15-17 Jun Bach Weekend With Sir John Eliot Gardiner - Barbican

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Sir John Eliot Gardiner Sim Canetty-Clarke15–17 JunBach Weekendwith Sir John Eliot GardinerHear JS Bach’s Violin Sonatas, Cello Suites, GoldbergVariations and a selection of his glorious Cantatas ledby Sir John Eliot Gardiner.

Bach WeekendFri 15 Jun7.30pm, Barbican HallJ S Bach ‘Wachet! betet! betet! wachet!’, BWV70Gallus ‘Jerusalem gaude gaudio’J S Bach ‘Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland’,BWV61interval 20 minutesJ S Bach ‘Jesus schläft, was soll ich hoffen?’,BWV81Schütz ‘Ach Herr, du Schöpfer aller Ding’J S Bach ‘Unser Mund sei voll Lachens’, BWV110Monteverdi ChoirEnglish Baroque SoloistsSir John Eliot Gardiner conductorHana Blažíková, Julia Doyle sopranosReginald Mobley altoRuairi Bowen, Hugo Hymas, Gareth TresedertenorsPeter Harvey bassSat 16 Jun11am, LSO St Luke’sJ S BachSonata No 3 for violin and harpsichord, BWV1016Partita No 2 for solo violin, BWV1004Sonata No 1 for violin and harpsichord, BWV1014Toccata for harpsichord, BWV913Sonata No 6 for violin and harpsichord, BWV1019Isabelle Faust violinKristian Bezuidenhout harpsichord3pm, St Giles’ CripplegateJ C Bach ‘Fürchte dich nicht’J S Bach ‘Fürchte dich nicht’J S Bach ‘Komm, Jesu, komm’J C Bach ‘Lieber Herr Gott, wecke uns auf’J S Bach ‘Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden’interval 20 minutesJ C Bach ‘Herr, nun lässest du deinen Diener’J S Bach ‘Jesu, meine Freude’J C Bach ‘Der Gerechte, ob er gleich zu zeitlichstirbt’J S Bach ‘Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied’2Solomon’s Knot7.30pm, Barbican HallJ S Bach ‘Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen’, BWV12Gumpelzhaimer Jubilate Deo (canon in 5 parts)J S Bach ‘Ihr werdet weinen und heulen’, BWV103interval 20 minutesJ S Bach ‘O ewiges Feuer, o Ursprung der Liebe’,BWV34G Gabrieli Timor et tremorJ S Bach ‘O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort’, BWV20Monteverdi ChoirEnglish Baroque SoloistsSir John Eliot Gardiner conductorHana Blažíková sopranoSarah Denbee, Reginald Mobley altosHugo Hymas, Gareth Treseder tenorsAlex Ashworth, Peter Harvey, Samuel PantcheffbassesSun 17 Jun11am, Milton Court Concert HallJ S Bach Goldberg Variations, BWV988Jean Rondeau harpsichord3pm, Milton Court Concert HallJ S BachCello Suite No 1 in G major, BWV1007Cello Suite No 2 in D minor, BWV1008Cello Suite No 3 in C major, BWV1009Jean-Guihen Queyras cello7.30pm, Barbican HallJ S Bach ‘Es erhub sich ein Streit’, BWV19Buxtehude ‘Nimm von uns, Herr, du treuer Gott’J S Bach ‘Nimm von uns, Herr, du treuer Gott’, BWV101interval 20 minutesJ S Bach ‘Jesu, der du meine Seele’, BWV78Schein Freue dich des Weibes deiner JugendJ S Bach ‘Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme’, BWV140Monteverdi ChoirEnglish Baroque SoloistsSir John Eliot Gardiner conductorHana Blažíková, Julia Doyle sopranosSarah Denbee, Emma Lewis altosRuairi Bowen, Hugo Hymas, Graham Neal tenorsAlex Ashworth, Peter Harvey basses

