Total Lightning Statistics

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Total lightningstatistics2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT

Highlights of lightning activity in 20212021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Table of contentsHighlights of lightning activity in 2021Detecting lightning across the United States for almost 40 yearsGlobal lightning detection for more than 10 yearsWhat are we counting?Monitoring trends in Arctic lightning to evaluate impacts of climate changeThousands of lightning-triggered fires burn millions of acres annuallyLightning leaders – United StatesLightning leaders – Global245678910Global highlightsUnited States statisticsSeasonality of lightning in the United StatesFlashy days – Top 10 dates with the most total lightning in the United StatesHistoric severe weather outbreaks impact central and eastern portionsof the Unites States in mid-DecemberScraping the sky and catching lightningTotal lightning counts per state in 2021Total lightning density per state in 2021Total lightning density gridded map 2021Total lightning density gridded map 2015–2020Total lightning density 2021 per countyTotal lightning density 2015–2020 per countyTotal lightning density ratio 2021 vs 2015–2020 per countyCloud-to-ground flash density gridded map 2021Cloud-to-ground flash density gridded map 2015–2020Cloud-to-ground flash density 2021 per countyCloud-to-ground flash density 2015–2020 per countyWeather radar sites impacted by lightning11121314151617181920212223242526Total lightning counts per country in 2021Total lightning density per country in 2021Global lightning density 2021Average global lightning density 2016–2020Spotlight: CanadaSpotlight: BrazilSpotlight: ItalySpotlight: IndiaSpotlight: EthiopiaSpotlight: AustraliaAn island is born2728293031323334353637Lightning safetyLightning fast reads38392021 Annual Lightning ReportThe data are from the Vaisala NLDN U.S. National Lightning Detection Network and the VaisalaGLD360 Global Lightning Detection Network, that monitor total lightning activity, includingboth in-cloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.Data analysis provided by Ronald Holle and Chris VagaskyMaps created by Jesse Hietanen Vaisala 2022 This material is subject to copyright protection, with all copyrights retained by Vaisala and its individual partners. All rights reserved. Thereproduction, transfer, distribution or storage of information contained in this document in any form without the prior written consent ofVaisala is strictly prohibited.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Detecting lightning across the United Statesfor almost 40 yearsVaisala’s U.S. National Lightning DetectionNetwork (NLDN) is the longest continuouslyoperating and most scientifically validatedlightning detection network in the world. Theearliest version of NLDN detected its first cloudto-ground lightning stroke on June 1, 1983, at00:04:47 UTC, about three miles northwest ofNew Milford, Pennsylvania.NLDN is recognized as representing the goldstandard in lightning detection. It providesindustry leading data availability and detectionperformance, detecting in-cloud lightning flashesand cloud-to-ground strokes with the highestlocation accuracy.NLDN’s technology, built on an evenly distributednetwork of ground-based sensors, guaranteesdetected lightning trends reflect meteorologicalreality, not sensor density. This allows for accurateyear-over-year comparisons and provides areliable climatological record.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022NLDN has been the primary source of lightninginformation for major organizations includingthe National Weather Service, Federal AviationAdministration, and United States Air Force formore than 30 years. The largest electric powerutilities in the United States use NLDN to helpmanage the reliability of their transmission andwind power assets.

Global lightning detection for more than 10 yearsVaisala’s owned-and-operatedGlobal Lightning Dataset GLD360 isthe only truly global lightning detectionnetwork and has been detectinglightning around the planet since 2009.It is the most advanced and accuratelong-range lightning detection networkin the world and instantly detectslightning anywhere over land and sea.Global lightning density 2021GLD360 sensors, sensitive to Very LowFrequency signals emitted by lightning,use magnetic direction finding and timeof arrival technologies and lightningwaveform recognition to detectlightning at long ranges of up to 10,000kilometers. GLD360 is unique amonglong range lightning detection networksin its ability to detect and accuratelyclassify both in-cloud and cloudto-ground lightning discharges andprovide both polarity and peak currentinformation.GLD360 detects nearly 100% ofthunderstorms globally and representsthe industry standard in global lightningdetection. The data from GLD360 are trusted byglobal organizations, including the United StatesNavy and Deutscher Wetterdienst to provide realtime lightning data anywhere on the planet.GLD360 detects more than 2 billion lightningevents every year, including at the highestlatitudes of the planet. In 2019, lightning wasdetected just 52 kilometers from the NorthPole, setting the Guinness World Record for thefurthest north lightning ever detected.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022For further informationYou can find out more about lightning aroundthe globe by visiting the interactive global totallightning density map

