Archaeological Investigations At Three Sites Near Arlington, State .

2y ago
8 Views
1 Downloads
660.40 KB
213 Pages
Last View : 1m ago
Last Download : 5m ago
Upload by : Milo Davies
Transcription

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THREE SITESNEAR ARLINGTON,STATE ROUTE 385 (PAUL BARRETT PARKWAY),SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEEArchaeological Testing at 40SY525 and 40SY526and Archaeological Testing and Data Recovery at 40SY527compiled by Guy G. Weaverauthored byGuy G. WeaverMitchell R. ChildressC. Andrew BuchnerMary E. Starrwith contributions by Andrea SheaENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING OFFICEPUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY NO. 4U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATIONFEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATIONTENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION1999

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THREE SITES NEAR ARLINGTON,STATE ROUTE 385 (PAUL BARRETT PARKWAY),SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEEArchaeological Testing at 40SY525 and 40SY526and Archaeological Testing and Data Recovery at 40SY527PREPARED FORThe Tennessee Department of TransportationJ.K. Polk Building, Suite 900Nashville, TN 37243615/741-5257IN COORDINATION WITHThe U.S. Department of TransportationFederal Highway AdministrationUNDERTDOT Project Number 93-42-04-1230Tennessee State Archaeological Permit Number 000132RBYGARROW & ASSOCIATES, INC.Memphis, TN 38103SUBMITTED APRIL 1996PUBLISHED MARCH 1999Edited by:Guy G. WeaverContributions by:Guy G. WeaverC. Andrew BuchnerMitchell R. ChildressMary E. StarrAndrea SheaTENNESSEE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATIONENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING OFFICEPUBLICATIONS IN ARCHAEOLOGY NO. 4

STATE OF TENNESSEEPOLICY OF NON-DISCRIMINATIONPursuant to the State of Tennessee’s policy of non-discrimination, the Tennessee Department ofTransportation does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age ordisability in employment nor in access to or participation in any of its activities, programs, orservices.Civil rights inquires or complaints should be directed to the Tennessee Department ofTransportation, Affirmative Action Director, Civil Rights Division, Suite 400, James K. PolkBuilding, Nashville, TN 37243-0327. Telephone: (615) 741-5996. Toll Free: 1 (800) 370-3647.Hearing impaired callers may use the Tennessee Relay Service: 1 (800) 848-0298.PROJECT FUNDING AND ADMINISTRATIONFunding for this project and the publication of this report was provided by the U.S.Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. The TDOT administered theproject contracts.ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTSMany individuals contributed to the successful completion of this project. We gratefullyacknowledge the technical and logistical support of Mr. Gerald Kline and Ms. CarolineAlbright, archaeologists with the Tennessee Department of Transportation, EnvironmentalPlanning Office, in Nashville. Mr. Ed Cain and other staff members at Parsons De Leuw wereinstrumental in seeing that a cooperative effort between all parties was a successful one. Wealso wish to thank the landowners, Dr. Harris, Ms. Hayes, and Mr. Fulmer, for their permissionto examine their property in the proposed highway corridor.Evan Peacock, Zone Archaeologist for the Tombigbee Ranger District, Holly Springs NationalForest, is thanked for providing literature concerning Tchula period sites in his area and fortaking the time to visit the Fulmer site during the excavations. Robert Mainfort, TennesseeDivision of Archaeology, deserves special thanks for providing unpublished technicalmanuscripts and advice on Early Woodland ceramics in west Tennessee. Gerald Smith andCharles McNutt, University of Memphis, are also appreciated for their help and supportthroughout the project. In addition, Sarge’s Backhoe and Equipment Company furnished heavyequipment and a skilled operator, Kevin Acklin. Andrea Shea tabulated the carbonized remainsfrom the Fulmer site (Appendix B).Many Garrow & Associates personnel contributed to this report. Guy Weaver was PrincipalInvestigator. Besides compiling and reviewing the report, Mr. Weaver is responsible for thereporting of the Fulmer site (40SY527) and contributions to the discussion section. BarbaraGarrow was Project Manager. Mitch Childress contributed sections of the discussion, preparedmany of the graphics, “ran the numbers,” and assisted for several days during Phase IIIfieldwork at 40SY527. Drew Buchner was Field Director and is primarily responsible for thereporting of 40SY525 and 40SY526. Mary E. Starr contributed to the ceramic analysis anddiscussion sections.Archaeological Field Technicians included Melissa Buchner, Michael Childress, Brian Collins,Angela Dobecka, Mike Horton, Charles H. McNutt Jr., Lee Mosley, José Oliver, Stella Parker,Mary E. Starr, and Charles Woods. Christopher Keoppel was Senior Field Technician.Laboratory processing and analysis were performed by Michael Childress, Brian Collins,Christopher Keoppel, Rodriguez McClay, Charles H. McNutt Jr., Stella Parker, and LouellaWhitson Weaver. Flotation samples were processed by Michael Childress.The photographic plates were prepared by Candice Spearman; the final graphics were preparedby Vince Macek. Nancy Liebe helped in production of the draft report. The report wascopyedited, formatted, and produced by Dan Dolensky.In 1998, Caroline Albright, under contract with Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., completedthe final editing of the report for TDOT in its preparation for publication.iii