WelcomeWelcomeWelcome to this very special weekend ofconcerts marking the 75th birthday of SirJohn Eliot Gardiner. He is renowned formany things but his relationship with themusic of Bach is a particularly close one, soit’s fitting that this weekend is centred aroundthe music of a composer whose music he hasnot only recorded (and re-recorded) to greatacclaim but who was the subject of Sir JohnEliot’s eloquent book Music in the Castle ofHeaven: A Portrait of Johann Sebastian Bach.Sir John Eliot, together with his MonteverdiChoir and English Baroque Soloists,famously undertook their Bach CantataPilgrimage in 2000, so it’s apt that thesesacred pieces should form the centrepieceof the weekend, with a focus on keypoints in the Christian calendar: Adventto Christmas (on Friday 15 June), Easter toAscension (Saturday), and Trinity (Sunday).Bach was, of course, part of an exceptionalmusical dynasty and Solomon’s Knotunder director Jonathan Sells counterpointmotets by J S Bach with those of hiscousin Johann Christoph Bach in aconcert on Saturday afternoon.Prior to that, Isabelle Faust and KristianBezuidenhout present a recital of three ofthe violin and harpsichord sonatas, togetherwith the famous D minor Partita for soloviolin and one of Bach’s keyboard toccatas.On Sunday morning Jean Rondeau,one of the most exciting of the youngergeneration of harpsichordists, performsthe Goldberg Variations, while in theafternoon Jean-Guihen Queyras playsthe first three Solo Cello Suites.It promises to be an extraordinaryweekend. I hope you enjoy the concerts.And please join me in wishing Sir JohnEliot Gardiner a very Happy Birthday.Huw HumphreysHead of MusicProgramme produced by Harriet Smith; printed by Trade Winds Colour Printers Ltd; advertising by Cabbell(tel 020 3603 7930)Please turn off watch alarms, phones, pagers etc during the performance. Taking photographs, capturingimages or using recording devices during a performance is strictly prohibited.We appreciate that it’s not always possible to prevent coughing during a performance. But, for the sakeof other audience members and the artists, if you feel the need to cough or sneeze, please stifle it with ahandkerchief.If anything limits your enjoyment please let us know during your visit. Additional feedback can be given online,as well as via feedback forms or the pods located around the foyers.3Please remember that to use our induction loop you should switch your hearing aid to T setting on enteringthe hall. If your hearing aid is not correctly set to T it may cause high-pitched feedback which can spoil theenjoyment of your fellow audience members.

Friday 15 June 7.30pmJohann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)‘Wachet! betet! betet! wachet!’, BWV70Jacobus Gallus (1550–91)‘Jerusalem gaude gaudio’Johann Sebastian Bach‘Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland’, BWV61Johann Sebastian Bach‘Jesus schläft, was soll ich hoffen?’, BWV81Heinrich Schütz (1585–1672)‘Ach Herr, du Schöpfer aller Ding’, SWV450Johann Sebastian Bach‘Unser Mund sei voll Lachens’, BWV1104Monteverdi ChoirEnglish Baroque SoloistsSir John Eliot Gardiner conductorHana Blažíková, Julia Doyle sopranos . Reginald Mobley altoRuairi Bowen, Hugo Hymas, Gareth Treseder tenors . Peter Harvey bassBach’s Christmas Oratorio of 1734 is rightlycelebrated as his most mature, extended offeringof music for Christmas. As a result of its popularitytoday, though, it is all too easy to neglect thewonderful cantatas for Advent and Christmasfrom earlier in his career. Tonight we hear four ofthese works: Cantatas Nos 70 and 61 for Advent,and Cantatas Nos 81 and 110 for Christmas. Asever with Bach, they are astonishingly varied inscope. From the galvanising opening of Cantata