What are we counting?In-cloud lightningCloud-to-ground lightningTotal lightningA cloud flash is lightning that connects regionswith opposite polarity ( /-) within one cloudor between multiple clouds. In-cloud lightningusually precedes cloud-to-ground lightning.A cloud-to-ground flash consists of at least onecloud-to-ground stroke and is dangerous to lifeand property.Both NLDN and GLD360 detect and classifyin-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, whichtogether are called total lightning. In this report,in-cloud pulses and cloud-to-ground strokes arecollectively referred to as “lightning events”.A cloud flash has one or more cloud pulses.Pulses are the components of cloud flashesdetected by NLDN and GLD360.A cloud-to-ground stroke, also known as a stroke,is lightning that connects a charge region ina cloud to the ground and is the bright, highcurrent, visible part of lightning that touches theground or an object.Strike pointsStrokes in multiple-stroke, cloud-to-groundflashes usually follow the same lightning channeland strike the same ground point but canoccasionally follow their own path resulting inmultiple separated strike points on the ground.Vaisala’s Strike Damage Potential data identifiesthe ground strike points from cloud-to-groundflashes.For further readingBlog:What is a lightning strike?Blog:Introducing Strike Damage Potential – rapid,automated, global lightning event analysis2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Monitoring trends in Arctic lightningto evaluate impacts of climate changeThe World Meteorological Organization declaredlightning as an Essential Climate Variable becauseunderstanding where and how frequently itoccurs can help us better understand changes toour climate. Lightning in the Arctic region is animportant indicator for the potential impacts ofclimate change because it identifies intrusions ofwarm, high-humidity air.Nearly twice as much lightning was detected north of 80 N in 2021than in the previous nine years combinedAt most latitudes in the Arctic, lightning countshave remained consistent in the last 10 years, butare trending significantly higher north of 80 N. In2019, the furthest north lightning on record wasdetected by GLD360, just 52 km from the NorthPole. Climate scientists and other researcherswill continue to monitor the trends in lightningin the Arctic to understand how conditions arechanging in this remote location.For further readingBlog:Revising the record on record lightning at theNorth Pole2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

We didn’t start the fire, but lightning didThousands of lightning-triggered fires burn millions of acres annuallyLightning is the cause of just 14% of United Stateswildfires, but these fires result in 58% of theacreage burned each year.Not all lightning is the same and some strikeshave more potential for damage than others,so Vaisala released a new analytical tool calledStrike Damage Potential in November. For everylightning flash that occurs around the world,Vaisala can identify the most likely groundcontact point and categorize the potentialfor the lightning to cause damage to energyinfrastructure, buildings, and other objects on theground. Strike Damage Potential also identifiesthe strikes most likely to contain long continuingcurrent, the longest lasting lightning strikes withpotential to cause extreme heating and fires.LIGHTNINGThe Bootleg Fire became the third-largestwildfire in Oregon history in 2021, burning morethan 400,000 acres. The fire was triggered bylightning that occurred on June 24 and wasidentified on July 6. The National LightningDetection Network detected 14 cloud-to-groundstrokes on June 24 that struck six individualground points.Fire causes in the U.S.HUMANLIGHTNINGAcres burned in the U.S.HUMAN2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022One ground contact point containing eight cloudto-ground strokes was identified by the StrikeDamage Potential algorithm as having a higherprobability of continuing current, which lastshundreds of times longer than lightning withoutcontinuing current.

