MEAT EDUCATION PROGRAMMEMEATEDUCATIONPork – Practical – Level 2Cutting pork primal cuts into basic retail and foodservice cuts
Contents2Introduction2Exam requirements3Pork carcase classification4Pork primal cuts6Pork bone structure7Pork cutting specificationsIntroductionWelcome to the AHDB Meat Education Programme, Pork – Level 2, whichfocuses on cutting pork primal cuts into basic retail and foodservice cuts.Each primal cut can be cut into various retail and foodservice cuts.Starting with the forequarter right through to the loin, belly, including legand chump, this brochure includes detailed step-by-step instructions.Each stage is shown with both written and photographic instruction,which will provide you with the required level of knowledge you will needto pass Level 2.Once you have successfully completed Level 2, Level 3 will cover cuttingpork primal muscles into advanced retail and foodservice cuts, whichinvolves many seam butchery techniques.Good luck!Dick van LeeuwenAHDB Business Development Managerand Master ButcherExam requirementsYou are required to know how to carry out the following: Cut each primal muscle into the retail and foodservice cuts as illustrated in this manual, by following naturalseams, where possible, and without cutting unnecessarily into muscles. You are allowed to refer to thecutting specificationsPreparing the cuts without any unnecessary cuts/stab marks or damage to the muscles Cuts should be without bone dust; stringing of joints should be even and tidy, steaks should be ofeven thicknessMinimise wastage by removing gristle, connective tissue and fat cleanly, without wasting good meatRecognise and know the names of the primals and retail/foodservice cuts featuredNote: Learn first to do the job accurately, and speed will follow with practise. It is more difficult to losebad cutting habits later!2On the day of the examination: The examiner will select aforequarter, a middle, and a legand chump of porkThe examiner will present youwith nine printed copies ofcutting specifications from thismanual (three for each primalcut), to produce retail andfoodservice cutsYou need to do this in areasonable time, taking intoaccount all the requirementspreviously stated
Pork carcase classificationThe following equipment is approved foruse in the UK: Locations of probing sites on a pig carcaseLean Meat Percentage (LMP) andEU GradeOptical probeHennessey Grading Probe (HGP)Fat-O-Meater (FOM)LMP is calculated as follows:P1AutoFOMP2P3The HGP, FOM, AutoFOM and CSBUltra-Meater are all automatic recordingprobes.6 cmRib fatMethod 2Optical Probe is used to measure backfat andrind thickness at the P2 position, level withthe head of the last rib. The probe is inserted6.5 cm from the dorsal midline.Method 3HGP or FOM are used to measure: Backfat and rind thickness at the P2position as for Method 2. The HGP orFOM probes are inserted 6 cm from thedorsal midlineBackfat and rind thickness at a point 6 cmfrom the dorsal midline between the thirdand fourth last rib. This measurement isreferred to as rib fatLongissimus dorsi (eye muscle) depthat a point 6 cm from the dorsal midlinebetween the third and fourth last rib. Thismeasurement is referred to as rib muscleOptical probeCold carcase weight and P2 (or P1 P3)fat depths are used to estimate LMPAn EU grade can be allocated to a carcaseby using the LMP.CSB Ultra-MeaterMethod 1Optical Probe is used to measure backfat andrind thickness at the P1 and P3 positions, levelwith the head of the last rib. The probe isinserted 4.5 cm and 8 cm from the dorsalmidline, respectively. The sum of the P1 andP3 measurements is recorded. Lean meat percentage60% and above55–59%50–54%45–49%40–44%39% or lessEU gradeSEUROPVisual AppraisalRib muscleThis is the identification of pigs withcarcase faults. These are described as‘Z’ carcases. Carcases that are scraggy,deformed, blemished, pigmented and coarseskinned, those with soft fat or pale muscle,and those devalued by being partiallycondemned, are recorded as ‘Z’ on thecarcase record (PCC1 or computer equivalent).Young boars are identified and recorded.Carcases with poor conformation arerecorded as ‘C’ carcases at the requestof the abattoir.3