TABLE OF CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTS.iiiLIST OF FIGURES.viiLIST OF TABLES.xI. INTRODUCTION(BUCHNER, WEAVER, CHILDRESS) .1PROJECT LOCATION .1OUTLINE OF THE REPORT .1II. ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING(CHILDRESS, BUCHNER, WEAVER) .4PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY.4SOILS.7CLIMATE .10PALEOENVIRONMENT .13FLORA AND FAUNA .13III. CULTURAL OVERVIEW(CHILDRESS, BUCHNER) .15PALEOINDIAN PERIOD (CA. 11,500–9,900 B.P.) .15Fluted Point Occupations (ca. 11,500–10,500 B.P.) .15Dalton Period (ca. 10,500–9,900 B.P.) .16ARCHAIC PERIOD (CA. 9,900–3,000 B.P.).17Early Archaic (ca. 9,900–7,000 B.P.).18Middle Archaic (ca. 7,000–5,000 B.P.).18Late Archaic (ca. 5,000–3,000 B.P.).20WOODLAND PERIOD (CA. 3,000–1,000 B.P.).21Early Woodland (ca. 3,000–2,000 B.P.) .21Middle Woodland (ca. 2,000–1,500 B.P.).21Late Woodland (ca. 1,500–1,000 B.P.).22MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD (CA. A.D. 900–1600).22Early Mississippian (ca. A.D. 900–1200) .23Late Mississippian (ca. A.D. 1200–1600) .24HISTORIC OCCUPATION .24PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS .25IV. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS(WEAVER, CHILDRESS, BUCHNER).27RESEARCH DESIGN.27Site Chronology.27Site Function .28Intrasite Variability and Site Structure .28Ceramic Technology .28Dietary Reconstruction .29Comparative (Regional) Research Questions .29FIELD METHODS.29LABORATORY METHODS.31Basic Analysis .31Ceramic Analysis .31iv