Lightning leaders – United StatesTop 10 states with the most total lightning by count and by densityTOP TEN STATES BYTOTAL LIGHTNING COUNTIN 2021TOP TEN STATES BYTOTAL LIGHTNING DENSITYPER km2 IN 20211Texas 41,914,5161Florida 2Florida 14,645,0132Louisiana3Louisiana ,9906District of is6,263,8628Illinois41.769Nebraska 6,143,1479Kansas41.5510 Arkansas5,659,90010 Arkansas2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 202285.9981.6242.6041.09Lightning count or lightning density?There are two primary ways to look at how muchlightning occurred over a region – the lightningcount and the lightning density. In the case of theUnited States, Texas always has higher lightningcount than any other state, due in part to its sizeand location. To enable comparisons betweenregions, dividing the number of lightning events bythe square area gives us lightning density.Definition: stepped leaderThe stepped leader is the beginning of the cloudto-ground lightning flash. It moves in 50-meter(165 feet) intervals from the cloud to the groundat speeds of 90,000 meters per second (200,000miles per hour)! The stepped leader branchesdownward and outward as it senses the electriccharge near it as it approaches ground. Lightningoccurs when the stepped leader connects with anupward leader.Definition: upward leaderAs the stepped leader approaches ground,oppositely charged particles begin accumulatingon trees, buildings, and other objects. Theattraction of the particles on the ground to thestepped leader causes them to rise into the airas an upward leader. When the upward leaderconnects to the stepped leader, the lightningchannel is complete, electricity flows from thecloud to the ground, and a bright flash of lightningoccurs.

Lightning leaders – globallyTop 10 countries with the most total lightning by count and by densityTOP TEN COUNTRIES BYTOTAL LIGHTNING COUNTSIN 2021TOP TEN COUNTRIES BYTOTAL LIGHTNING DENSITYPER km2 IN 20211Brazil225,607,5751Singapore2United States ofAmericaDemocraticRepublic of theCongo194,549,6962Macao lic of theCongo77.145Mainland El Salvador65.337India51,501,5007Republic of 44,924,9699Vietnam58.0110 Colombia36,435,1313180,105,987135.61105.2210 Philippines2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT163.08 Vaisala 202256.59Spotlight: Lake MaracaiboOn average, lightning occurs nearly 300 daysper year over Lake Maracaibo, the largest lakein South America. Lake Maracaibo is located inVenezuela, between the northernmost ridges ofthe Andes Mountains. Warm water temperatures,favorable winds, and its location in the tropicscreate prime conditions for thunderstorms todevelop and make Lake Maracaibo the lightningcapital of the world.

Seasonality of lightning in the United StatesLightning is highly seasonal in the United States.On average, two-thirds of the lightning in theUnited States occurs during the summer months.This can be seen in the chart with the higherdaily totals appearing in June, July, and August.There are subseasonal patterns visible as well.Numerous peaks and declines in lightning activityare visible because storm systems develop, move,and dissipate across the country, resulting instormier and calmer patterns.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Flashy days – Top 10 dates with the most total lightning in the U.S.Cloud-to-ground strokes plus cloud pulsesTOP TEN TOTAL LIGHTNINGCOUNTS BY DATE IN 20214,432,5951May 22August 10 3July 92,751,2344August 92,716,1965July 82,595,2286July 302,587,0637August 82,477,4418August 112,439,0239June 1910 June 6More lightning was detected by NLDN onMay 2, 2021, during a multiple day severe weatheroutbreak across the country, than on any otherday since 2017. 88 tornadoes were reportedbetween May 2–3 across the United States.2,917,8612,396,5182,168,9052021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022August 11 (3rd), July 9 (7th), and August 10 (10th)ranked among the ten most active severe weatherdays in the United States this year.Identifying weather patterns conducive tofrequent lightning improves preparationfor potential severe weather, operationalinterruptions, and power outages.

