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Oakville’s Guide toGarden ing Naturally

October 2007

Mission StatementThe Town of Oakville1225 Trafalgar RdOakville, OntarioReducing pesticides is perfectly natural!Over the past several years, the Town has virtuallyeliminated the use of pesticides on public lands.As of January 1, 2008, the use of pesticideswithin Oakville Town limits on public and privateproperty will be regulated.This is anotherpositive step forward in protecting the health ofour community and Oakville’s ide Hotline905-815-6090Please contact uswith specific concernsregarding:lawn and gardeningpracticeswater-efficient plantsnative plantsalternativeground coverspest problemsgeneral gardeningadviceThere are simple and effective ways to maintainyour lawn, garden, trees and shrubs withoutusing non-permitted pesticides. This Town of Oakville’s Guideto Gardening Naturally can tell you how. It contains informationabout the Pesticide By-law, tips on how to grow a healthy lawnwithout using chemicals and much more. I encourage you to keepit on hand and reference it frequently.By working together we will keep Oakville naturally green and morelivable.Sincerely,Mayor Rob BurtonOakville’s Guide to gardening naturally1

ContentsDisclaimerThis document has beenprepared by the Town ofOakville for educationaland information purposesonly. The Town of Oakvilleis not responsible forthe products, methodsand practices described.Residents are solelyresponsible for the healthand appearance of theirlawns and vegetation.How it all came about.3Implementation Plan - Pesticide Task Force.3Pesticide Awareness.4Public Lands.4Private Lands - Naturally Green Education Campaign.4Pesticide Registry and Sensitive Use Areas .4Education and Outreach.5Outreach Initiatives .5Governing the Sale of Pesticides.5By-Law Basics.6-7Permitted Pesticides.8Insecticidal Soaps.8Mineral Oil.8Silicon Dioxide.8Bacillus Thuringiensis.9Borax.9Ferric Phosphate.9Acetic Acid.9Pyrethrins .9Quick Reference Tables .10Common Insect Solutions.10Permitted Product Brands Available In Stores.11Getting Started.12Canadian Soil Texture Triangle.13Soil pH.13Nutrient Analysis . . 13-14Natural Fertilizers.14Amending your Soil.15Amendment Products.15Backyard Composting.16Acceptable Product List for Backyard Composting.16Seasonal Calendar .17-18Definitions.19Quick Reference Table.20Using Cultural Practices to Eliminate Pests.20Identifying your Common Turf /Garden Pests – Weeds.21Identifying your Common Turf /Garden Pests – Insect.21Appendices.22-28CreditsVarious resources have been referenced in the development of this document. The Town of Oakville acknowledgesthat the “Pesticides & Herbicide Free Greenspace in the City of Thorold” by the City of Thorold served as thetemplate for this Guide.The City of Thoroldwww.thorold.comThe City of Torontowww.toronto.ca/The Town of Markhamwww.markham.caPest Management Regulatory Agency www.pmra-arla.gc.ca/Landscape Ontariowww.landscapeontario.caHealth ville’s Pesticide Task Forcewww.oakville.caHalton Partners for Naturally Greenwww.halton.ca/health/services/pesticidesThere are many excellent sources of green gardening information accessible through the internet.2Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally

