The National Blockchain Roadmap

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources (DISER) would liketo acknowledge the assistance and guidance provided by the National BlockchainRoadmap Advisory Committee, comprising: Ms Louise Talbot, General Manager, Digital Economy and Technology Division,Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources (DISER) (Chair) Mr Nick Giurietto, CEO and Managing Director, Blockchain Australia (Deputy Chair) Dr Mark Staples, Senior Research Scientist, CSIRO’s Data 61 Ms Katie Ford, Head of Government Business, CSIRO’s Data61 Professor Jason Potts, Economics, Finance and Marketing, RMIT University (RMIT) Dr Chris Berg, Senior Research Fellow, Economics, Finance and Marketing, RMIT Ms Leanne Kemp, Founder and CEO, Everledger Ms Adriana Belotti, Head of Marketing and Community, Prismatik.DISER would also like to thank staff at Austrade, the Department of Agriculture andRMIT who developed the Sectoral Showcases in partnership with us.And a special thankyou to the blockchain sectoral community of Australia, whogenerously gave their time to engage and provide feedback on the Roadmap.2NATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP


ContentsForeword5Executive summary6Context and opportunity8What is blockchain?The blockchain opportunity for AustraliaThe blockchain landscape in AustraliaSignposts for the future: 2020–20251: Regulation and standardsRegulationIdentityPrivacySecurity, data provenance, integrity and governanceStandards2: Skills, Capability & InnovationSkillsFoundational and specialist skillsImproving blockchain literacyFostering research, development and innovationGovernment use of blockchainResearch and Development into the technologyScalability3: International investment and collaborationInvestmentCollaboration4: Sectoral opportunitiesOverview of sectoral opportunitiesOverview of Australian agricultureIssues in agricultural exportsSystemic issuesWine sectorOverview of Australian Credentialing sector:The University SectorOverviewThe ‘Know Your Customer’ challengeThe opportunity for blockchain as a KYC 31323233343739434344Conclusion45Shortened Forms46Glossary47Appendix BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP

ForewordOn 18 March 2019, the Minister for Trade, Tourism and Investment, Senator the Hon. SimonBirmingham, and I jointly announced the development of a National Blockchain Roadmap(the Roadmap).The Morrison Government is committed to supporting the technology sector. Technology,science and industry, working hand in hand, is where we can solve the real-world problems oftoday and grow the businesses and sectors of tomorrow. We are committed to making surethat we build an economy, that we improve productivity and that we create jobs.This Roadmap highlights some of the enormous opportunities blockchain technology canenable—across our whole economy, not just in the financial sector. These opportunities includesupply chains and logistics; agriculture; trusted credentials; and smart contracts—just toname a few. Australia has some real strengths in blockchain technology, from our world-classresearch to our innovative companies to our leading role in the development of internationalstandards for blockchain.This Roadmap not only identifies the current and future opportunities for blockchain but alsoprovides the signposts for the future development and opportunities for this technology. Andthe greatest gains for blockchain-enabled economic transformation in our businesses andsectors will be realised when we all play our parts—government, the blockchain sector, andresearchers.I am very pleased that this Roadmap has been developed collaboratively with industry,universities and government, with an Advisory Committee—comprising representatives fromeach of these sectors—guiding the Roadmap’s development. Work on the Roadmap hasalso been informed by a series of workshops hosted by the Department of Industry, Science,Energy and Resources.Blockchain is a technology with real potential to save businesses money and to open newbusiness and export opportunities. It will continue to evolve over the coming years, andfor that reason, this Roadmap should be considered the start of the conversation betweengovernment, industry and universities on how we can all work together to move blockchainforward in Australia.THE HON KAREN ANDREWS MPMINISTER FOR INDUSTRY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYNATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP5