Historic severe weather outbreaks impact central andeastern portions of the United States in mid-DecemberSevere weather is typically at a minimum inDecember, but the tragic events of December2021 reminded us that severe thunderstorms canoccur any time and any place the conditions arefavorable. In the United States, severe weatheris defined as hail larger than 2.5 cm (1 in) indiameter, thunderstorm wind gusts stronger than93 kph (58 mph), or tornadoes.Severe weather outbreaks on December 10-11 andDecember 15 produced record numbers oftornadoes and wind gusts higher than 121 kph(75 mph) across large swaths of the UnitedStates. Between 2000 and 2020, only twoDecember days were ranked in the top-10active severe weather days for the year. BothDecember 10 and December 15 were among thetop-10 active severe weather days of 2021, withDecember 15 ranking as the most active.The map on this page shows NLDN lightningdensity for the two December severe weatheroutbreaks. Highest lightning density regions areassociated with the strongest thunderstormsfrom the outbreaks. NLDN detected more than1,000,000 lightning events during the two severeweather episodes.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Scraping the sky and catching lightningDon’t believe the myth – lightning does strikethe same place twice! Skyscrapers, radio and TVtowers, and wind turbines are frequently struckby lightning, sometimes even triggering lightningduring winter storms. Skyscrapers are built withlightning protection in mind and have systemsin place to safely take electricity from lightningstrokes to the ground.Even though Willis Tower, Trump InternationalHotel, and the John Hancock Center are allshorter than One World Trade Center, theyare struck by lightning as frequently or morefrequently. Chicago, Illinois, averages morelightning than New York City, New York, eachyear, so there is more opportunity for thesebuildings to be struck.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022The Washington Monument was struck bylightning on August 15 and closed for almost twoweeks as repairs to the electrical access systemwere completed. In 2020, a Vaisala analysis foundthe Washington Monument is struck up to twiceper year. Read more in a blog:Striking history: Lightning and the WashingtonMonument

Total lightning counts per state in 2021Cloud-to-ground strokes plus cloud pulses – with rankings compared to 20201 Texas41,914,51618 13 Arizona 2 33,573,53935 3 Maryland893,700Florida14,645,01319 5Colorado3,451,75636 5 Nevada730,222 3Louisiana11,071,44420 5North Dakota3,196,74637 1 Idaho458,1584 1Oklahoma9,940,752212,901,15038 New Jersey452,9975 1Kansas8,855,79022 1Ohio2,767,78239 California6 1Missouri7,690,99023 Virginia7 1Mississippi6,999,38824 8Minnesota8 3Illinois6,263,86225 7North Carolina9 Nebraska6,143,14726 1Indiana2,490,40843 5 Connecticut134,07310 3Arkansas5,659,90027 3Pennsylvania2,255,84544 Maine109,70511 1Georgia5,533,35428 Wisconsin2,118,16845 1 Massachusetts109,27712 2Alabama5,142,74829 10 South Carolina2,117,02746 1 Vermont71,26413 7New Mexico5,114,23530 4 Montana1,976,33347 2 New Hampshire56,75414 8Iowa4,134,34331Wyoming1,563,32648 5 Washington55,77915 3South Dakota 4,063,47332 5Utah1,256,89549 Hawaii16 3Tennessee3,914,93633 West Virginia1,071,30850 District ofColumbia9,40817 Kentucky3,703,26834 New York1,037,41251Rhode Island 8,590 4 Michigan 22021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 20222,704,2052,632,1192,545,15640 5 Alaska41 1 Oregon42 Delaware438,137306,298196,356151,53417,110