Fri 15 Junquality of Cantata BWV70 would certainly accordwith this view. Perhaps surprisingly, its focus isnot Jesus’s birth but his second coming, at theend of days. As the scholar Andrew White hasshown, this makes sense when one considersthat the gospel lessons for the season suggest aconflation of three theological aspects of Jesus’s‘Advent’: his birth, his continued sustaining of theChurch, and his second coming. The originalversion of Cantata BWV70 is mostly lost (onlysome string parts survive); it was premiered onReflecting Lutheran practice, we also hear motetsthe second Sunday of Advent, 1716. Seven yearsby Heinrich Schütz and the late-16th-centurylater, in Leipzig, Bach was evidently keen to findmaster Jacobus Gallus. (Gallus is also sometimesa place for it in his first annual cycle of cantatas.known as ‘Handl’; both of these names are merely However, unlike in Weimar, concerted music wastranslations into Latin and German, respectively, of not permitted in Leipzig during the penitentialhis original Slovenian name: ‘Petelin’ – ‘rooster’.)season of Advent, except on its first Sunday.Gallus’s work is characterised by VenetianBach therefore expanded the work into twostyle antiphonal exchanges between differentparts, altering its emphasis; this second version,sections of the choir. His music seems remarkablywhich we hear tonight, was first unveiled on 21tonal – despite having been written more than aNovember 1723 (the 26th Sunday after Trinity).century before this became the accepted norm– particularly in its use of major/minor polarity:Bach’s aim in the revised version seems to be tothis is clearly heard in Jerusalem gaude gaudio.explore a dichotomy: that the believer shouldGallus’s greatest achievement is the four-volumeanticipate the Day of Judgement with both joyOpus musicum (1586–90), a set of 374 pieces forand trepidation. In each of the cantata’s twoperformance throughout the church year. Alongparts, initial confidence gives way to a sense ofwith comparable cycles by Calvasius, Pamingerthe stark reality of Armageddon. Both parts findand Raselius, Opus musicum helped to establishreconciliation in a concluding statement of faiththe gospel motet as an important part of Lutheran (a chorale, in each case). In the first part, thechoral liturgy. We know that Bach inherited thisway the bass recitative erupts from the openingtradition: it is reflected, for example, in a recordchorus is a dramatic masterstroke. However,he took of the Leipzig service order. Coincidentally the intensity of the different moods is arguablyenough, this valuable source is preserved withineven greater in the second part; given that thethe manuscript copy of the second cantata wecantata was probably intended to frame thehear tonight, Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland.sermon, this growth in intensity may be intended toemphasise the transformative power of preaching.As always with Schütz, the text-setting of AchThe sprightly tenor aria that opens the secondHerr, du Schöpfer aller Ding is masterful. Everypart, ‘Hebt euer Haupt empor’ (‘Lift up yourmusical line is written in a kind of elongated,heads’), gives way to a violent bass recitative,heightened speech-rhythm. Schütz’s genius lies inin which the strings pick up the image of thecombining these rhetorical lines in such a way asworld’s collapse (‘der Welt Verfall’) with startlingto create heavenly-sounding harmonies, which invividness. However, the ace up Bach’s sleeve in thisturn imbue the text with greater significance andextraordinary movement is that, at the mention ofmeaning. Listen for the unexpected harmonic turns the last ‘Posaune’, the trumpet enters on cue, withof the phrase ‘dass du da liegst auf dürrem Gras’ the melody of the topical chorale ‘Es ist gewisslich(‘that you lie there on the dry grass’), which invitean der Zeit’ (‘Indeed the time is here’). The musicus to ponder anew the lowly circumstances ofwould sound complete even without the trumpet;Christ’s earthly incarnation.indeed, it would be as pictorial and dramatic asanything in the Passions. With the trumpet, theThe Advent cantatas in the first half of tonight’seffect is of too much going on – Bach conjuringconcert originate in the later Weimar years, when a dizzying representation both of Armageddon,Bach was around 30 years old. Some of whatand perhaps of man’s inability to comprehendbecame Book 1 of The Well-Tempered ClavierGod’s plan. The sophistication of the dramadates from this period, as do many of his bestpresent throughout this cantata prompts Sir Johnloved organ works: arguably, this is the periodEliot Gardiner to argue that ‘Bach attempts thein which Bach came of age as a composer. Theimpossible: to overcome the sequential way in5BWV70 (whose title translates as ‘Watch! Pray!Pray! Watch!’) – what an impression this musthave made when it was first heard – to the almostfrenzied first chorus of Cantata BWV110 (‘May ourmouth be filled with laughter’) Bach exhorts thelistener to engage with Christ’s arrival on earth.Alongside a mood of celebration, there is also thesense that, for Bach, Advent and Christmas aretimes to consider faith in its totality, including somerather troubling themes.

