2.4.3 Botanical Gardens And Arboreta - CBD

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First national report for the Convention on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTabela 2-37. Pilot Program to Conserve the Brazilian Rain Forest PPG-7 (In US million or equivalent).ProjectsRFT* Germany European UnitedCommission KingdomUSAFrance Counterpart TotalBrazilCurrent projectsScientific institutionsDirected Research9.000.70Demonstrative Projects Type AExtractivist Reserves3.183.0020.754.445.55Natural Resources PolicyIndigenous lands20.002.1028.4818.4118.55Subtotal – projects underway37.2867.6439.45Projects approved5.701.9010.911.685.00Management of Forest ResourcesPROMANEJOEnvironmental Education-CEDUC2.002.2513.54Subtotal - projects approved4.2513.545.551.90New projects for evaluationAnalysis, Monitoring and EvaluationManagement of Natural Resources2.00of VárzeasMonitoring and Control ofDeforestation and Fires- PRODESQUEParks and ReservesNot allocated2.00Subtotal - new projects 1511.348.8031.4872.83284.50RFT Rain Forest Trust Fund, a multilateral fund from a number of donors, administered by The World Bank.Source: Brasil, MMA. Projeto Parques e Reservas. Brasilia: Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil PPG-7 (1997). 3 v.of computerised databases for collections. The NationalZoological Programme (Programa Nacional de Zoologia) ofCNPq recruits and trains personnel for the maintenance ofresearch teams and of the collections themselves.Of the zoology projects financed, 52% deal withvertebrates. Of these, 32% deal with fish, 25% mammals, 21%birds, 14% reptiles, and 7% amphibians. Research projectson invertebrates include insects (68%), crustaceans (32%),coelenterates (4.5%) and echinoderms (4.5%). A little over10% of the research groups in zoology maintain scientificcollections. The Tropical Database (BDT) has placed someinformation on these research groups and their collectionson the Internet - Brazilian Zoological Collections (Table 243).There are a number of initiatives involving theestablishment of computerised databases for zoologicalcollections. One of these is the Neodat Project, for fishes,involving 30 institutions world-wide, five of which areBrazilian. The Emílio Goeldi Museum (Museu Paraense EmílioGoeldi - MPEG) in Pará is also computerising the cataloguesand registers for its collection. The National Museum (Mu-seu Nacional) in Rio de Janeiro is using two systems: MUSEfor the ichthyological collection and SGC, for the remainder.2.4.3 Botanical Gardens and ArboretaBotanical Gardens, which maintain, introduce, and breednative and non-native plant species, have a fundamentalrole to play in both in situ and ex situ conservation, especiallyof rare and threatened species. They act as germplasm banks,maintaining as they do valuable genetic material in their livecollections.In the Convention on Biological Diversity the view is giventhat it is fundamental that botanical gardens be involved incarrying out or supporting conservation in situ especially insuch areas as species, habitat and ecosystem management,forest regeneration, habitat restoration, and the conservationof rare or threatened species of the Brazilian flora, besidesplaying an essential role in genome preservation.Botanical gardens should also be involved in floristic andphytosociological inventories for the conservation and81