Total lightning density per state in 2021Cloud-to-ground strokes plus cloud pulses – with rankings compared to 20201 85.9918 6 Indiana26.4035 2 Connecticut9.342 2 Louisiana81.6219 7 South Carolina25.5236 New York7.343 4 Texas60.2520 2 Virginia24.4137 3 Wyoming6.174 1 Mississippi55.792123.8438 6 Utah5.725 3 Oklahoma54.9122 4 Delaware39 4 Montana5.196 3 District of Columbia53.1423 2 South Dakota20.3440 1Massachusetts4.007 3 Missouri24 4 New Jersey20.0541Vermont2.868 5 Illinois41.7625 4 Pennsylvania18.9142 6 Nevada2.559 41.5626 7 North Carolina18.2643 4 New Hampshire2.3410 3 Arkansas41.0927 4 North Dakota17.4644 2 Rhode Island2.1511 4 Alabama37.8728 117.0745 2 Idaho2.1212 1 Georgia 35.9529 3 New Mexico16.2446 11.2013 5 Tennessee35.8730 112.8047 2 California1.0314 Kentucky34.433112.4948 2 Hawaii1.0115 1 Nebraska30.6632 6 Arizona12.1049 2 Oregon0.7716 9 Iowa28.3733 7 Minnesota11.6950 4 Washington0.3017 34 4 Michigan11.58510.20Florida42.60KansasMaryland27.81 1OhioWest VirginiaColorado 2 Wisconsin2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 202223.51 1 MaineAlaska

Total lightning density gridded map 2021Cloud-to-ground strokes plus cloud pulses2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Total lightning density gridded map 2015–2020Cloud-to-ground strokes plus cloud pulses2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Total lightning density 2021per county2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Total lightning density 2015–2020per county2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Total lightning density ratio 2021 vs 2015–2020per county2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Cloud-to-ground flash density gridded map 20212021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Cloud-to-ground flash density gridded map 2015–20202021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Cloud-to-ground flash density 2021per county2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Cloud-to-ground flash density 2015–2020per county2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

We’ve lost the bleeps, the sweeps, and the creepsWeather radar sites impacted by lightningDoppler weather radars monitor the skies forrain, snow, sleet, and hail, and for potential windhazards, like damaging wind gusts, wind shear,and developing tornadoes. Standing high abovetheir surroundings, radars are also at risk of beingstruck by lightning.In 2021, the weather radars in Grand Rapids,Michigan; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Tulsa,Oklahoma, were all knocked offline after lightningat the radar sites. None of those radars were themost likely to be impacted by lightning in the last5 years, though. That title went to the radar inReno, Nevada.Hitting the jackpot in RenoWhen it comes to weather preparedness, amantra to live by is, “it only takes one”. Just onethunderstorm, one tornado, or one hurricanecan have major impacts. Reno, Nevada, certainlyisn’t a place you would think of to be among theleaders of lightning – but the National WeatherService radar in Reno had more lightning nearit between 2016 and 2021 than any other NWSradar in the continental United States. And it wassubstantially because of one day. On May 5, 2016,multiple thunderstorms developed near Reno,Nevada, and impacted the radar site with 46cloud-to-ground lightning strokes.RadarLocationKRGXReno, NV61KLZKLittle Rock, AR19KMXX Maxwell AFB, AL17KCYSCheyenne, WY16KLIXNew Orleans, LA14KJAXJacksonville, FL12KEMXTucson, AZ11KVAXMoody AFB, GA11KEOXFort Rucker, AL10KMAF Midland, TX2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022Lightningwithin 150meters,2016–202110

Total lightning counts per country in 2021Cloud-to-ground strokes plus cloud pulses – visit for the full list123Brazil United States ofAmerica Democratic Republicof the Congo 225,607,575 18Vietnam 19,084,100 35 Ethiopia 194,549,696 19South Sudan 18,874,542 36 Gabon 10,908,095 20 Sudan 18,414,509 37 Mali 10,580,574 2117,934,373 38180,105,987 4Australia 5Mainland China 6Indonesia 7India 8Mexico 9Argentina 44,924,969 10 Colombia 36,435,131 146,629,026 Canada United Republic ofTanzania 11,110,966 10,366,766 86,102,056 22 Malaysia 17,738,435 39 Myanmar 9,424,011 81,767,821 23 Thailand 17,434,214 40 Botswana 8,255,351 51,501,500 24 Madagascar 17,173,300 418,149,090 50,751,946 25 Philippines 16,430,847 Laos 42 Guinea 7,951,690 26 Paraguay 15,831,613 43 Cuba 6,631,685 27 Cameroon 15,798,178 44 Niger 6,580,066 28 South Africa 15,218,008 45 Bangladesh 11Central AfricanRepublic 12Angola 29,212,237 29 Chad 14,881,673 46 Uganda 5,718,017 13Russia 28,937,138 30 Papua New Guinea 14,190,419 47 Guatemala 5,281,714 14Peru 15Bolivia 27,831,934 16Nigeria 24,579,034 17Republic of the Congo29,324,897 28,754,564 21,091,34931Venezuela 32 Zambia 13,500,639 13,193,767 5,757,836 48 Ghana 5,270,657 49 Ivory Coast 5,254,329 33 Mozambique 12,998,483 50 Namibia 5,057,306 34 Cambodia 12,248,660 514,993,109 2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022Zimbabwe