which musical (and therefore human) time unfoldsby suggesting ways in which it is subordinate to,and subsumed within, God’s eternal time.’ Thiscantata is an extraordinary example of musicaldrama, even by Bach’s standards; it is only tooeasy to imagine the fury it must have evoked fromthose who objected to operatic music in church!Cantata BWV61, Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland(‘Now come, Saviour of the gentiles’), was writtenfor Advent Sunday 1714. Bach chooses the Frenchoverture style of Lully – then the height of musicalfashion – as a grand, austere backdrop for thechorale melody. Thereafter, a tenor sings ofmankind’s need for Jesus’s redemption, imploringhim to enter the world anew. Jesus’s absenceis palpable; it is not until the fourth movementthat his voice is heard. At this point, the librettist(Erdmann Neumeister) uses the image of Jesusknocking on the door, inviting the believer tolet him enter their soul. Bach picks up on this,using gentle pizzicato strings to depict knocking;the unexpectedness of this gesture lends themovement a particular poignancy. It gives wayto a soprano aria depicting the joyful willingnessof the believer to receive Jesus. As Gardinernotes, the decreasing instrumentation acrossthe third, fourth and fifth movements creates asense of increasing intimacy with God. The brieffinal chorus quotes from the final verse of thechorale ‘Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern’(‘How brightly shines the morning star’). Theidentification of Christ with the morning star(taken from Revelation 22:16) is a potent image,and one brilliantly exploited here by Bach. Whilethe continuo and lower voices bustle excitedlyunderneath the sopranos, the violins shimmerabove it, finally coming to rest on a daringlyhigh G – the star imagery can hardly be missed.And so the cantata concludes with a sense ofbright, bold confidence in the Saviour’s imminentincarnation.that ‘[i]If asked what kind of opera composerBach would have been, I would point immediatelyto BWV81’. When Jesus finally enters, his tone isperhaps surprising: rather than offering comfort,he seems almost impatient ‘Ihr Kleingläubigen,warum seid ihr so furchtsam?’ (‘O ye of little faith,why are you so fearful?’). The storm returns forthe fifth movement, this time with Jesus continuallyintervening. Though the storm imagery is clear,the effect is far more ordered than before,even graceful in places, perhaps reflecting theeffortlessness of Jesus’s control over it. The cantataends with a short recitative and chorale, bothof which gratefully acknowledge the protectionoffered by Jesus.Tonight’s concert ends with a cantata forChristmas Day itself, BWV110, Unser Mund sei vollLachens (‘May our mouth be filled with laughter’),which received its premiere in 1725. Lovers ofBach’s instrumental music will recognise theopening chorus as the first movement of the FourthOrchestral Suite. This is an opulent, regal Frenchoverture on the grandest scale. Unexpectedly,but to superb effect, Bach audaciously adds thechoir to the movement’s ebullient middle allegrosection. The instrumentally conceived lines turnout to be perfect – if technically challenging! –vehicles for the depiction of laughter and joy.Following this monumental opening movement, atenor aria serves to bring a more personal qualityto the proceedings, which sets the tone for thesucceeding movements. One almost pities Bachfor having to set the following text for a ChristmasDay service: ‘Ach Herr, was ist ein Menschenkind,dass du sein Heil so schmerzlich suchest?’ (‘Ah,Lord, what is a child of man that you should seekhis salvation with so much pain?’). In this altoaria, his musical response is introspective, evenconvoluted, without being tragic. The theme ofjoy returns in the subsequent duet for sopranoand tenor, ‘Ehre sei Gott in der Höhe’ (‘Glorybe to God on high’). Here, though, the joy is ofa contented nature, felt particularly in the longmelismas on ‘Ehre’ (‘glory’) and ‘Friede’ (‘peace’).A more stirring affekt is felt in the bass aria ‘Wachtauf, ihr Adern und ihr Glieder’ (‘Awaken, you veinsand limbs’), which seems to anticipate ‘GrosserHerr’ from the Christmas Oratorio. In the middlesection, the bass sings of the ‘devoted strings’;accordingly, the oboes drop out for this passage.A brief chorale of praise concludes this wideranging, yet ultimately joyful cantata.6The first of Bach’s cantatas for the Christmasseason heard in tonight’s programme, BWV81Jesus schläft, was soll ich hoffen? (‘Jesus sleeps;for what can I hope?’) is far from joyful. It takes asits cue the gospel for the day (the fourth Sundayafter Epiphany): Jesus’s calming of the storm onLake Galilee (Matthew 8:23–27). The cantatauses this story as the basis for a metaphor: life asa sea voyage. Just as in BWV61, the voice of Jesusis withheld until the fourth movement; his absenceis felt particularly in the third, which depicts thestorm. The drama of this movement, which seemsProgramme note Tom Wilkinsonalmost Mozartian at times, leads Gardiner to write