How it all came aboutProud of its reputation as a vibrant, clean and safe town, Oakville is committed topracticing and promoting environmental stewardship. Every year, the Town implementsenvironmental programs, policies and by-laws for the benefit of our community. InDecember of 2006, Oakville Town Council proposed implementing a by-law restrictingthe use of pesticides within the Town on both private and public lands.On February 5 & 6 of 2007, Town Council listened to over 40 delegates who wishedto speak to the proposed pesticide by-law. On February 12th, 2007 Oakville Councilpassed the Pesticide By-law (By-Law 2007-036), which will regulate the use of chemicalpesticides on public and private properties within Town limits. This by-law will come intoforce and effect on January 1, 2008.In June 2007, several by-law revisions and an implementation plan were approved byCouncil.Implementation PlanPesticide Task ForceTo aid in developing a community-based public awareness strategy, Council approvedthe establishment of a Pesticide Task Force with the mandate to:“ provide advice to Council on the creation and execution of an education plan to enhanceefforts already being undertaken by the Town and Region of Halton to support theobjectives of the proposed Pesticide By-law and the development of a strategy to encouragecooperation and support from retailers who presently sell pesticides”- (Pesticide Task Force Terms of Reference)Affiliation2 members of Council1 member of the EnvironmentalStrategic Plan Advisory Committee1 member engaged in the retail sale of pesticide1 member of the lawn and garden industry whoactively carries out business in the Town2 members nominated by Gardens Off DrugsDirector of Environmental PolicyDirector of Parks and Open SpaceNameCouncillor Jeff KnollCouncillor Allan ElgarLiz BenneianAaron Mahoney, Home Depot,Special Events/Community OutreachDon McQueen, Owner, Nutri-LawnJoanne KaySusan CurranCindy TothChris MarkThe Task Force met often over a six-week period to consider the best components ofan Education and Outreach Strategy. A key recommendation was to develop this Guideto support the Oakville community’s compliance with the By-Law in a positive way byproviding a comprehensive reference on how to Garden Naturally.Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally3

Pesticide awarenessPublic LandsThe Town has responsibility for 1,280 hectares of land out of a total of 13,971 hectareswithin the Town. Chemical pesticides have been used as a last resort on property ownedby the Town since 2002. The Town has used a number of practices for turf managementand other areas to maintain greenspaces, including: Different cutting regimes to increase the vigor of turf and reduce weed invasionThe use of integrated pest management techniques, emphasizing cultural, biologicaland monitoring techniquesIncreased use of naturalizationThe installation of irrigation systemOne preferred practice has been to use horticultural vinegar to aid in controlling unwantedpests. Under regulations set by the Ministry of the Environment, Town staff must postpesticide signs when applying horticultural vinegar.Private Lands - Naturally Green Education CampaignTogether with the City of Burlington, Town of Milton, Town of Halton Hills, Landscape Ontarioand the Organic Landscape Alliance, Oakville is a member of Halton Partners for NaturallyGreen led by Halton Region, . In June 2003, the partners launched a public education andawareness program to inform the public about the potential risks of pesticides and thealternatives that are available, such as biological and cultural control methods, to createhealthy and attractive lawns and gardens. Council, at its meeting of February 16, 2004,resolved to develop and implement a targeted education campaign to promote a reductionin the use of pesticides on private property.The Town produced an information sheet to keep residents informed on the actionstaken across Halton Region regarding pesticide use (Appendix A). Appendix B providesthe Halton Partner’s “10 Steps to Naturally Green.”Pesticide Registry and Sensitive Use AreasIn 2004, the Town also established a registry for individuals who are sensitive to pesticides.Individuals sensitive to the use of pesticides registered by contacting the PesticideInformation Line. Educational materials, along with a letter from the Town, were sent toneighbouring properties within 50 metres of registrants. The information advised thatan individual with pesticide sensitivities, lived nearby and promoted consideration.This service will be discontinued on January 1, 2008 when the by-law comes into forceand effect.4Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally

Pesticide awarenessTown-wide “Sensitive Use” AreasTown residents have been encouraged to identify if their property is within 50 metresof an area identified as being a “sensitive use” area. Reducing the use of pesticides inlocations where children and residents with vulnerable health reside is advisable. Sensitiveuse areas include properties containing schools, licensed daycares, playgrounds, parks,churches and other faith organizations, licensed seniors’ residences, universities andhospitals.Education is where it all begins .A general understanding of the by-law is critical to its success community-wide. It is notabout what is prohibited, but about what options are available and successful.This document provides: Information to Oakville residents on the specifics of the by-law Detailed information regarding proper cultural practices, alternatives to chemicalfertilizers and pesticides, common pest problems and identification, water-efficientlandscaping and native plantsOutreach InitiativesThe Town of Oakville, in partnership with the Naturally Green education program,participates regularly in a wide variety of community outreach activities each year.Check the Town of Oakville’s and the Region of Halton’s websites for more informationon Green Gardening community events throughout Halton.Governing the Sale of PesticidesAlthough the Town of Oakville has worked to protect the natural environment from theunnecessary application of chemical pesticides, it cannot govern the sale of pesticides.Products not in compliance with Oakville’s by-law will still remain available. It is up to theconsumer to ensure the products they purchase are in compliance with the Town’s bylaw. Look for naturally organic products, such as the ones described in this guide.Educationand Outreach“Education: a debt due from present to future generations.”- George PeabodyOakville’s Guide to gardening naturally5

