withproduction of castings. It has been found to be animportant source of industrial emancipation andeconomic self-reliance in Nigeria (Ihom et al, 2014).Casting plays important roles in production ofmodernequipmentfortransportation,communication, power, agriculture, agro-allied,construction, space, chemical and petrochemical, andother industries. Using foundry techniques it is easyto produce devices and equipment that are verydifficult to produce by other engineering processes.Incastings, products with either regular or irregularshapes in various sizes and quantities are made toclose tolerance with little metal waste (Shuaib-babataand Olumodeji,2014).A local source of good foundrysand is a generic problem faced by foundry industries,good sand has to be transported from one area toanother, though silica sand is of low value, but thecost of transport over a long distance contributessignificantly to high cost of production in foundry.2. MATERIALS AND METHODSThe materials used for this study were; sandsample, sodium chloride, lime stone, potasiumchloride, aluminum scraps, cast iron scraps,bentonite, distilled water, caustic soda solution,This forced foundry operators to locate their foundriescloser to the source of raw materials otherwise asynthetic sand has to be used (Uhourtu, 2006). As partof effort to find suitable sources of foundry sand veryfew researches have been carried out in north easternpart of the country. Therefore, foundry industries, alot of researches had been carried out in differentparts of the country among which are; Lagos, Niger,Osun, Ilorin, Kaduna, Elasha, Benue, Kano, but onlyin this region have inadequate information on thesuitability of moulding sand around them, this canonly be achieved by conducting a research with an indepth laboratory tests. We found only one studyconducted on river Gongola sand along Dindima inBauchi State which serves as a source of foundry sandfor the local foundries around Bajoga and Gombe stateat large. Therefore this research will provide usefulinformation for the foundries about the sand theynormally use. This research will also identify apotential moulding sand in Gombe.calcium carbide, hydrogen tetraoxosulphate (vi)acid, resin (molasses), plywood, top bond glue,nails, body filler and water.IJSER 2018http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-55181220engine connecting rods patterns, core boxes, Gclamp and grinding plate pattern. Theseequipment and tools are available at NationalMetallurgical Development center (NMDC) Jos.Advanced Manufacturing Technology Programme JalingoModibbo Adama University of Technology Yola3AM 27B Rock Road Tudun pawa, Kaduna,4Adamawa State Polytechnic Yola 5Sky Bank Nigerian PLC,Yola6No 1 Futy Quarters behind Jesco filling station Kofare, Yola1*22.2 MethodsAmerican Foundrymen Society (AFS) standardmethods (AFS, 1996) were adopted for thisresearch.2.1 Equipment and ToolsThe equipment and tools used in this studyincluded George Fischer model, sieve rack,calibrated container, sieve shaker, digital scale,speedy moisture teller, standard weight scale,drying oven, sand clay washer,desiccator,laboratory sand rammer, standard permeabilitymeter, specimen tube, universal sand strengthtesting machine and holder for compression testand shear. Others included refractoriness testmould, hydraulic press, mouldability testingmachine, energy dispersive-ray fluorescencespectrometry (ED-XRFS), 300 kg rotary furnace, 5kg bale out crucible furnace, car and motorcycle2.2.1 Samples and Sampling TechniquesThe sand samples were collected from fourdifferent places at an interval of 1 km with twopoints from each place. These points are; A1, A2, B1,B2, C1, C2 and D1, D2. From each point two sampleswere collected at depth interval of 30 cm each. Thetotal numbers of samples were 2*2*4 16 fromwhich five samples were made S1, S2, S3, S4 andcomposite, Cs. The following are coordinates ofeach sampling point as given in Table 1.Table 1IJSERCoordinates of sampling 46335810.90877342D211.5258576310.908906172.3 Experimental DesignExperimental design for this research was carriedout with varied amount of water and clay contents(modified). 42 factorial design was used; there aretwo factors (%clay and %water), four levels and 1number of replication. Number of runs for thisresearch was determined using the formula N Lk*nwhere k is the number of factors, L is the numberof levels and n is the number of replication. Thisgives the number of samples as 42*1 16.2.4 Specimen preparationFor this research four different levels were usedrepeatedly with 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% of water and3%, 6%, 9% and 12% of clay while the percentageof composite sand ranged from 78% to 93% asbalance. These percentages of water, clay and sandby weight were put into a laboratory mixer andthen mixed for about five minutes. Thereafter, 160g (standard) of the mixture was poured intospecimen tube and then rammed with three blowsof standard rammer weighing 6.6 kg. Afterramming, the specimens were ejected except forpermeability in which the tests were carried outIJSER 2018http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-5518while the specimen was inside the tube. This3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION3.1 Chemical CompositionFigure 1 shows the chemical composition of RiverGongola sand. From the elemental analysis thesand has high silica content of 80.4% and 4.5% ofalumina (Al2O3).1221procedure was repeated for all the preparations.Fe2O3 and other impurities amounting to 