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)Sat 16 JunSaturday 16 June 11amSonata No 3 for violin and harpsichordin E major, BWV1016Partita No 2 for solo violin in D minor,BWV1004Sonata No 1 for violin and harpsichordin B minor, BWV1014Toccata for harpsichord in D minor, BWV913Sonata No 6 for violin and harpsichord inG major BWV1019Isabelle Faust violinKristian Bezuidenhout harpsichordhis death’) is probably to be interpreted asmeaning that Bach was still busying himself withthe sonatas in the last years of his life. We mayassume from this evidence that he played theworks regularly in his domestic environment,with the violin parts executed by experiencedviolinists from his circle of family and friends.What fascinated the composer in these sonatasover the course of a lifetime is explained by aglance at the contemporary musical literature.In both the theory and practice of instrumentalchamber music during the first half of the 18thcentury, the trio texture was elevated to the status7The Six Sonatas for violin and obbligatoharpsichord, BWV1014–19 are among the worksof Johann Sebastian Bach to which he returnedagain and again. Even the earliest survivingsource, a harpsichord part in the hand of Bach’snephew Johann Heinrich Bach dated to 1725,already shows signs of further developmentand polishing on the composer’s part. A newrevision is documented in a copy by JohannFriedrich Agricola, written out around 1741, anda third source is a copy by Johann ChristophAltnickol dating from the period around 1750.A note by Bach’s second-youngest son JohannChristoph Friedrich (‘He wrote these trios before

of a compositional ideal, since it appeared toachieve a perfect synthesis of linear counterpoint,full-sounding harmony and cantabile melody.Music theorists such as Johann Mattheson, JohannJoachim Quantz and Johann Adolph Scheibeflatly declared trio writing to be a touchstonefor every composer of rank. Mattheson, forexample, described the special requirementsof the genre as follows: ‘here each of the threevoices must unfold a fine melody of its own;and yet, as far as possible, they must affirm thethree-part harmony as if it came about only bychance’. No composer of his time realised thisideal as perfectly as Johann Sebastian Bach,whose son Carl Philipp Emanuel enthusiasticallydeclared of his violin sonatas, as late as 1774,that they ‘still sound very good now eventhough they are over 50 years old’, and that theycontained ‘a few adagios that one could notcompose in a more melodious fashion today’. Theundiminished admiration for this group of workslong after Bach’s death may also be explainedby the fact that the trio principle, as realisedin the violin sonatas, not only correspondedto his own ideas of perfect harmony (which, inhis view, could only be attained if all the voices‘work wonderfully in and about each other’), butalso satisfied the primacy of an individually andsensitively shaped melody, such as was favouredby the generation of his sons and pupils.The fact that Bach’s trio compositions still occupya prominent position in the tradition of the genremakes it easy to forget that he created onlyrelatively few works of this kind. In addition to afew pieces that have come down to us in isolation,they comprise the Violin Sonatas, BWV1014–19,the Flute Sonatas, BWV1030–32, the threeSonatas for viola da gamba, BWV1027–9 and theOrgan Trios, BWV525–30. As can be seen fromthe different combinations of instruments, Bach’strio writing is not tied to a particular scoring, butfunctions as what might be called an abstractcompositional principle, whose tonal realisationwas often determined by external conditions.8The six Sonatas for violin and obbligatoharpischord form a unified collection. In spiteof their consistent formal scaffolding, however,each of the sonatas has its own profile. SonataNo 1 launches the opus with a remarkableexperiment – in the expressive lament of the firstmovement, the number of obbligato voices issometimes extended to five by means of doublestopping in the violin and a three-part texture inthe harpsichord part. The two fast movementsrealise the trio principle completely, since here allthree voices participate equally in the workingout of the thematic material, whereas in thethird movement the broad cantilenas of thetwo upper voices (violin and harpischord righthand) unfold over the even pulse of the bass.In all four of its movments, Sonata No 3 inE major combines superior technical masterywith the highest demands on the performers.The virtuoso element is shown in the firstmovement, with its extended demisemiquavergarlands on the violin and its dense harpsichordtextures; in the second movement, the fast allabreve time signature allows the entries of thesonglike fugue theme to do no more than scurrypast. The Adagio in C sharp minor resemblesthe central movement (in the same key) of theE major Violin Concerto in tone and atmosphere,while the finale, with its jaunty passagework,almost reaches the limits of what is playable.The last work in the set, Sonata No 6 in G major,passed through several clearly differentiatedversions. This composition breaks free of thenarrow boundaries of the genre, not onlyin its five-movement structure, but also in itsidiosyncratic integration of concertante elements.A graceful Largo follows an extensive Allegroin large-scale da capo form. In the latestversion, Bach placed at the centre of the work abinary movement of ample dimensions for soloharpsichord, which leads us musically into theworld of the Partitas that constitute Part 1 of theClavier-Übung. The Adagio, whose rhythmicallyintricate chromaticism and strict triple counterpointalready point forwards to the canons of The Artof Fugue, is a moment of filigree abstraction.The cheerful mood of the opening movementis taken up again in the brilliant concludingfugue. Here compositional skill is combinedwith exuberant delight in performance.Bach’s cycle of three sonatas and three partitasfor solo violin undoubtedly marks a high pointin Western violin music. These works set new