Lithic Analysis.35CURATION .37V. RESULTS OF TESTING AT THE HARRIS SITE (40SY525)(BUCHNER) .38FIELDWORK .38Shovel Testing Results.38Formal Excavations .44ARTIFACT DISTRIBUTIONS.53ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGE .56Prehistoric Ceramic Analysis.56Lithic Analysis.61Other Artifact Classes .65SUMMARY .65VI. RESULTS OF TESTING AT THE HAYES SITE (40SY526)(BUCHNER) .67FIELDWORK .67Controlled Surface Collection.67Formal Excavations .74ARTIFACT ASSEMBLAGE .77Prehistoric Ceramic Analysis.79Lithic Analysis.80Other Artifact Classes .83SUMMARY .83VII. RESULTS OF TESTING AND DATA RECOVERY AT THE FULMER SITE (40SY527)(WEAVER, BUCHNER, STARR) .85FIELDWORK.85Phase I Excavations .85Phase II Excavations.87Phase III Excavations .89RESULTS OF THE FIELD INVESTIGATIONS .90Site Stratigraphy .90Features .96PREHISTORIC CERAMIC ANALYSIS .106Paste Characteristics .106Rim and Vessel Form Analysis.108Ceramic Decoration.127BAKED CLAY OBJECTS .130LITHIC ANALYSIS .130Bifacial Tools .131Retouched Flakes .134Pebble Tools.137Cores .137Other Stone Tools.137HISTORICAL ARTIFACTS.137RADIOCARBON ASSAYS.138ARCHAEOBOTANICAL RESULTS.139SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .139v

VIII. DISCUSSION(CHILDRESS, WEAVER, STARR).140LAKE CORMORANT CHRONOLOGY AND CULTURAL CONTEXT.140Early Ceramic Traditions in the Midsouth .140The Cormorant Complex.144Conclusions.152FULMER SITE STRUCTURE.153COMPARATIVE REGIONAL SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS .161COMMENTS ON THE ARTIFACTS.174Trade and Transportation of Nonlocal Materials.174Debitage Analysis.174The Use of Temper in Regional Chronologies .177IX. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS(WEAVER, CHILDRESS) .180THE HARRIS SITE (40SY525) .180THE HAYES SITE (40SY526) .180THE FULMER SITE (40SY527) .181REFERENCES CITED.183APPENDIX A: DISTRIBUTION TABLES FOR THE FULMER SITE (40SY527)APPENDIX B: ARCHAEOBOTANICAL REMAINS FROM THE FULMER SITE (40SY527)APPENDIX C: REPORT OF RADIOCARBON DATING ANALYSES FOR THE FULMER SITE (40SY527)APPENDIX D: DISTRIBUTION MAPS FROM THE FULMER SITE (40SY527)vi

LIST OF FIGURES1.1. EXCERPT FROM USGS 7.5 MINUTE QUADRANGLE, ARLINGTON, TENNESSEE,DIPICTING PROJECT AREA AND SITES 40SY525, 40SY526, AND 40SY527. .22.1. PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS IN THE VICINITY OF THE PROJECT AREA. .52.2. LATE QUATERNARY EOLIAN AND FLUVIAL UNITS UNDERLYING MEMPHIS(FROMMIRECKI AND MILLER 1994:FIGURE 2). .62.3. SOIL SURVEY AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF THE PROJECT VICINITY (AFTERSEASEET AL. 1989). .82.4. MONTHLY VARIATION IN LOCAL SPEED OF PREVAILING SOUTHERLY WINDS. .112.5. COMPARISON OF MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPEED OF PREVAILING SOUTHERLYWINDS WITH SUSTAINED AND GUSTING HIGH WINDS. .112.6. MONTHLY VARIATION IN DIRECTION OF SUSTAINED AND GUSTING HIGH WINDS,SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEE. .122.7. MONTHLY VARIATION IN PRECIPITATION, SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEE (1931–1960DATA FROM SEASE ET AL. 1989; 1950–1993 DATA FROM NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE)123.1. LITHICS FROM MERREL PLACE IN THE HAMPSON MUSEUM COLLECTION.264.1. HIERARCHICAL KEY FOR THE DESCRIPTIVE CLASSIFICATION OF CHIPPEDSTONEARTIFACTS. .365.1. TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OF THE HARRIS SITE (40SY525).395.2. GENERAL VIEW OF SITE 40SY525.405.3. SHOVEL TEST DENSITY PLOT, SITE 40SY525 (AFTER BUCHNER 1994:FIGURE 3). .455.4. EAST PROFILE DRAWING AND VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST, UNITS 1 AND 2, SITE40SY525. .475.5. EAST PROFILE DRAWING AND VIEW TO THE EAST, UNIT 3, SITE 40SY525.485.6. PROFILE DRAWINGS, UNITS 4, 6, AND 7, SITE 40SY525. .515.7. WEST PROFILE DRAWING AND VIEW TO THE WEST, UNIT 5, SITE 40SY525.525.8. DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL COUNTED ARTIFACTS, SITE 40SY525.545.9. DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF PREHISTORIC CERAMIC ARTIFACTS, SITE 40SY525. .555.10. DENSITY (G/M3) DISTRIBUTION OF FIRE CRACKED ROCK, FIRE CRACKEDCHERT,AND FERRUGINOUS SANDSTONE, SITE 40SY525.575.11. DENSITY DISTRIBUTION OF HISTORIC ARTIFACTS, SITE 40SY525.585.12. SELECTED CERAMIC ARTIFACTS, SITE 40SY525. .605.13. SELECTED LITHIC ARTIFACTS, SITE 40SY525.626.1. GENERAL SITE CONDITIONS, VIEW TO THE NORTH, HAYES SITE (40SY526).686.2. TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OF SITE 40SY526. .696.3. SURFACE ARTIFACT DENSITY BY COUNT, SITE 40SY526.75vii