Executive summary‘Together, we can drive the long-term developmentand adoption of blockchain technology, andcapitalise on the tremendous economic and socialopportunities it offers.’THE HON KAREN ANDREWS, MINISTER FOR INDUSTRY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY1Initial industryengagementSector specificstakeholderworkshopsBlockchainMeet-up eventSector eworkshopsAdvisoryCommitteeestablishedFeedback ondraft roadmapfollowingMeet-up eventRoadmapThe Australian Government has engaged with industry and researchers to develop the NationalBlockchain Roadmap to highlight blockchain’s potential and some of the opportunities that exist.Blockchain technology is predicted to generate an annual business value of over US 175 billion by2025 and in excess of US 3 trillion by 2030.2The Australian Government has also provided support and funding for government, private sectorand researchers, to foster innovation and collaboration around blockchain, through programs suchas Austrade business missions to international markets; the Entrepreneur’s Programme; AustralianResearch Council Grants; and Business Research and Innovation Initiative pilots.The Government’s investments have been improving blockchain technology, developing internationalstandards for blockchain and helping businesses to bring blockchain products to market. Many ofthese investments are described in case studies throughout this Roadmap.Australia’s ability to capitalise on our current standing and to realise the potential of blockchain—both domestically and internationally—relies on ensuring key fundamentals are in place: effective, efficient and appropriate regulation and standards the skills and capabilities that can drive innovation strong international investment and collaboration.Getting these basics right for Australia’s maturing blockchain industry will ensure Australia is wellpositioned to take advantage of the valuable business opportunities and the jobs and growth thistechnology can /blockchain-potential-and-pitfallsNATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAPBlockchainMeet-up event

As with any emerging, disruptive technology, blockchain and its uses will need regulatory frameworksthat are fit for purpose. Challenges include maintaining trust; ensuring security of blockchain systemsand the integrity of data; identifying participants in blockchain systems; balancing privacy withtransparency; tech-neutrality; and the legal status of smart contracts.The Australian Government has provided 350,000 to Standards Australia to lead the developmentof international blockchain standards through the International Organization for Standardization(ISO), which will help address a number of these concerns as well as improve the interoperabilityof blockchains generally.Given that blockchain is a relatively new technology, there is a need to both build a skills-base thatcan translate into the capability that drives innovation and to educate industry and government aboutblockchain’s potential. A lack of familiarity with blockchain and its potential—along with concernsabout the level of hype associated with new technologies—may unduly limit industry and policydecision-makers’ appetite for engaging with blockchain.Demand for blockchain-skilled workers is substantial, with rapid growth in blockchain-related jobadvertisements since 2016. The roughly 470,000 Australians with potentially relevant digital andinformation and communications technology (ICT) skills could form a solid cohort of blockchainproficient professionals, provided the appropriate blockchain-specific training is made available.Australia is not alone in recognising the potential of blockchain. Several other nations leadingblockchain development—including the UK, the UAE, China, the Netherlands and Singapore—haveadopted a broad approach to encouraging industry to trial blockchain—an approach which could beapplicable in Australia.However, Australia is already a significant leader in international collaboration on a number of keyprojects designed to improve the technical and regulatory environment for blockchain. It has alsodemonstrated innovation and leadership in blockchain in areas such as international standards,research, bond operations and smart programmable money, while also conducting trials in the energy,agricultural and public sectors.Acknowledging the many possible applications of blockchain, this roadmap highlights some keyopportunities available in the agricultural sector, education sector through credentialing and thefinancial services sector, specifically relating to Know Your Customer (KYC) identity checkingrequirements, in Chapter 4, Sectoral Opportunities.Blockchain represents an opportunity to improve each step in the process of generating agriculturalproduce and getting it to the customer. A key example is the wine industry, for which blockchainsolutions can offer transparency, data-sharing and efficiencies. It can assist in inventory tracking,facilitate automated payments between supply chain members, and reduce counterfeiting throughprovenance transparency, among other potential benefits.Similarly, blockchain holds potential for the credentialing sector. Credentials are produced by theeducation sector, by professional and trade associations, and by government. These certificationsbenefit consumers by facilitating trust in professional and trade services, and employers by facilitatingaccess to trusted information about skills and capabilities.The financial services system goes hand in hand with distributed ledger technology—indeed, it is thegenesis of blockchain innovation. There is significant opportunity to enhance consumer outcomesin financial sector. For example, a barrier to switching financial services providers is the KYC identitychecking requirement—commonly involving presenting ‘100 points’ of identification for verification.This challenge presents a unique opportunity to use blockchain technology to reduce costs andprovide efficiencies for all parties.Seizing the opportunities presented by blockchain will require government, industry and researchersto work together. This Roadmap signposts a number of key next steps to advance our collectiveefforts to proactively address challenges and embrace blockchain investment and opportunity inAustralia, progressing towards a blockchain empowered future.NATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP7