In his works for unaccompanied soloinstrument Bach was venturing into a fieldthat had been explored by few composersbefore him, and whose potential wasvery far from being exhausted.From the set for solo violin, Isabelle Faustperforms the Second Partita in D minor,which presents a modified version of the fourmovement suite form. The four core movements(Allemanda, Corrente, Sarabanda, Giga), hereretained without change, are followed by amonumental Ciaccona which may be rankedwith Bach’s most impressive creations. The first,second and fourth movements are dominatedby a monophonic style characterised by motorrhythms, with the wide-ranging harmonicexcursions indicated by broken triads andemphatic top notes. In the third-movementSarabanda the double-stopping and the rhythmHere Bach ventured into a type of movementhe rarely tackled, which set him an additionalchallenge because of its unchanging basicfour-bar pattern (the harmonisation of adescending tetrachord). In the course ofhis sytematic exploration and expansion ofthis exceedingly plain raw material throughcontinuous variation, the composer demandsof the performer an incomparable wealth ofvirtuoso passages, combinations of chords andarpeggios which had never before been thoughtof in this form. Bach here opened up entirelynew dimensions in the technique of the violin,but at the same time, and to an even greaterdegree, in compositional technique itself.Sat 16 Junalready point forwards to the final Ciaccona,so expansive at 257 bars that it is longer thanthe four preceding movements combined.Programme note by Peter Wollny Harmonia Mundi‘Toccare’ simply means ‘to touch’, yet the word‘toccata’ has become inextricably associatedwith keyboard music that is brilliant, dazzlingand improvisatory-sounding. It’s a genre that hasattracted composers as diverse as Schumannand Prokofiev – and, above all, Bach, whetherat the organ console or the harpsichord.The D minor Toccata, BWV913, was oneof a group most likely composed in thewake of the epic journey Bach undertookin 1705, travelling from Arnstadt to Lübeckon foot in order to hear Buxtehude play.Common to all seven of the Toccatas, BWV910–16,is an improvisatory-sounding opening in whichunlike is juxtaposed with unlike in true Baroquefashion, rhythmically free writing jostling withpassages of driving rhythm to exhilarating effect.In the D minor Toccata this gives way to twofugues, the first of which, moderately paced,is built on a musing subject, and opens sottovoce. After a linking passage which graduallyincreases the tempo, a second, jauntier fuguearrives, D minor again but ending in D majorthanks to the final tierce de Picardie, withBach conjuring richly sonorous textures.9standards in both playing and compositionaltechnique, and have lost none of their relevanceover the centuries. Their exceptional nature wasalready recognised in the 18th century, althoughtheir artistic significance was variously interpreted.For Bach’s second son, Carl Philipp Emanuel,these compositions represented first and foremosta document of his father’s profound knowledgeof the idiomatic handling of string instruments,which made them valuable as unique materialfor study: ‘J S Bach understood to perfection thepossibilities of all stringed instruments. This isevidenced by his solos for the violin and for thecello without bass. One of the greatest violiniststold me once that he had seen nothing moreperfect for becoming a good violinist, and couldsuggest nothing better for anyone eager to learn,than the said violin solos without bass.’ Bach’spupil Johann Philipp Kirnberger, on the otherhand, emphasised the works’ achievement interms of compositional technique: ‘It is even moredifficult, without the slightest accompaniment,to write a simple melody so harmonicallydetermined that it is impossible to add a voiceto it without making mistakes; not to mentionthe fact that the added voice would be quiteunsingable and clumsy. In this style we possesssix sonatas for the violin and six for the cello,entirely without accompaniment, by J S Bach.’