Total lightning density per country in 2021Cloud-to-ground strokes plus cloud pulses – visit for the full list1Singapore 163.08 18Gabon 41.84 35 Nigeria 26.96 2Macao S.A.R. 135.61 19Paraguay 39.49 36 Belize 26.69 3Brunei 37.81 37 Brazil 26.54 4Democratic Republic ofthe Congo 77.14 2135.89 38 Mexico 25.86 5Cambodia 67.53 22 Laos 35.59 39 Liberia 25.77 6El Salvador 65.33 23 Sierra Leone 34.64 40 Bolivia 25.53 7Republic of the Congo 60.80 24 Sri Lanka 34.52 4125.36 8Cuba 60.67 25 Cameroon 33.91 42 Togo 24.61 9Vietnam 58.01 26 Thailand 33.80 43 Taiwan 24.23 10 Philippines 56.59 27 Guinea 32.46 44 Uruguay 23.96 11Malaysia 54.14 28 Hong Kong S.A.R. 32.25 45 Uganda 23.57 12Guatemala 48.68 29 Colombia 31.97 46 Angola 23.38 13Central African Republic 47.22 30 Haiti 31.64 47 Benin 14Indonesia 43.67 3130.56 48 Honduras 23.07 15Jamaica 42.77 32 South Sudan 30.25 49 Costa Rica 22.19 16Panama 42.58 33 Madagascar 28.88 50 Peru 22.18 17Bangladesh 42.44 34 Equatorial Guinea28.87 51105.22 20 East Timor Eswatini Papua New Guinea 2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022Guinea-Bissau Ghana 23.17 22.00