7.49%.Other major constituents are 5.5% K2O, 2.11%% O3CaONiOTiO2CuOV2O5AS2O3Figure 1: Elemental Analysis of River Gongola sand3.2 Effect of moisture and clay addition on strength and mouldability properties of compositesand3.2.1 Strength propertiesFigure 2 and 3 reveals that for composite sample Csat 3% clay and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% water additionthe green compression was between 20 kN/m2 and24 kN/m2 which is considered inadequate forgreen sand casting, as the minimum requirement is30 kN/m2 to 160 kN/m2 (Sharma, 2005) while at6% clay and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% water addition,the results were between 35 and 40 kN/m2 whichis equally considered weak for metals with highmelting temperature, but sufficient for dry sandcasting. On the other hand at 9% , 12% clay and4%, 6%, 8% and 10% water addition, the resultswere between 57 kN/m2 and 95 kN/m2 for greenstrength and 565 kN/m2 and 896 kN/m2 for drycompression strength respectively, which isIJSER 2018http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-55181222considered sufficient for both green and dry sandcasting (Sharma, 2005).Figure 2: Green Compressive Strength for Composite Sample CsIJSERFigure 3: Dry Compressive Strength for Composite SampleFigure 4 presents the green shear strength whichdecreases gradually with increase in water, at 4%water, 9% clay and 12% clay the sand has thehighest value of 99.97 kN/m2. This value decreasesgradually to 49 kN/m2and 45 kN/m2at 6% water,then further decreases to 47 kN/m2 and 41 kN/m2at 8% water and finally decreases to 25 kN/m2and47kN/m2 for 12% clay at 10% water for 9% clayand 12% clay respectively. The trend for 6% claywas similar. However, the 3% clay differs in whichthe green shear increases with increase in %waterdue to the fact that the % clay is small, so additionof water increases the strength, but this strength isbelow the standard requirement. While for the dryshear on the other hand at 12% clay and 4% waterthe sand has the lowest value of 310 kN/m2(Figure 5). It gradually increases with increase in %water up to 603.28 kN/m2at 10% water. The othertwo trends (6% and 9% clay) are similar with thehighest value of 439kN/m2 and 295 kN/m2respectively. But the one at 3% clay differs inwhich the dry shear strength decreases withincrease in percentage water due to the fact thatthe clay was low and the drying process reducesthe water. High moisture content is not desirableas it decreases the permeability which results incasting defect.IJSER 2018http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-55181223Figure 4: Green Shear Strength for Composite SampleFigure 5 presents the dry shear strength whichincreases gradually with increase in water, but toomuch strength is not desirable as it givesdifficulties during knock out.IJSERFigure 5: Dry Shear Strength for Composite Sample3.2.2 Mouldability of composite sampleFigure 6 presents the results for mouldability forcomposite sample. The results suggest that themouldability increases with increase in water. Theresults for 6%, 9% and 12% clay ranges from 5.6 to10.7 which are consistent with AFS standard of (1to 11%). On the other hand the result revealed that3% clay gave poor results with mouldability valuesranging from 14.3 to 19.0 which is considered highaccording to AFS standard.IJSER 2018http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-55181224Figure 6: Mouldability for Composite Sample3.2.3 Casting FinishFigure 7- 9 presents the unmachined casting madeusing Gongola sand as moulding material, after theknock out and physical inspection of the cast. Partswere found to be fairly good in terms of defectfree, surface finish and dimensional accuracywhich requires little machining.IJSERFigure 7: Unmachined mortor cycle connecting roadIJSER 2018http://www.ijser.orgFigure 8: Unmachined Grinding plate

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-55181225Figure 9: Unmachined motor car connecting road3.2.4 Discussion of FindingsThe chemical analysis reveals that the RiverGongola sand has high silica content (SiO2) of 80.4% which is an indication that it will have goodrefractoriness and thermal shock resistance(Ayoola et al, 2013). The presence of red iron oxide(hematite, Fe2O3) which is low would help so thatthe mould would not stick to the molten metalduring casting of ferrous metals (Amare, et al.2014). The presence of potassium oxide can causeobjectionable lowering of the fussion point in thesand as cited in some studies (Ayoola et al, 2013,Mohd et al, 2012 and Amare et al, 2014). Thealumina oxide (Al2O3) present lowers therefractoriness and permeability (Amare, et al,2014) but this alumina oxide can be reduced bywashing the sand thereby reducing the naturalclay before moulding.compression strength and 14.78 kN/m2 and 34.47for green shear strength. However, the resultssuggest that 6% to 12% clay are suitable for riverGongola sand as it gives a better results which areconsistent with AFS. This is consistent with Amareet al (2014), Sharma, (2005), Atanda et al (2012),Fatai et al (2011), among others. The permeabilitynumber for all the samples are in conformity withAFS standard of 10 ml/min to 300 ml/min.Therefore the sands are considered suitable for alltypes of casting with respect to permeability.IJSERWhile for the composite sand sample Cs, the clayand water were varied as 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% clayand 4%, 6%, 8% and 12% water in order todetermine their effects on the properties of thesample. The results