Saturday 16 June 3pmJohann Christoph Bach (1642–1703)‘Fürchte dich nicht’Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)‘Fürchte dich nicht’, BWV228‘Komm, Jesu, komm’, BWV229Johann Christoph Bach‘Lieber Herr Gott, wecke uns auf’Johann Sebastian Bach‘Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden’, BWV230Johann Christoph Bach‘Herr, nun lässest du deinen Diener’Johann Sebastian Bach‘Jesu, meine Freude’, BWV227Johann Christoph Bach‘Der Gerechte, ob er gleich zu zeitlich stirbt’Johann Sebastian Bach‘Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied’, BWV22510Solomon’s Knot . Jonathan Sells director

Johann Christoph Bach’s motets epitomise thecentral German tradition inherited by his youngercousin. He included both Spruch passages (in thiscontext, using Biblical poetry) and chorales, aswell as lyrical melodies and animated alternationsof solo and tutti. A lack of reliable sources makesit difficult to establish an exact chronology ofJohann Christoph’s works, but his motets seemto evolve from the use of clear distinctionsbetween different choral textures, to a morefluid style with complex, lively melodic writing.J C Bach studied with one of Heinrich Schütz’sstudents, Jonas de Fletin, and so his musicrepresents a bridge between the pivotal stylesIt had been a requirement since the 17th centuryof Schütz and J S Bach. His five-part motetthat motets performed in Leipzig, includingFürchte dich nicht is a supreme example of this.those from the Florilegium Portense, shouldThe work’s authorship has been questioned,include a continuo part. This usually consisted ofbut it bears many of the hallmarks of Johannorgan, harpsichord or lute, with cello, bassoonChristoph’s style. It combines texts from Isaiahor violone (an early type of bass viol) – or43:1 – ‘Do not be afraid, for I have redeemedcombinations of these instruments, depending on you, I have called you by your name; you arethe circumstances. For truly illustrious occasionsmine’ – with Luke 23:43: ‘Truly I tell you, todaymore instruments may have been added,you will be with me in paradise’. The motetsometimes doubling the voices, and in Leipzig the begins with the lower four voices, the sopranosdesignation ‘motet-harpsichord’ implied that theeventually entering with an additional text, fromkeyboardist was also expected to act as conductor. Johann Rist’s hymn O Traurigkeit, O Herzeleid(‘O Sorrow, O Heartache’): ‘O Jesu, du meinJ S Bach inherited the central German traditionHilf und Ruh’ (‘O Jesus, you are my help andof motet writing, especially the use of doublemy peace.’). The use of the intimate ‘du’ (whichchoruses. His family was steeped in this tradition,is repeated for emphasis) from this pointand motets are particularly well represented inonwards represents a significant and movingthe Bach musical archive. Six surviving motets byshift to a more personal, vulnerable relationshipJ S Bach have been catalogued as BWV225–230. between God the Father, Jesus, and believer.A seventh, Ich lasse dich nicht, BWV Anh159,now considered to be Bach’s earliest motet, wasJ S Bach’s eight-part setting of Fürchte dich nicht,for a long time attributed to his father’s cousin,BWV228, is very different, showing the influenceJohann Christoph Bach of Eisenach,

J S Bach 'Komm, Jesu, komm' J C Bach 'Lieber Herr Gott, wecke uns auf' J S Bach 'Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden' interval 20 minutes J C Bach 'Herr, nun lässest du deinen Diener' J S Bach 'Jesu, meine Freude' J C Bach 'Der Gerechte, ob er gleich zu zeitlich stirbt' J S Bach 'Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied' Solomon .

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Bach himself. Many of Bach's chorales are harmoniza-tions by Bach of pre-existing melodies (not by Bach) and certain melodies (by Bach or otherwise) form the basis of multiple chorales with different harmonizations. We extend this harmonization task to the completion of chorales for a wider number and type of given parts. Let

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Abrasive Jet Machining INTRODUCTION Abrasive water jet machine tools are suddenly being a hit in the market since they are quick to program and could make money on short runs. They are quick to set up, and offer quick turn-around on the machine. They complement existing tools used for either primary or secondary operations and could make parts quickly out of virtually out of any material. One .