Pork primal cutsForequarter – bone-inCollar of Pork – bonelessDenver Muscle (Presa)Chuck Eye Joint – CollarBoston Butt (Neck End)Shoulder – roundLMCPork Henry – wholeBrisket Muscle – fully trimmedBrisket Rib Rack4Shank – ForequarterMiddleLoinTomahawk RackLondon Rib Rack – loinGloucester Ribs RackSpare Rib – loin
Fillet on the boneBellySpare Ribs – bellyFilletKing Rib Rack – bellyChumpLeg of Pork incl. ChumpLeg of PorkTopsideTopside excl. gracilis muscleSilverside with Salmon CutSalmon Cut – fully trimmedThick FlankRumpHockShank – Hindquarter5
Pork bone structureSACRAL VERTEBRAE(SACRUM)COCCYGEALVERTEBRAETHORACIC VERTEBRAE (14/15)LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (6/7)CERVICAL VERTEBRAE TELLARIBS (14/15)HUMERUSSTERNUM6RADIUS/ULNA
Shoulder – boneless, rindless,excluding shankCode: 1027Position of the shoulder.1Shoulder – round2Start separating the brisket muscle from theshoulder muscles by following the natural seam(see arrow).3Continue to separate the brisket from theLMC muscle 4 to expose the humerus, leaving the small shin-likemuscle attached to the brisket.5Follow the contours of the shoulder blade and 6 remove the blade bone.7
Shoulder – boneless, rindless,excluding shank (continued)7Remove the shank and 10 Shoulder – boneless, rindless, excluding shank.8Code: 10278 the humerus.9Remove rind and excess fat, taking care not to cutinto underlying muscles.
Carvery Shoulder Roast –bonelessCode: 2002Position of the shoulder.1Shoulder – round2Cut back the muscle covering the shoulder blade,starting at the side of the blade muscle.3Remove the shoulder blade, taking care not to cutinto underlying muscles.4Cut through the brisket muscle and follow thecontour 5 of the humerus.6Remove the humerus but leave the shank attachedto the shoulder.9
Carvery Shoulder Roast –boneless (continued)7Trim exposed shoulder muscles of excess fat.Maximum fat thickness 10 mm.10 Secure with string or roasting bands at regularintervals.10Code: 20028Remove excess gristle, especially the thickest partrunning through the feather muscle.11 Carvery Shoulder.9Remove excess rind,rind sidethe joint.
Boston Butt Joint (Neck End) –boneless and rindlessCode: 2024Position of the collar.1Make a mark on the first rib 10 mm from the edge ofthe neck bone and parallel with the backline.2Cut and saw through the bones.3Separate into Boston Butt (neck end) and remaininghand and spring.4Boston Butt (neck end) – bone-in, rind on.5Remove rind and backfat.6Trim excess fat, maximum fat thickness 10 mm.11
Boston Butt Joint (Neck End) –boneless and rindless (continued)7Sheet bone neck and rib bones.10 Trim excess fat to a thickness of 10 mm maximum.Secure joint with string or roasting bands.128Code: 2024Expose the blade bone, trying not to cut intosurrounding muscles.11 Boston butt joint (neck end) – boneless and rindless.9Remove the blade bone and trim away any bonegristle and cartilage.
Collar Joint – bonelessCode: 2006Position of the collar.1Boneless collar 2 trimmed of excess fat and gristle. Secure jointwith roasting bands or string.3Collar joint – boneless.13
Collar Joint with crackling –bonelessCode: 2019Position of the collar.114Boneless collar trimmed of excess fat and gristle.2Place a piece of rind to cover the top of the joint andsecure with roasting bands or string.3Collar joint with crackling – boneless.