Context and opportunityWhat is blockchain?Blockchains are a particular type of ‘distributed ledger’ technology. At their core is a shared databasethat is organised as a list of ‘blocks’, with the constraint that an additional block of data is appended tothe ledger only if a majority of nodes ‘agree’ that it is valid.Agreement between multiple nodes about the validity of a block is derived via a ‘consensusmechanism’, of which there are several types. The new block is cryptographically ‘chained’ to theprevious block that was added to the blockchain, which was chained to the block before it, and so on,all the way to the first block (the genesis block). Hence the name ‘blockchain’.As blocks are only added to the blockchain with the consensus of independent nodes, there is nosingle point of failure through which the blockchain’s data can be corrupted. This makes unauthorisedalterations significantly more difficult than they may be with traditional ledgers, which can bemodified by a single trusted authority.WHAT’S IN A ‘BLOCK’?Information in Blockchain systems is added in ‘blocks’The header includes metadata, such as a unique block reference number, the time the blockwas created, and a link back to the previous block.The content typically includes a validated list of transactions made, their amounts, and theaddresses of the parties to those transactions, along with digital assets and instructionstatements.3The blockchain opportunity for AustraliaThere are opportunities across our economy which can be seized and enabled by the use of blockchaintechnology: to create jobs, to create new economic growth, to save businesses money, and to improveour overall productivity. In addition, the combination of blockchain technology with other technologies,and the digital data underpinning blockchains, can add enormous additional economic value.With broader application, Gartner predicts that blockchain will generate an annual business value of overUS 175 billion by 2025 and in excess of US 3 trillion by 2030.4 By 2023, blockchain will support theglobal movement and tracking of US 2 trillion worth of goods and services annually.5 Within the financialservices industry alone, analysts predict blockchain will save US 15–20 billion annually by 2022.6The costs to Australian food and wine producers of direct product counterfeiting and substitution, wasestimated to be over AU 1.68 billion in 2017 alone.7 Blockchain solutions can help to address this ontent/dam/insights/us/articles/4185 blockchain-public-sector/DUP willblockchain-transform-public-sector.pdf7FIAL 2017. Counting the cost: Lost Australian food and wine export sales due to fraud.Available at: Download&Attachment id 60NATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP

There is growing interest and investment inblockchain as a decentralised, peer-to-peersolution with the potential to deliver significantcost savings. Many people now have lowertrust in social and traditional media, banksand governments to report the truth, protectprivacy, and act in the interests of everydaypeople. Given this context, blockchain and otherdecentralised technologies may increasingly bepreferred to traditional intermediaries.Blockchain’sspecific features make it an attractive option forconducting transactions and maintaining records,with potential applications across many sectors ofthe economy such as finance, trade, health, energy,water, resources, agriculture and credentials.There are potential applications in both existingand emerging industries—from provenance,registries, energy and water trading, to blockchainfor courts of law and spacecraft systems.Transactions facilitated by blockchain could openup new horizons for global trade and become thenext step in the evolution of monetary systems.8In ‘Chapter 4: Sectoral opportunities’, theRoadmap lists a number of sectors whereblockchain shows strong potential. It showcasesthe agricultural sector with a wine export example;the ‘trusted credentialing’ sector with an educationexample; and the identity sector with a ‘Know YourCustomer’ checks example.CASE STUDY: ASX & CHESSASX Limited is implementing a blockchain-basedsolution as the post-trade infrastructure for Australia’sequity market. The Clearing House ElectronicSubregister System (CHESS), developed by ASX over25 years ago, is currently the core system used by ASXto perform clearing, settlement and other post-tradeservices for the Australian equity market.In 2015, ASX started a process to evaluate replacementoptions for CHESS. ASX commenced stakeholderconsultation in 2016 to gain a better understandingof the new functionality and services that users ofCHESS would like delivered by the replacementsystem. Dominic Stevens, ASX Managing Director andCEO, announced in late 2017 that, following carefulexamination:We believe that using [blockchain] to replaceCHESS will enable our customers to develop newservices and reduce their costs, and it will putAustralia at the forefront of innovation in financialmarkets.10In 2019, ASX started customer development and testingfor software vendors and in-house systems connectedto CHESS in a dedicated customer developmentenvironment. The blockchain solution is currentlyestimated to go live in the first half of 2021.While there are significant opportunities forblockchain technologies, some use cases aremore suited to blockchain than others. As the USDepartment of Homeland Security (DHS) notes:Blockchain is best suited for use casesrequiring at least three of the following: dataredundancy; information transparency; dataimmutability; and a consensus mechanism. Ifonly one or two are required then blockchainmay work, but there are likely simpler orcheaper ways to solve the problem.989Lowe P. 2017. An eAUD? Address to the 2017Australian Payment Summit. Sydney – 13 December2017 Reserve Bank of Australia files/publications/2018 AEP Blockchain andSuitability for Government Applications.pdf10 7.pdf 7.pdfNATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP9

The blockchain landscape in AustraliaAn analysis of 138 blockchain activities in Australia conducted by CSIRO’s Data61 (the data and digitalspecialist data services arm of CSIRO), and published in April 2019, shows a general upwards trajectory,with most of this activity coming from small-to-medium sized businesses in New South Wales andVictoria. Although the majority of activities were recorded within capital cities, there were someexamples of regional blockchain activities. For instance, over 30 businesses in the Central Queenslandtowns of Agnes Water and Seventeen Seventy are now accepting cryptocurrency as a form of payment,designed to appeal to international tourists in the niche market of crypto-funded travel.The leading industry for blockchain activities in Australia is financial and insurance services, followedby professional, scientific and technical services, and retail trade (see Figure 1).Figure 1: Share of Australian blockchain activities, by IndustryFinancial and insurance servicesProfessional, scientific and technical servicesRetail tradeHealthcare and social assistanceIndustry typeRental, hiring and real estate servicesInformation media and telecommunicationsArts and recreation servicesElectricity, gas, water and waste servicesPublic administration and safetyAccommodation and food servicesAgriculture, forestry and fishingConstructionMiningTransport, postal and warehousingEducation and training05101520 25 30 35 40Share of blockchain activities (%)Around 93% of blockchain activities have been undertaken by small-to-medium sized organisationswith 1 to 200 employees, with a growing share of start-ups in Australia identifying with the blockchainindustry—up from 3.4% in 2016 to 8.1% in 2018. Analysis of blockchain activities also demonstrates thatAustralia is home to a number of world-first blockchain applications, which include bonds operations;smart programmable money; a national blockchain system and international standards; as well asindustry-specific trials in energy, agriculture and the public sector.11Australia ranks sixth internationally in blockchain-related patent filings. There are currently 49 patentfamilies, which are defined as a set of patents taken in various countries to protect a single invention,that address issues ranging from the data-processing side of the technology (encryption,transmission) to its applications in payment systems, administration and financial ch/Our-Work/Blockchain-203012 lockchain-203010NATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP

The Australian Government has invested in a wide range of blockchain-related activities to date.Funding has included support for government, private sector and university research, innovation andcollaboration, through programs such as Austrade trade missions; the Entrepreneur’s Programme;Australian Research Council Grants; and Business Research and Innovation Initiative pilots.The government has also provided funding to Standards Australia to enable Australia to lead thedevelopment of international standards for blockchain and it has committed to the development ofthis Roadmap, in close collaboration with industry and universities.The Government’s investments have been improving blockchain technology; demonstratingopportunities and use cases; and helping businesses bring blockchain products to market.Figure 2: Example of how blockchain works213AA wants to sendmoney to B4The transaction isrepresented onlineas a block5The block isbroadcast to everyparty in the network6BThose in thenetwork approvethe transactionas validThe block can then beadded to the chain,which provides anindelible and transparentrecord of transactionsThe moneymoves fromA to BNATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP11

Figure 3: Blockchain myths busted12MYTH: BLOCKCHAINIS BITCOINMYTH: BLOCKCHAINIS FINTECHMYTH: THERE IS ONLY ONETYPE OF BLOCKCHAINIt may have been Bitcoin thatbrought blockchain to publicattention, but the two are notsynonymous. Blockchain isthe underlying technologyfor Bitcoin, enabling bitcointransactions to occur directlybetween two parties withoutgoing through a third party likea bank.Blockchain is often thoughtas being a financial servicestechnology, becauseof its association withcryptocurrencies like Bitcoinas well as the high level ofinterest shown by the fintechsector. However, its applicationfor the purpose of trackingand recording data can addvalue to many sectors—suchas agriculture, healthcare, realestate and retail, to name justa few.There is more than just onetype of blockchain. In a publicblockchain, anyone can readand write the blockchain andparticipate in the consensusprocess. In a private blockchain,a central authority regulateseverything in the blockchain,including writing and readingfrom the chain and theconsensus process—hence,it is not free for anyone andeveryone. In a permissioned(private) blockchain, apredefined set of membershave a role in the consensusmechanism and have specialrights to read and/or write tothe blockchain.NATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP

SIGNPOSTS FOR THE FUTURE: 2020–202515Formalise the National Blockchain Roadmap AdvisoryCommittee and rename it the National BlockchainRoadmap Steering Committee. The committee wouldhave a Terms of Reference for it to oversee next stepsfollowing on from the Roadmap. The membership of thecommittee could be extended to include key regulators,it could also enable secondments to the committeefor specific projects, and host ongoing BlockchainMeet-Up events. A role of the committee would be toprovide advice on existing government programs andsupport that is available to the sector, for example theIncubator Support Program, Entrepreneurs Program,the Cooperative Research Centre projects program, theBusiness Research and Innovation Initiative and VentureCapital programs. This committee would ensure closeties with other relevant committees such as the TreasuryFintech Advisory Committee. The National BlockchainRoadmap Steering Committee can provide advice togovernment on the next two use cases to be exploredjointly, taking into account whether there is industry orresearch sector support to progress the opportunity, aswell as the size of the opportunity.Look internationally to identify examples of countriesusing blockchain to provide efficient governmentservices, for example Estonia, for learnings for Australia.2Establish a collaborative model comprising workinggroups of industry, the research sector andgovernment to progress analysis on the next usecases, with each providing equal funding contribution.In progressing the next use cases, ensure there isa mechanism for direct engagement with relevantregulators. These working groups can provide adviceto the Steering Committee on specific regulatorychallenges, and potential options to progress solutionsto these challenges, such as experiments or pilots ofregulatory approaches.3Investigate options for progressing the three use casesin the Roadmap, including completing a full economicanalysis of Agricultural wine exports and credentialingand investigating a possible pilot project on Know YourCustomer (KYC) checks.4Government to establish and coordinate a group ofgovernment blockchain users, with State and Territorygovernment representatives invited to join, to discuss thelearnings from existing government use cases, promoteand diffuse these learnings across government, andidentify further government use cases.6Work closely with blockchain providers to engage withthe Business Research and Innovation Initiative (BRII)program and have a specific challenge in one of theuse case areas we know blockchain can provide goodsolutions.7Ensure that blockchain is included in broader policy workto increase management capability around digitaltechnologies.8Industry and educational institutions work together todevelop common frameworks and course content forblockchain qualifications.9Work with Austrade on a capability developmentprogram for Australian blockchain start-ups so thatthey are ready to expand globally and link qualifiedcompanies to Austrade supported programs such asLanding Pads.10Work with Austrade to deliver a blockchain focussedinbound investment program introducing potentialinvestors to Australia with a view to achieving outcomesthat grow and bring capability to the Australianblockchain ecosystem.11Leverage existing bilateral agreements to considerpilot projects or collaborations incorporatingblockchain technology with other countries.12Work with relevant government departments to ensureAustralian businesses can connect into emergingdigital trade infrastructure being developed.NATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP13