By-law basicsOakville’s By-Law By-law 2007-036, A by-law to regulate the use of pesticides within the Town of Oakville.Consolidated Pesticide By-law 2007-036, amended by By-Law 2007-123.DefinitionsDid you know.In this by-law, the following word has the following meaning:Pesticides include herbicides, insecticidesand fungicides, as wellas products that area combination of pesticides and fertilizers(such as “Weed andFeed”).I.P.M. accredited golf course – means a golf course that:(i) Obtains and maintains accreditation in a recognized integrated pest managementprogram from the IPM-PHC Council of Ontario, or equivalent, as determined by theTown; andEven biodegradable orproducts permittedfor use under the bylaw are still pesticidesand are regulated bythe Pest ManagementRegulatoryAgency(PMRA). All pesticideshave the inherent riskof danger when notused as directed.(ii) Provides proof of I.P.M. accreditation to the Town Clerk on or before January 31st ofeach year.Pesticides – means:(i) A product, an organism or a substance that is a registered control productunder the federal Pest Control Products Act which is used as a means for directlyor indirectly controlling, destroying, attracting or repelling a pest or for mitigatingor preventing its injurious, noxious or troublesome effects.(ii) Despite Subsection (i), a pesticide does not include the products listed inSchedule “A” to this by-law.Pest – means any animal, a plant or other organism that is injurious, noxious ortroublesome, whether directly or indirectly, and an injurious, noxious or troublesomecondition or organic function of an animal, a plant or other organism.By-Law 2007-036 Section 2No person shall apply or cause or permit the application of a pesticide within theboundaries of the Town of Oakville.By-Law 2007-036 Section 3ExceptionsNotwithstanding Article 2, it is permitted to apply or use a pesticide in the followingcases:a) In a public or private swimming pool;b) To control termites;c) As a wood preservative;d) To exterminate or repel rodents;e) For injection into or painting on trees, stumps or wooden poles;f) To purify water for human or animal use;g) Inside of a building;h) On land used for the commercial production of food;6Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally

By-law basicsi) To control, destroy, reduce or repel, directly or indirectly, an animal, plant orother organism which is harmful to human health;j) On an I.P.M. accredited golf course or at the Oakville Lawn Bowling green,provided that any such use or application is in keeping with the integratedpest management program in place at the golf course or lawn bowling green;k) To control buckthorn;l) At a hydro substation, a utility distribution station or within a hydro railwaycorridor; orm) As an insect repellent applied on the person.By-Law 2007-036 Section 4a) Every individual who is convicted of an offence is liable to a fine of not lessthan 250 and not more than 5 000 for a first offence, and to a fine of notmore than 10 000 for a subsequent offence.b) If a corporation is convicted of an offence, the maximum penalty that may beimposed upon the corporation is 50 000 for a first offence and 100 000for a subsequent offence and not as provided in a).c) For the purpose of subsections a) and b), an offence is a subsequent offenceif there has been a previous conviction under this by-law.By-Law 2007-036 Section 5Effective Date: This by-law comes into force and effect on January 1, 2008.Schedule “A”(1) A product that uses pheromones to lure pests, sticky media to trap pests or “quickkill” traps for vertebrate species considered pests, such as mice and rats.(2) A product that is or contains one the following active ingredients:a) A soap;b) A mineral oil, also called “dormant or horticultural oil”;c) Silicon dioxide, also called “diatomaceous earth”;d) Biological pesticides, including Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) and nematodes;e) Borax, also called “boric acid” or “boracic acid”;f) Ferric phosphate;g) Acetic acid;h) Pyrethrum or pyrethrins;i) Fatty acids;j) Sulphur; ork) Corn gluten meal.Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally7