suggest that 3% clay and 4 to10% water was not suitable as it gives poor resultsranging from 20 kN/m2 to 24.82 kN/m2 for green4. ConclusionsFrom the chemical analysis, river Gongola sandwas found to have high silica content of 80.4% andsome impurities amounting to 7.49%. Therefore,river Gongola sand is considered to be high gradesilica sand and it is better than many of the riversand in Nigeria found in literature.The claycontents were in the range of 6% and 14.48% whichis inconsistent with required standard, thereforecare should be taken on how to control otherMoulds were made using river Gongola sand with9% clay and 6% water, components cast weregrinding plates, motor car connecting rods andmotor cycle connecting rods. The materials usedwere aluminum and grey cast iron, for thealuminum castings they are very good in terms ofquality and surface finish. While for the grey castiron are fairly good. The castings were defect free,less surface roughness and also the dimensionalaccuracy was appreciable as can be seen in Figures7- 9, thus, river Gongola sand can be said to bevery good moulding sand and is suitable for bothferrous and non ferrous metals.parameters such as %water, so that the mouldingsand will be under control.Composite sample inwhich the %clay and %water were varied at 3%,6%, 9% and 12% clay and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%water respectively, the green strength at 3% claygives a poor results ranging of 20 kN/m2and 24.8kN/m2 as such, it is below the recommendedstrength for all type of casting. While the greenstrength and dry strength for 6% clay, 9% clay and12% clay were consistent with AFS standard andIJSER 2018http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 9, Issue 7, July-2018ISSN 2229-5518can be used for all type of casting.The mouldabilityfor composite sample in which the %clay and%water were varied gives a good results withvalues ranging from 5.6 to 10.7 which is adequatefor all type of moulding, the mouldability increaseswith increase in % water,except for 3% clay. Thus, the river Gongola sand issuitable and efficient for casting as evident fromthe castings made with grey cast iron andaluminum which had good surface finish and weredefect free. This study identified potential goodmoulding sand, which could be used by foundriesaround Gombe and Nigeria at large, because it ischeap and readily available, this will consequentlyreduce the cost of production. The researchadopted the AFS standard which makes it morereliable and efficient. The results are veryinteresting and better than most of the sandworked on in Nigeria. Very few of the silica sandfrom literature have properties similar to riverGongola which can be used to cast both ferrousand nonferrous metals. This will enablegovernment and stake holders to establish large ormedium scale foundries around Gombe to takeadvantage of this good moulding sand.Oshogbo and Saki Silica Sand Deposits.Annals ofFaculty Engineering Hunedoara -International Journal ofEngineering, 1(3), 213 –218.ACKNOWLEDGMENTMy special gratitude goes to Allah SWT the mostmerciful, for seeing me through this study. Iammost indebted to my supervisor Engr. ProfessorAbdulkabir Raji for his support and guidance,which made this research a success.1226IJSERI would like to aknowledge the support andunderstanding from my wife Aishatu Muhammad,my lovely daughters Maryam and Fatima Zahra.My appreciation also goes to my brothers andsisters, Mr. Waziri Babagana for their support andencouragement. Lastly my sincere appreciationgoes to the entire staff of modibbo AdamaUniversity of Technology YolaFatai, O.A.I., Sunday, A., & Davies, O. F. (2011). Optimizingthe moulding Properties of recycled Ilaro Silica Sand.Leonardo Journal of Sciences, 19(8), 92–103.Ihom, A.P., Ogbodo, J. N., Allen, A. M., Nwonye, E. I.,& Ilochionwu, C. (2014). Analysis and prediction of greenpermeability values in sand moulds using multiplelinear regression model, African Journal of EngineeringResearch, 2(1), 8–13.Mohd, S.Z.N., Ismail, R. & Isa, M.I.N. (2012). PreliminaryStudy on the Potential of east Coast of PeninsularMalaysia’s silica for foundry. International Journal ofMaterials and Mechanical Engineering, 1(1), 53-56.Sharma, P.C. (2005). A textbook of Production Technology(Manufacturing Process) (sixth ed)Shuaib-babata, Y.L.P., & Olumodeji, J. (2014).Analysis ofIlorin Sand Moulding Properties for FoundryApplications. International Journal of EngineeringResearch & Technology, 3(1), 1520 – 1526.REFERENCESAmare, D., Biruk, A., & Merkuz, A. (2014). FoundryProperties of Silica sand Deposits at Blue Nile andJemma River Basin in Northwestern Ethopia.International journal of Engineering Technology andAdvanced Engineering 4(4), 979-988.Ayoola, W.A.,Adeosun,S.O., & Oyetunji, A.(2013).Investigation into Foundry Properties ofS. Chand & Company Ltd. New Delhi, India.Uhourtu, M. (2006).Moulding Properties of Dindima River SandUsing Alkaleri Clay as Binder. Unpublished PostGraduate Diploma project, Department of MechanicalEngineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University,Bauchi, Nigeria.IJSER 2018http://www.ijser.org

water, 9% clay and 12% clay the sand has the highest value of 99.97 kN/m 2. This value decreases gradually to 49 kN/m 2and 45 kN/mat 6% water, then further decreases to 47 kN/m2 and 41 kN/m2 at 8% water and finally decreases to 25 kN/m2and 47kN/m2 for 12% clay at 10% water for 9% clay and 12% clay respectively. The trend for 6% clay was similar.

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