1: Regulationand standards14NATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP

As with any emerging, disruptive technology,blockchain and its uses pose new challenges in termsof regulation. Ensuring our regulatory systems arefit for purpose for the future is a key challenge forgovernment.A regulatory environment that is conducive to innovation and growth is essential for Australia to takeadvantage of the blockchain opportunities available—including international investment opportunities.This can be achieved by ensuring our regulatory systems are principlesbased and technology-neutral,and that regulators consider the importance of enabling innovation and investment when interpretingand enforcing regulations.For example, Australia currently has a strong and effective national measurement system whichprovides confidence that the measurements made in Australia can be trusted both domesticallyand internationally. This system helps build confidence in measurement-based data which can beadded to different blockchain applications. The current review of Australia’s measurement laws isconsidering ways to ensure the laws remain fit for purpose, and supportive of innovation and changesin technology—such as blockchain applications.Additionally, common blockchain standards will help address some of the risk identified with thetechnology, including security risks.Blockchain technology engages with a range of regulatory issues that are common across a largenumber of use cases, including privacy, while other issues relate to specific uses, such as the use ofsmart contracts.Companies using blockchain technologies have reported regulatory barriers when developing theirproducts. For example, some companies proposing initial coin offerings have found it challengingto navigate financial services laws, and some relevant sections of the Corporations Act 2001 are nottechnology-neutral (for example Part 7.11, which relates to title and transfer of securities13).13 ASIC submission to Treasury review on initial coin offerings 4/c2019-t353604-asic.pdfNATIONAL BLOCKCHAIN ROADMAP15

RegulationIdentityBlockchain systems revolve around facilitating interactions between parties. In many blockchainsystems, these parties remain pseudonymous, and don’t need a verified identity to support them.In some blockchain systems, there needs to be confidence about the identity of the parties to atransaction—but the parties may remain anonymous to other users. This can help to ensure that fraudand cybercrime are reduced and increase the range of activities for which blockchain can be used.Where a blockchain system needs verified identities, it can either create its own method of verifyingan identity or access verified identities from trusted identity providers. These systems conduct theverification of someone’s identity, and then can assert that the person has verified their identity, to theblockchain system. This can enable the blockchain system to assert the validity of someone’s identityand, if necessary, pass on verified personal information to other parties to a transaction. Regulation orstandards could describe the requirements for an identity to be verified, and for a provider of identityto be trusted when asserting the validity of an identity.The Trusted Digital Identity Framework14 is the Australian Government’s standard for the verificationof digital identity. It sets out the requirements that participants in the digital identity ecosystem

Blockchain Roadmap to highlight blockchain's potential and some of the opportunities that exist. Blockchain technology is predicted to generate an annual business value of over US 175 billion by 2025 and in excess of US 3 trillion by 2030.2 The Australian Government has also provided support and funding for government, private sector

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