Permitted pesticides.Approved Pesticides for use in OakvilleAlways Remember All pesticides, whether chemical or organic, permitted or restricted, have the inherentor potential danger of: killing or harming beneficial plants, insects and mites; being harmful (toxic) to plants, animal, fish and humans if not used as directed; causing skin or eye irritations; being toxic until diluted or washed away; and being harmful if ingested or inhaled.Always read and follow manufacturer’s directions before applying any type of product toyour lawn or garden.More Information on Permitted PesticidesBy-Law 2007-036 speaks specifically to the products which can still be applied to your lawnand garden.The products listed as acceptable under the by-law have been successfully used by gardeners for years. Many of the techniques suggested work with nature to create healthylawns and gardens. If you have been using pesticides on your lawn and garden regularly,it is likely that many of the beneficial organisms in your soil have been killed. Be patient.Over time, as you use the good cultural practices suggested in this guide, they will comeback and work to improve your lawn’s appearance.Insecticidal Soaps(fatty acids)Makeup: fatty acids that are biodegradable similar to household soapsQualities: works upon contact with target pestsAvailable in: ready-to-use products, liquid concentrates, (may be in combination withother pesticides)Targets: soft body insects, aphids, caterpillars, crickets, fleas, flies, mitesMineral Oil(horticultural oil, dormant oil)Makeup: emulsified oil to be diluted in waterQualities: acts upon contact with pest, suffocates and disrupts physical processesAvailable in: liquid concentrateTargets: aphids, spider mites, mealy bugs, sawfly larvae, whiteflies, plant bugs,caterpillars, and plant diseases such as rust and mildewSilicon Dioxide(diatomaceous earth)Makeup: fossilized diatom (phytoplankton algae) shells from natural depositsQualities: dehydrates pests, has long residual effect under dry conditionsAvailable in: dust form or wettable powdersTargets: earwigs, ants, cockroaches and fleas both indoor and outdoor applications8Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally

Permitted pesticidesBacillus Thuringiensis(Bt)Makeup: common species of soil bacteria that produces spores and proteincrystals that infect and kill caterpillarsQualities: short residual affects, as it causes caterpillars to stop feeding and eventuallystarve to deathAvailable in: liquid concentrate or wettable powderTargets: caterpillars, mosquito and beetle larvae, tent caterpillar, tobacco hornworm,gypsy mothBorax(boric acid)Makeup:Qualities:Available in:Targets:mined from deposits in the earthacts as a stomach poison; long residual effects if kept dryready to use liquids, dusts and baitsmany crawling insects such as roaches, termites, fire ants, palmetto bugs,ticks, bedbugs, fleas, boxelder bugs, carpet beetles, centipedes, crickets,earwigs, grasshoppers, millipedes, scorpions, slugs, water bugsFerric Phosphate(iron phosphate)Makeup: solid that does not readily dissolve in waterQualities: when eaten, it causes snails and slugs to stop feeding and die within 3-6days; it’s inability to dissolve in water maximizes its dispersal timeAvailable in: pellets which contain bait to attract snails and slugsTargets:slugs and snailsAcetic Acid(vinegar)Makeup: formed out of the naturally decaying process of plants; horticulturalvinegar contains 18% acetic acidQualities: A non-selective herbicide, it will kill whatever it comes into contact with;spot spray carefully to avoid non-target plantsAvailable in: liquid concentrationsTargets:all plant life that it comes into contact withPyrethrins (non synthetic)(pyrethrum)Makeup: extracted from pyrethrin daisiesQualities: acts upon contactAvailable in: ready to use liquids, liquid concentrates and dusts, may be in combinationwith other insecticides and fungicidesTargets:aphids, caterpillars, fleas, beetles, leafhoppers, spider mites, ants,cockroaches, earwigs, flies, mosquitoes, gnats, yellow jacketsAt this point in time there are no organic or exempt herbicides that will selectively control anunwanted weed without also hurting the grass. Currently, all organic herbicides on the exemptlist are non-selective in that they kill both the targeted weed and the immediate surroundinggrass. Reseeding or resodding will be required to fill in the resultant dead spots.Please note.The next two tablesprovide you with‘quick hit’ referencesthat will identifythe option of remedies available foryour common pestproblems. Neitherlist should be considered as comprehensive. Productsand manufacturers, along with pestproblems, are everchanging.Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally9