Global lightning density 20212021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Average global lightning density 2016–20202021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Spotlight: CanadaA major lightning outbreak punctuates extreme summer weather in CanadaSituated on the cool waters of the northernPacific Ocean, British Columbia typically doesnot see as much lightning as other parts ofCanada, like Manitoba or Saskatchewan. This wasnot the case between June 30 and July 1, 2021.An unprecedented heat wave, which set a newCanadian high temperature record, helped tocause major wildfires across the province.In extreme fire conditions, pyrocumulonimbusclouds developed and lightning occurred over thefires. At the same time, a storm system movedinto northern British Columbia and triggeredsevere thunderstorms.All told, Vaisala detected more than 710,000lightning events across British Columbia and farnorthwestern Alberta in just 15 hours.For further readingBlog: Pyrocumulonimbus event in BritishColumbia, Canada2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Spotlight: Brazil2021's global lightning count leaderOn October 31, 2018, a lightning flash oversouthern Brazil covered a horizontal distanceof more than 700 kilometers (435 miles) andwas validated as the world record longest flashdistance.Research from 2010 estimates that severethunderstorms in January 2005 destroyed 500million trees in the Amazon Rainforest over Brazil.The Amazon Rainforest is the largest rainforestin the world and plays major roles in the oxygen,carbon, and water cycles on Earth.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Spotlight: ItalyMediterranean climate creates favorable conditions for Europe's lightning leaderOn October 4, 2021, more than 74 cm (29 in)of rain fell on Rossiglione, Italy, in just 12 hours.Just to the west, in Cairo Montenotte, more than49 cm (19 in) of rain fell in six hours.Thunderstorms repeatedly moved from theMediterranean Sea over the region dumpingheavy rainfall and producing copious amountsof lightning. GLD360 detected hundreds ofthousands of lightning events over the regionbetween October 4 and 5.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Spotlight: IndiaIncreasing awareness of lightning to protect people and propertyLightning is a significant threat to life andproperty in India. Its location in the tropics,surrounded by the Indian Ocean, with theHimalaya Mountains to the north create favorablegeographic conditions for thunderstormdevelopment.The summer monsoon increases thunderstormactivity. Efforts to improve lightning safetyawareness are underway and high-qualityinformation produced from GLD360 lightningdata highlights the most at risk regions in thecountry.For further readingArticle:Why India Experiences a High Rate of LightningDeaths (Discover Magazine, August, 2021)2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Spotlight: EthiopiaEnhanced lightning detection to minimize the impact of thunderstorm hazardsHigh-quality weather and air quality observationsare critical to helping society respond to thechallenges of climate change.Over the next several years, Vaisala and theFinnish Meteorological Institute will be workingwith the National Meteorological Agency inEthiopia to strengthen the weather observationnetwork across the country. Included in theproject will be new weather radars, a highprecision lightning detection network, and an airquality network in Addis Ababa.For further readingPress release:Vaisala’s meteorological infrastructure project inEthiopia gets go-ahead2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Spotlight: AustraliaDetecting lightning in thunderstorms, fires, and cyclones in the Land Down UnderMillions of acres of land are burned acrossAustralia each year during wildfires, damaginghomes and buildings, threatening human andanimal lives, and costing billions of dollars torespond. Dry thunderstorms and lightning frompyrocumulonimbus clouds put first responders atrisk and initiate additional fires.Lightning data that accurately identifies in-cloudand cloud-to-ground lightning provides criticalinsights to wildland fire agencies, keeping firstresponders safe and identifying regions at risk forlightning-triggered fires.October 2021 brought severe thunderstorms toportions of Australia, including a supercell nearYalboroo, Queensland. The storm produced haillarger than softballs and one of the stone set theAustralia record for largest hail, measuring 16 cm(6.3 in) in diameter.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

An island is bornLightning data improves monitoring of remote volcanoesAn eruption at Fukutoku-Oka-No-Ba Volcano,located near South Iwo Jima, Japan, occurredin August–September 2021 and created a newisland around the volcano caldera.Because the summit of the volcano isunderwater, the initial explosive eruptionpropelled salt water into the air along withash and magma. Collisions among theseparticles created significant electric charge inthe eruptive plume and extreme amounts oflightning occurred. At the peak of the initialeruptive period in August, GLD360 detectednearly 8,000 lightning events per hour.For further readingBlog:Real-time volcanic eruption monitoringwith GLD3602021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022

Lightning safetyTips to stay safe whenlightning is nearbyAny thunderstorm, whether it has one cloud-toground flash or one thousand, has the potential tobe dangerous. That’s why it is important to knowwhat to do when lightning is in the area.Know the forecast!If you have outdoor plans, make sure you checkthe weather forecast! If thunderstorms arepredicted, you might want to change your plans.When to get to safetyIf you see tall, towering clouds, hear thunder, orsee lightning, it’s time to end outdoor activitiesand get to a safe place. A subscription to Vaisalalightning data will tell you when lightning is tooclose.When thunder roars, go indoors!Safely resuming outdoor activitiesThe only safe place during a thunderstorm isinside away from lightning. Get inside a houseor other building that has electrical wiring andplumbing in the walls or a metal-topped vehicle.A subscription to Vaisala lightning data will tellyou when lightning has moved far enough awayfor you to return to outdoor activities. If you don’thave access to lightning data, waiting 30 minutesafter the last thunder can keep you safe.2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT Vaisala 2022What to do if someone is struck bylightningPeople struck by lightning don’t carry an electric

2021 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT V aisala 2022 Global lightning detection for more than 10 years. Vaisala's owned-and-operated . Global Lightning Dataset GLD. 360 is the only truly global lightning detection network and has been detecting lightning around the planet since 2009. It is the most advanced and accurate long-range lightning detection .

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