6.4. SURFACE ARTIFACT DENSITY BY MASS, SITE 40SY526. .766.5. WEST PROFILE DRAWINGS, UNITS 13 AND 14, SITE 40SY526.786.6. SELECTED LITHIC ARTIFACTS, SITE 40SY526.816.7. FERRUGINOUS SANDSTONE MORTAR, SITE 40SY526. .827.1. PHASE I AND II SHOVEL TEST LOCATIONS, FULMER SITE (40SY527). .867.2. PHASE II AND III UNIT LOCATIONS, SITE 40SY527.867.3. PLAN OF PHASE II AND III UNIT LOCATIONS, SITE 40SY527. .887.4. PHASE III EXCAVATIONS IN PROGRESS, VIEW TO THE SOUTH, SITE 40SY527.907.5. WEST PROFILE, UNIT 61, SITE 40SY527. .967.6. FEATURE DISTRIBUTION, SITE 40SY527.987.7. PLAN VIEW OF FEATURE 2 AND WEST PROFILE OF UNIT 17, SITE 40SY527. .1007.8. FEATURES 17A AND 17B, UNIT 61, SITE 40SY527.1057.9. FREQUENCY OF VESSEL RIM DIAMETERS, SITE 40SY527.1087.10. HYPOTHESIZED VESSEL FORMS, SITE 40SY527.1127.11. RIM FORMS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5, SITE 40SY527.1137.12. RIM FORMS 6, 7, 8, 9, AND 10, SITE 40SY527.1147.13. RIM FORMS 11 AND 12, SITE 40SY527.1157.14. RIM FORMS 13, 14, 15, 16, AND 17, SITE 40SY527.1167.15. RIM FORMS 18, 19, 20, AND 21, SITE 40SY527.1177.16. SLIPPED VESSEL FRAGMENTS, SITE 40SY527.1187.17. CORD IMPRESSED RIMS, SITE 40SY527.1197.18. PUNCTATED RIMS, SITE 40SY527. .1207.19. FABRIC MARKED RIMS, SITE 40SY527. .1217.20. FOLDED RIMS, SITE 40SY527. .1227.21. FABRIC MARKED RIMS AND BODY SHERDS, SITE 40SY527. .1237.22. FABRIC MARKED BODY SHERDS, SITE 40SY527. .1247.23. VESSEL BASES, SITE 40SY527. .1257.24. CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY OF VESSEL FORM 12 RIM DIAMETERS, SITE 40SY527. .1277.25. SELECTED THIN AND HAFTED BIFACES, SITE 40SY527. .1327.26. ADZES AND SELECTED BIFACES, SITE 40SY527.1357.27. SELECTED TOOLS AND OTHER LITHICS, SITE 40SY527.1368.1. SELECTED ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES IN THE GENERAL VICINITY OF THEPROJECTAREA. .1438.2. SUMMARY DISTRIBUTION OF CERAMIC DENSITY AND SHERD INTACTNESS,SITE40SY527. .1578.3. SUMMARY DISTRIBUTION OF LITHICS, SITE 40SY527. .158viii