Quick Reference TablesPyrethrum orPyrethrinsAcetic AcidFerricPhosphateBorax, Boric acid,Boracic acidNematodes*Bt ( BacillusThuringiensis)SiliconDioxideMineral OilDormant orHorticultural OilPermittedPesticidesInsecticidal Soapor Fatty AcidCommon Insect SolutionsAphidsAntsArmy hinch BugsCockroachesCranefly LarvaeCricketsCutwormsEarwigsFire antsFleasFliesGnatsGrasshoppersGypsy MothsLeafhopperScorpionsSlugsSnailsSod WebwormsSpider MitesTent CaterpillarsTermitesTicksMealy bugsMitesMosquito LarvaeWater bugsWhite GrubsYellow Jackets*Nematodes: micro-organisms that are sprayed onto your lawn under optimal weather and rainconditions. Nematodes are selected based on the targeted pest. Not all nematodes control all pests.Check the manufacturer’s label for proper application.10Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally

Quick reference tablesPermitted Product Brands Available In StoresBy-LawActive IngredientSchedule “A”(1)PheromoneSticky mediaQuick kill traps2 a)A soapCommon NamesSample of Available ProductsInsecticidal soapSafer’s Trounce Yard and Garden InsecticideGreen Earth Insecticidal SoapWilson Pro Insecticidal Soap ConcentratePlant Products Dormant OilGreen Earth Horticultural Oil Insect SprayLater’s Dormant Oil SprayChemfree Insectigone Crawling Insect KillerGreen Earth Bio Bug and Slug KillerRaid Earthblends Ant and Earwig DustBugout InsecticideSafer’s BTK Biological InsecticideEnvironmental Factor Grub BustersNatural Insect control Lawn GuardNematodesWilson Liquid AntexRaid Liquid Ant KillerSafer’s Attack Ant KillerSluggo Slug and Snail Bait for GardensScott’s EcoSense Slug and Snail BaitSafer’s Slug and Snail BaitEcoClearPresident’s Choice Weed Controller HerbicideScott’s EcoSense Weed ControlRaid Earthblends Vegetable Bug FoggerSafer’s Vegetable Garden InsecticideEnvironmental Factor Zap Insecticidal SoapScott’s EcoSense Insecticidal SoapSafer’s Agro-Chem’s InsecticidalSafer’s Defender Garden FungicideGreen Earth Garden FungicideLater’s Garden Sulphur FungicideEnvironmental Factor Turf MaizeWOW Without Weedsb)Mineral oilDormant oilHorticultural oilc)Silicon DioxideDiatomaceous earthd)Bacillus thuringiensisNematodesBte)BoraxBoric acidBoracic Acidf)Ferric Phosphateg)Acetic Acidh)i)PyrethrumPyrethrinsFatty Acidsj)Sulphurk)Corn gluten mealHorticultural VinegarThis list is for illustrative purposes only and is subject to change. It is not a comprehensive list of all availableproducts. The Town of Oakville does not endorse any product or brand. Be sure to read the label and manufacturer’s instructions for any warnings or precautions. Apply products as directed.Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally11

Getting startedGetting StartedTo ‘Garden Naturally’ the focus must be prevention and not a product-based approach.This plan is based on sustainability and may take some time. It should start by identifyingorganic matter and soil composition.Get to know your soil.Did you know.Sandy soils are predominant south of theQEW, whereas red clayis common north of theQEW.Conduct a Soil Strength Test or Textural AnalysisBy getting to know your soil, you can concentrate your efforts where they are needed.First you must know your soil composition. There is a simple strength test that can bedone with your own hands.1) Take a small amount of moist soil in the palm of your hand2) Squeeze this moist ball of soil in your hands or try to roll it between the palms ofyour hands, and if the soil:a) breaks apart when you open your hands, you have sandy soilb) stays together, try pushing some of the soil out of the ball and into a ribbon. Ifyou can’t make a ribbon, you have loamy sand soilFor all other types of soils, you should be able to form a ribbon of soil by rolling it betweenthe palms of your hands. Roll it out as long as possible and measure it, then take a smallpiece of that ribbon and discard the rest. Add enough water to this smaller piece of soil,to make a mini mud puddle. Now rub your finger in this mud puddle to determine if it feelsgritty like sand or smooth and sticky like clay. Once that is determined, compare yourfindings with the results below. This will confirm your soil type.If the ribbon is:Gritty and shorter than 1”Smooth and equally short ribbonsGritty and smooth short ribbonsGritty ribbons between 1” – 2”SmoothGritty and smoothGritty and longer than 2”Smooth and gritty and longer than 2”TypeSandy Loam SoilSilty LoamLoamSandy Clay LoamSilty Clay LoamClay LoamSilty ClayClayNow that you know what soil type you are working with, you can determine your soil’s ability to hold nutrients and water and its likelihood of compaction. Soil composed mostly ofsand has fewer tendencies to hold nutrients and is also less likely to become compactedwhen compared to soil made mostly of clay.12Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally

Getting startedCanadian Soil Texture TrianglepH ScaleVERY AKALINESoil pH--- 13.0 ---- 12.0 ---bleachhousehold lyehttp://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/glossary/texture, soil.htmlammonia-- 14.0 ------ 5.0 ------- 4.0 ------- 3.0 -------- 2.0 ----It is very important to note that many fertilizers available for purchase are a combinationof pesticides and fertilizers all in one bag. These products are not in compliance withthe by-law. No restrictions have been placed on fertilizers in this by-law, only on thecombination products such as the ‘Weed and Feed’ products.orange juice---- 6.0 ----egg yoks---- 7.0 ---- NEUTRAL---- 1.0 ----Nutrient Analysisdistilled water---- 8.0 ----sea water--- 9.0 ---vinegarFor soils that are too alkaline, it is recommended you add:Flowers of Sulphur: used to increase soil acidity and should be applied before the growing seasonEvergreen Needles: are highly acidic and work as a great mulch-- 10.0 --battery acidFor soils that are too acidic, it is recommended you add:Lime: to neutralize the acidity of your soil. Known as a balancing agent, lime increasesthe alkalinity of your soil.Solomitic Lime: high in magnesium and used to increase alkalinityHi-Cal Lime: contains calcium and is used to increase alkalinity where soil is adequate in magnesiumEgg & Seafood Shells: when broken down, they help to neutralize acidic soilslemon pickle processingjuicebeer pure rainThe next soil characteristic to determine is soil pH. Once this has been determined, youcan amend your soil as needed. Generally plants do well in soils that are between 6-7 onthe pH scale. This relates to a neutral soil with the same pH characteristics as milk orpure water. Soils below 6 are considered too acidic, while soils above 7 are consideredtoo alkaline.swimming pool wateregg whites-- 11.0 ------ 0.0 ---VERY ACIDICAlthough no restrictions have been placed on chemical fertilizers, there is still the optionto go organic. Below is a list of natural fertilizers and some general information usefulto review before purchasing fertilizer products.Oakville’s Guide to gardening naturally13

Getting startedWhen purchasing fertilizer, what do the numbers mean?The numbers represent the percentage of each nutrient that is contained in each bag.The order that these number appear will remain constant; only the percentage of eachnutrient will change.For example: 20-10-4 indicates that the fertilizer mixture contains 20% nitrogen, 10%phosphorous and 4% potassium.Did you know.Soil pH test kits areavailable at most homeand garden centreswithin Oakville. It isrecommended to takemultiple samples fromdifferent areas in youryard, mix them togetherand test the mixedsample.Up Nitrogen (N)helps the grass growgreen and UPDown Phosphorus (P)helps the roots growDOWN and healthyAll Around Potassium (K) Potashhelps the overall healthand propagation of the plantNatural FertilizersBlood Meal: is a rich source of nitrogen that has the ability to burn plant life if appliedin excess. Blood meal is a powdered form of cattle’s blood. Blood meal’s NPK ratio is15-1.3-0.7Bone Meal: a high phosphorus fertilizer, bone meal contains upwards of 30% phosphorusand only 1-2% NitrogenSeaweed Kelp: recommended for use on roses, orchids and tomato gardens. A greatsource of potassium if applied according to directions. Should not be used on p

Oakville, Ontario Phone 905-845-6601 Fax 905-815-6032 Pesticide Hotline 905-815-6090 Please contact us with specific concerns regarding: lawn and gardening practices water-efficient plants native plants alternative ground covers pest problems general gardening advice Mission Statement Oakville's Guide to gardening naturally 1

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