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-38. Private Natural Heritage Reserves(RPPNs).management of ecosystems and habitats and the identificationof processes and activities that currently or potentiallyrepresent adverse impacts on imaTocantinsThere are 36 registered botanical gardens in the country,all involved in species’ conservation and environmentaleducation (Table 2-44).There is a Brazilian Network of Botanical Gardens (RedeBrasileira de Jardins Botânicos) and some of their principalneeds were summarised during a meeting held during the46th National Botanical Congress, in Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, July 1996; Establishment of a permanent base that would givepriority to the study of the most important biomes; The exchange of information via the Network; The organization and integration of ex situconservation strategies for rare or threatened nativespecies; More environmental education programmes.There is as yet no broad survey of the situation of Brazilianarboreta, forests or woods planted for the cultivation of treespecies, native or otherwise, for the purposes of preservation,production of seedlings and seeds, or as germplasm banks.Available information refers to collections associated withbotanical gardens and/or research centres, beside thedevelopment of human resources.2.4.4 Zoological GardensTable 2-39. Status of Indigenous lands in Brazil*NumberArea (ha)Area (ha)46.75104,222.962,000.00623.24109.59745.00Total - PiauíRio Grande do NorteTotal - North-eastFederal DistrictGoiásMato GrossoMato Grosso do 51.0013,306.6082,040.7949,533.35Total Central-westMinas GeraisRio de JaneiroSão PauloTotal - South-eastParanáRio Grande do SulSanta CatarinaTotal - SouthTotal - 41,057.34Source: IBAMA/DIREC (1998).Ninety-one zoological gardens in Brazil are responsiblefor maintaining some 40,000 wild animals in captivity, thelarge majority of them species naturally occurring in Brazil(Table 2-45, Figure 2-35). These zoos also carry out zoologicalresearch and environmental education projects, frequentlyin partnership with national and international institutions.SituationNumber151111% in relationThe Society of Brazilian Zoological Gardens (Sociedadedos Zoológicos do Brasil - SZB) is one of the twoorganizations representing zoos and animal collections inBrazil, the other being the Sao Paulo Society of ZoologicalGardens (Sociedade Paulista de Zoológicos). The SBZ holdsa Congress each year in which zoo staff and researcherspresent papers on veterinary medicine, ecology, andenvironmental education. It is also responsible for thecommittees that supervise and guide captive breeding effortsfor some of the Brazilian threatened, such as the Manedto total area25653,784,52263.91Table 2-40. Recognition of Indigenous Lands in 022.92100.00To be y sanctionedDemarcatedDelimited* not including 177 areas to be identified.Source: FUNAI (1997).8201/90 to 09/9210/92 to 12/9401/95 to 11/97TOTALDeclaredLegally sanctionedNumber Area (ha) Number Area 3Source: ISA. 1997. Terras e Populações Indígenas (1997)(Internal document).

First national report for the Convention on Biological Diversity - BRAZILSTAGES IN REGULATING CATIONREGISTRATIONLEGENDState CapitalsBrasiliaState limitsNational limitDESCRIPTION OF THE STAGESRegistrated Indigenous lands registered with a notary public and the Secretariat ofEstate of the UnionRatifiedDemarcated indigenous lands ratified by the UnionDemarcated Indigenous lands with their boundaries identified by means ofdemarcation.DelimitedIndigenous lands with their boundaries recognised by the UnionIdentifiedIndigenous lands with their boundaries approved by the FUNAITo beidentifiedIndigenous lands which have yet to be studied by the FUNAI in situFigure 2.31 Status of Indigenous Lands in Brazil.Source: Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI). Brasil - Terras Indígenas. Map, scale 1:5,000,000. Brasília, 1997.Wolf Management Committee. An annual census is carriedout of all captive animals in order to formulate husbandryand breeding strategies and identify the species demandingspecific efforts for their conservation in captivity. Theinformation is compiled and made available on the Internetby the Tropical Database - BDT, Campinas, through the Webutility Census of Brazilian Zoological Gardens . The censusincludes the scientific and common names, family, class andbreeding stock, the latter expressed as the number of males,females, indeterminate and total (Table 2-46). There is alsoan indication of the status of the species: whether they arethreatened in the wild, presumed threatened or insufficientlyknown, based on the Official List of Species of BrazilianFauna Threatened with Extinction of IBAMA (Edict No.1.522, 19th December 1989; Edict No. 221/90, No 45-N, 27thApril 1992; and Edict No. 062,17th June 1997) (see Box 2-1).The Tropical Database - BDT has also assisted the SZBin carrying out a survey of the Zoological Gardens to obtaininformation on their lines of research and environmentaleducation projects. This is included in the Directory ofZoological Gardens in Brazil (Diretório dos Zoológicos doBrasil), also available on the Internet.2.4.5 Germplasm BanksThe National Centre for Research on Genetic Resourcesand Biotechnology (Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia - CENARGEN) of EMBRAPA,was set up in 1974. It resulted in the establishment of aNational Network for the Conservation of Genetic Resources(Rede Nacional de Conservação de Recursos Genéticos) toorganise the collection, exchange, quarantine,83