8.4. SUMMARY DISTRIBUTION OF FEATURES AND DENSITY CLUSTERS (A–D)DEFINED BY TOTAL ARTIFACT DENSITY (G/M2), SITE 40SY527. .1598.5. DISTRIBUTION OF BIFACES AND PEBBLE TOOLS, SITE 40SY527. .1628.6. DISTRIBUTION OF DENTICULATES, SCRAPERS, AND DRILL/PERFORATORS,SITE 40SY527. .1628.7

NEAR ARLINGTON, STATE ROUTE 385 (PAUL BARRETT PARKWAY), SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEE Archaeological Testing at 40SY525 and 40SY526 and Archaeological Testing and Data Recovery at 40SY527 compiled by Guy G. Weaver authored by Guy G. Weaver C. Andrew Buchner Mitchell R. Childress Mary E. Starr with contributions by Andrea Shea

Related Documents:

Cracknell, P Carlisle : Historic Building Survey and Archaeological Illustration (HBSAI), 2005, 21pp, colour pls, fi gs, refs Work undertaken by: Historic Building Survey and Archaeological Illustration (HBSAI) SMR primary record number: 1593 Archaeological periods represented: PM. Archaeological Investigations Project 2005 Building Survey North West (G.16.2118) {EC17F9C4-61F0-4672-B70D .

3. Total station and archaeological drawing 4. Open source documentation software 5. G.I.S. 6. Preservation of archaeological finds 7. Analyzing, drawing and cataloging archaeological finds. History 1. Roman settlement in the Sovana territory 2. Sovana in the Early Middle Ages: a contended territory between Langobards and Byzantines 3.

archaeological review is an evaluation of potential archaeological resources, which might be affected by the possible use of this land during remedial construction. The Archaeological research for this project was undertaken between January 23 and February 14 1991. Kenneth J, Basalik served as the project's Principal Investigator. Ronald

a historic structure to preserve its historic character. Open space or scenic easements are also commonly used to protect archaeological sites, particularly in cases where an archaeological site cannot qualify for a historic preservation easement under the IRS code. Open space and scenic e

sculpture, monuments, boundary markers, statuary, and fountains. Landscape (non-archaeological site) The separation between landscapes and other types of sites has been made by the Nevada SHPO for data management purposes. Archaeological sites should be recorded on an IMACS form so that they can be included in the Archaeological

archaeological sites. In a number of places like this (e.g. Tell Samarra in eastern Nile Delta), the existence of burial grounds prevent not only research as such, but also the possibility to protect or fence the area or otherwise counteract devastation. Another important issue connected with the functioning of archaeological

The Carrier Mills Archaeological Project: Fascinating Finds Center for Archaeological Investigations Southern Illinois University Carbondale PreparedbyDr.HeatherLapham,Jessica Bertolozzi,Melissa Litschi,andGauriPitale(2012). Archaeology atCarrier Mills Huntingwith Atlatls Activities inEveryday Life Jefferies, Richard W. (1987).

“Explosive, thrilling, action-packed – meet Alex Rider.” Guardian “Horowitz is pure class, stylish but action-packed being James Bond in miniature is way cooler than being a wizard.” Daily Mirror “Horowitz will grip you with suspense, daring and cheek – and that’s just the first page! Prepare for action scenes as fast as a movie.” The Times “Anthony Horowitz is the .