Mini Joint (350–450g) –CollarCode: 2007Position of the collar.1Boneless trimmed collar of pork.2Cut the collar into halves and secure both jointswith roasting bands at 10 cm intervals. Cut betweenbands to create 350–450 g mini joints.3Mini joints – collar.15
Mini Joint with Crackling(350–450 g) – CollarCode: 2020Position of the collar.116Boneless trimmed collar of pork.2Cut the collar into halves, place a layer of rind on thejoint and secure with roasting bands at 10 cmintervals. Cut between bands to create mini joints.3Mini joint with crackling – collar.
Collar SteaksCode: 3001Position of the collar.1Boneless collar.2Trim of excess fat and cut into 20 mm steaks.3Collar steaks.17
Chops – CollarCode: 3010Position of the collar.1Collar of pork – bone-in.4Chops – collar.182Remove the first chop at the side of the head as thispart is tough and should be used for trim.3Cut the remainder of the collar into chops of20 mm thickness.
Daubes – CollarCode: 3002Position of the collar.1Boneless trimmed collar of pork.2Cut the collar into halves and secure both joints withroasting bands at 10 cm intervals. Cut betweenbands to create daubes.3Daubes – collar.19
Dice (collar 90% VL)Code: 4005Position of the collar.120Collar of pork – boneless.2Collar of pork – boneless. Trim collar to 90% VLand dice.3Dice (collar 90% VL).
Loin Joint – bonelessand rindlessCode: 2005Position of the loin.1Loin – boneless, rindless.4Loin joint – boneless and rindless.2Loin – boneless, rindless. Maximum fat level 10 mm.3Roll the joint and secure at regular intervals withroasting bands or string.21
T-Bone ChopsCode: 3007Position of the lumbar section of the loin.1Loin of pork without rind.4T-bone chops.222The rib section (thoracic) of the loin needs to beremoved.3Cut the fillet section (lumbar) between thevertebrae into T-bone chops.
Chops – rib section of the loinCode: 3008Position of the rib section of the loin.1Loin of pork without rind.2The fillet section (lumbar) of the loin needs to beremoved. The rib section (thoracic) is cut into20 mm thick chops.3Chops – rib section of the loin.23
Spare Rib – loinCode: 3019Position of the rib section of the loin.1Loin of pork.4Loin ribs.242The ribs are sawn through at a point where they jointhe vertebrae.3The ribs are removed from the loin by sheet boning.
Loin Steaks – bonelessCode: 3004Position of the loin.1Loin of pork – boneless, rindless.2The loin is cut into steaks of 20 mm maximumthickness. Maximum fat thickness 8 mm. Tail of theloin not to exceed 25 mm.3Loin steak – boneless.25
Valentine SteaksCode: 3012Position of the loin.126Boneless, rindless loin of pork. Maximum fatthickness 8 mm. Tail of the loin not to exceed25 mm.2Butterfly cut the loin into valentine steaks, maximumthickness 20 mm.3Valentine steaks.
Belly – boneless, rindlessCode: 1016Position of the belly.1Bone-in belly.2Remove rind from the belly.3Remove breast bone (sternum) and exposerib cartilage.4Remove ribs and cartilage by sheet boning.5Belly – boneless, rindless.6Belly – boneless, rindless.27
Belly Roast – bonelessand rindlessCode: 2009Position of the belly.1Bone-in belly.2Remove rind and excess fat from the belly.Maximum fat thickness not to exceed 10 mm.4Roll belly and secure with string or roasting bandsat regular intervals.5Belly roast – boneless and rindless.283Remove breast bone (sternum) and exposerib cartilage. Remove ribs and cartilage bysheet boning.