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-41. Indigenous populations and societiescharacterisation, evaluation, documentation and, above all,the conservation and use of germplasm.StatePopulation% ofNº oftotal societiesThe Network is comprised of EMBRAPA and its researchunits, universities, state research institutes and privateenterprises. Germplasm banks - BaG have been set up in 27sites, all operating in strict collaboration with CENARGEN.The base collection of plant germplasm (deep-frozen at –20ºC) is maintained at CENARGEN and the active collections,together with perennial plant collections, are kept in the othergermplasm banks (Table bucoSergipeA recent survey of the Network listed about 200,000records of plant germplasm being conserved throughout thecountry. Of these, about 76% are non-native and 24% arenative species.Studies carried out by the Financing Agency for Researchand Projects (Financiadora de Pesquisas e Projetos - FINEP)have indicated the need for a number of measures to improvethe system of germplasm conservation in the country: Restoration of important collections which aredeteriorating; More space and improved safety measures; Maintenance and upgrading of equipment; Expansion and computerisation of the stocks; Training, recycling and improved career stability ofresearchers and support staff; Increase in bibliographic material and the upgradingof specialised libraries; Incentives for, and facilitation of, the exchange ofmaterial; Mechanisms for exchange of specialists andopportunities for training technicians within thecountry and abroad.Currently, research is concentrated on the following races: 84Cattle: Mocho Nacional , Crioulo Lageano , Pantaneiro , Curraleiro or Pé-Duro , Junqueira and Caracu ;50.911365228288814351029172North-eastEspírito SantoMinas GeraisRio de JaneiroSão GoiásMato GrossoMato Grosso do SulCentral-westRio Grande do SulSanta 8,863100.0021521The number of isolated Indians has not been computed;the numbers of those who live on the outskirts of citiesare computed for the following towns/cities: 2,300 inAmambaú/MS, 3,000 in Campo Grande/MS, 1,000 inBoa Vista/RR, 10,000 in Manaus/AM, 20 in Governador Valadares/MG, and approximately 100 in Curitiba/PR, totalling approximately 26,420 Indians.2The total for this column is higher than the real figure,due to the fact that some societies live in more than oneState of the Federation.Source: FUNAI. Brasília (1997).Together, these components aim to guarantee theconservation of the existing genetic resources in the ex situcollections, as well as in situ conservation in their regions oforigin, together with the agricultural and indigenouscommunities.Twelve animal germplasm banks maintain in vivo and invitro specimens of animal populations for research,conservation and breeding, especially of domestic racesthreatened with 67,4246,6118,5614,65014,2716,90219,950230 Sheep: Crioulo Lanado , Santa Inês , Morada Nova , Sornalis Brasileiro ; Goats: Moxotó , Marota , Canindé , Gurguéia , Repartida , Azul and Graúna ; Pigs: Moura , Caruncho , Pirapetinga , Piau , Canastra , Canastrinha , Canastrão , Tatu , Nilo and Casco de Mula ; Mules: Jumento Nordestino and Jumento Brasileiro ;

First national report for the Convention on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-42. Brazilian herbaria - 354RBRFARBRESAFundação Universidade Estadual de LondrinaHerbário da Pontifícia UniversidadeCatólica do ParanáHerbário da Universidade Estadual de MaringáHerbário Fernando CardosoHerbário Per Karl DusenMuseu Botânico Municipal de CuritibaUniversidade Federal do ParanáCentro de Pesquisas de Pecuária dos Camposdo Sul BrasileirosHerbário Alarich SchultzHerbário Aloysio Sehnem – UNISINOSHerbário Balduíno RamboHerbário da Universidade de Caxias do SulHerbário da Universidade de Passo FundoHerbário da Universidade do Rio GrandeHerbário do Departamento de BotânicaHerbário do Departamento de CiênciasFlorestaisHerbário do Museu de CiênciasHerbário Santa MariaHerbário UruguaianaHerbarium AnchietaInstituto de Pesquisas AgronômicasInstituto de Pesquisas de Recursos NaturaisRenováveis Ataliba PazLaboratório Brasileiro de AgrostologiaUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulHerbário Barbosa RodriguesHerbário do Depto, de BotânicaHerbário Pe. Dr, Raulino ReitzHerbarium Gilmar Pezzopane PláSouth-EeastMuseu de Biologia Mello LeitãoReserva Florestal de LinharesUniversidade Federal do Espírito SantoEmpresa de Pesquisa Agropecuáriade Minas Gerais – EPAMIGHerbário “Guido Pabst”Herbário da Universidade Federalde Minas GeraisHerbário de ViçosaHerbário do Centro de Ensino SuperiorHerbário do Museu de História NaturalHerbário e Xiloteca – CETEC/SATHerbário José BadiniPontifícia Universidade CatólicaUniversidade Federal de LavrasUniversidade Federal de UberlândiaHerbário Alberto CastellanosHerbário da Universidade Santa ÚrsulaHerbário do Museu Nacional do Rio de JaneiroHerbário do Parque Nacional da Serra dos ÓrgãosHerbário PARNA/ITAHerbarium BradeanumHerbarium Friburguense Colégio AnchietaJardim Botânico da Universidade FederalRural do Rio de JaneiroJardim Botânico do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de JaneiroEscola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de 2,225344,812———85

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-42 (contd). Brazilian Herbaria - INPAIANMGHF106CEN107108IBGEUB86Herbário da UNESP de BauruHerbário da Universidade Sagrado CoraçãoHerbário de Ilha SolteiraHerbário do Departamento de Biologia – FFCL – USPHerbário Don Bento PickelHerbário Maria Eneyda P, K, FidalgoHerbário MicológicoHerbário Municipal de São PauloHerbarium RioclarenseInstituto Agronômico de CampinasInstituto BiológicoUniversidade de São PauloUniversidade Estadual de CampinasUniversidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita FilhoUniversidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita FilhoNorth-EastHerbário Alexandre Leal CostaHerbário Antônio Nonato MarquesHerbário do Centro de Pesquisas do CacauHerbário RADAM-BRASILUniversidade Estadual de Feira de SantanaCentro Nacional de Pesquisa da Mandiocae Fruticultura – EMBRAPAHerbário do Instituto de Meio AmbienteHerbário Honório MonteiroHerbário Caririense Dárdano de Andrade LimaHerbário Micológico e FitológicoHerbário Prisco BezerraHerbário UVA/CNPq/EMBRAPAHerbário Jayme Coelho de MoraesHerbário Lauro Pires XavierCentro de Pesquisa Agropecuária TrópicoSemi-arido/EMBRAPAHerbário Dárdano de Andrade LimaHerbário Sérgio TavaresHerbário Vasconcelos SobrinhoUniversidade Federal de PernambucoUniversidade Federal de PernambucoHerbário Gabriel BarrosoEscola de FlorestasHerbário Dárdano de Andrade LimaHerbário Atico SeabraHerbário Parque das DunasUniversidade PotiguarHerbário da Universidade Federal de SergipeNorthFundação de Tecnologia do Estado do AcreHerbário do AcreHerbário AmapaenseInstituto de Tecnologia da AmazôniaHerbário da Universidade do AmazonasInstituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaHerbário da EMBRAPA Amazônia OrientalMuseu Paraense Emílio GoeldiUniversidade Federal do ParáCentral-WestCentro Nacional de Pesquisa de RecursosGenéticos e Biotecnologia – CENARGENHerbário da Reserva Ecológica do IBGEHerbário do Departamento de Botânica - 0

First national report for the Convention on Biological Diversity - BRAZILTable 2-42 (contd). Brazilian Herbaria - 5CEULCORUFMTHerbário Ezechias Paulo HeringerUniversidade Federal de GoiásCentro de Pesquisas Agropecuárias doPantanal – EMBRAPAFundação Universidade Federal do MatoGrosso do SulHerbário do Centro Universitário de Três LagoasUniversidade Federal do Mato Grosso do SulHerbário CentralGeneral ial totals. State, see Figure 1-1. n.a. data not available.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998). Horses: Lavradeiro , Pantaneiro , Nordestino , Marajoara and Campeiro .Besides the Animal Germplasm Bank maintained byCENARGEN in Brasília and the Rio Grande do NorteAgricultural and Cattle-Breeding Research Company (Empresa de Pesquisas Agropecuárias do Rio Grande do Norte EMPARN), there are seven other germplasm banks maintainedby EMBRAPA for domestic races of buffalo, cattle, mules,horses, goats, and sheep: Buffalo Germplasm Bank, Pará – Bubalus bubalis; Pé-Duro Cattle Germplasm Bank, Piauí – Bos taurus; Pantaneiro Cattle Germplasm Bank Mato Grosso doSul – Bos taurus; Nordestino Mule Germplasm Bank, Rio Grande doNorte – Equus asinus; Lavradeiro Horse Germplasm Bank, Rorâima – Equuscabalus; Pantaneiro Horse Germplasm Bank, Mato Grossodo Sul – Equus cabalus; Goat Breeds of the Northeast Germplasm Bank, Ceará– Capra hircus; Marota Goat Germplasm Bank, Piauí – Capra hircus; Crioula Lanada Sheep Germplasm Bank, Rio Grandedo Sul – Ovis aries; Parasitic Wasp Germplasm Bank, CENARGEN, Federal District - Trichorama spp.Regarding wild animals, conservation work in situ andthe appraisal of the effects of habitat fragmentation ongenetic variability is concentrated on three species: capybara(Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), paca (Agouti paca) and manedwolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).2.4.6 Micro-organism Culture CollectionsMost of the collections of micro-organism cultures in Brazilcome from the isolated efforts of researchers, without anyinstitutional support. Use of these cultures is restricted tothe interests of the researcher, access is limited, and they donot meet the demand for authenticated cultures available tothe public.Figure 2-32. Distribution of herbaria in Brazil.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998).87