Belly Blocks – bonelessand rindlessCode: 3033Position of the belly.1Bone-in belly.2Remove rind and excess fat from the belly.Maximum fat thickness not to exceed 10 mm.3Remove breast bone (sternum) and exposerib cartilage.4Remove ribs and cartilage by sheet boning.5Boneless, rindless and trimmed belly.6Cut belly into individual portions of required weight.29
Belly Pin WheelsCode: 3043Position of the belly.1Bone-in belly.2Remove rind and excess fat from the belly.Maximum fat thickness not to exceed 10 mm3Remove breast bone (sternum) and exposerib cartilage.4Remove ribs and cartilage by sheet boning.5Boneless, rindless and trimmed belly.6Roll and skewer belly, and cut into portions.30
Spare Ribs – bellyCode: 3020Position of the rib section of the belly.1Rindless belly of pork.2Rindless belly of pork.3The breast bone is removed.4Sheet bone the ribs, including the soft bones.5Spare rib – belly.6Spare rib – belly.31
Belly Slices –bone-in rindlessCode: 3023Position of the belly.1Remove breast bone (sternum) from thebone-in belly4Belly slices – bone-in, rindless.322Remove rind and excess fat from the belly.Maximum fat thickness not to exceed 10 mm3Cut the belly between the ribs to create belly slices.
King Rib Rack – bellyCode: 3053Position of the belly.1Belly – rindless. Fat thickness of outer layer not toexceed 5 mm.2Remove the section of the belly by following theouter contours of the last rib and the outer edgeof the soft bones.4 as illustrated.5King rib rack.3Cut the rack into required portions 33
King Rib – belly, portionsCode: 3054Position of the belly.1Belly – rindless. Fat thickness of outer layer not toexceed 5 mm.4King rib – belly, portions.342Remove the section of the belly by following theouter contours of the last rib and the outer edge ofthe soft bones.3Cut the king rib in two lengthways and theninto individual portions containing two ribs,as illustrated.
Carvery Leg Roast –bonelessCode: 2003Position of the leg and chump.1Leg and chump of pork.4Remove remaining bones(femur, patella tibia and fibula).25Remove the lumbar vertebrae, hip and tail bones.Boneless leg of pork with topsideremoved.63Remove the topside by following the natural seamsbetween the topside and thick flank.Remove the shin muscles and 7 the head of the fillet.35
Carvery Leg Roast –boneless (continued)8Remove the thick flank 11 trim remainder of excess fat and gristle.36Code: 20039 by following the natural seams.12 Roll joint and secure with string at regular intervals.10 Remove excess rind and 13 Carvery leg roast.
Leg Joint – bonelessCode: 2032Position of the leg and chump.1Leg and chump of pork.2Remove the thin muscle situated on top of thehip bone.3Remove the lumbar vertebrae, hip and tail bones.4Peel back the layer of rind and fat from the topside.5Remove the topside by following the natural seams.6Remove the shank.37
Leg Joint – boneless (continued)7Shank – hindquarter.10 Trim and remove 38Code: 20328Remove the femur.11 excess gristle and fat.9Remove the patella.12 Follow the silverside gristle and
Leg Joint – boneless (continued)13 separate the silverside, salmon cut andheel muscle 16 .both muscle blocks.Code: 203214 from the rump and thick flank.17 Fold rind around both joints.15 Remove excess rind from 18 Score rind and secure with string atregular intervals.19 Leg joint – boneless.39
Mini Joint (350–450 g) –TopsideCode: 2017Position of the topside.140Excess fat and gristle is removed from the topside.The remainder is cut into 350–450 g mini joints.2Mini joint – topside
Leg Steaks – Thick FlankCode: 3032Position of the thick flank.1Thick flank.2Trim the thick flank of excess fat and gristle.Remove the tri-tip muscle and cut into steaksof 15–20 mm thickness.3Leg steaks – thick flank.41
Stir-Fry (leg muscles 98% VL)Code: 4003Position of the leg and chump.1Trimmed to 98% VL topside without thegracilis muscle 2 silverside, salmon cut 4 and rump muscles can be cut into stir-fry strips.Maximum size 1 cm x 1 cm x 6 cm5Stir-fry (leg muscles 98% VL).423 thick flank
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