Ministry of SPFigure 2-33. Number of herbaria in the different states of Brazil.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998).With a view to creating a programme for this sector, in1982, the André Tosello Tropical Research and TechnologyFoundation began a survey of the stocks of micro-organismcollections of interest in terms of health, agriculture, industryand the environment, concentrated mainly in the state ofSao Paulo. The first Catalogue of Collections of Microorganism Cultures was published in 1984. From 1985 onwards,the survey was extended to the other states, and resulted inthe establishment of a Sectorial Programme of CultureCollections (Programa Setorial de Coleções de Culturas PSCC), supported by FINEP. In 1986, the Second Catalogueof Lineages was published, and a further survey in the sameyear, sponsored by FINEP, identified 80 collections in 43institutions.A number of projects have been developed as a result ofthe PSCC. More than 40 courses and seminars, includingparticipation of specialists from abroad, have been organisedthrough the PSCCC in combination with the PersonnelTraining Program for Strategic Activities (Programa deCapacitação de Recursos Humanos para Atividades Estratégicas - RHAE) of the Ministry of Science and Technology- MCT. Also within the PSCC, in 1988 FINEP providedemergency support to 13 collections.88The first volume of the 3rd Edition of the National Catalogue of Lineages/Bacteria was published in 1989. The second(Yeasts and Filamentous Fungi), and third (Cells and LiveAnimals) volumes were published in 1990. The nationalsurvey of collections has not been updated since 1990. Allthe information is available via the Tropical Data Base - BDTon the Internet.EMBRAPA co-ordinates and maintains 10 micro-organismgermplasm banks of agricultural interest, including bacteria,fungi and protozoa, in six institutions.The Collection of Tropical Cultures (Coleção de CulturasTropical - CCT) and the Rio de Janeiro Cellbank (Banco deCélulas do Rio de Janeiro - BCRJ) have both received fundingthrough the biotechnology subprogramme of the Programmefor Support of Scientific and Technological Development(Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico eTecnológico - PADCT II), for infrastructure, expanding stocks,and the improvement of services to the scientific andtechnological community. The CCT has a stock of almost6,000 lineages of micro-organisms of industrial andenvironmental interest. Information on these cultures isavailable on the Internet through the Tropical Data Base -

First national report for the Convention on Biological Diversity - stCentral-westSouth-eastSouthFigure 2-34. Number of specimens in herbaria in the different regions of Brazil.Source: Peixoto & Barbosa (1998).BDT. The BCRJ has a stock of around 130 lineages (animalcells) of interest to human health and tropical medicine. Theyare described in the Catálogo Nacional de Linhagens Humanas e Animais of 1994, and the addendum of 1996.In view of the need for Depository Centres for BiologicalMaterial (Centros Depositários de Material Biológico), tocomply with article 24, of the Law of Industrial Property (No9.279/1996), the National Institute for Industrial Property (Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial - INPI) has set upan advisory work group (GT-CREBIOT), to define legal andtechnical criteria for the selection of depository centres, tobe accredited by INPI. This is to meet the demand for depositsassociated with patent applications. Although there are 30International Depository Centres recognised by the WorldIntellectual Property Organization - WIPO, none are in LatinAmerica.2.4.7 Breeding WildCommercial PurposesAnimalsforThe Faunal Protection Law (Lei de Proteção à Fauna, No.5.197/1967), which provides for the protection of wildlife,was significantly strengthened by the 1988 Constitution. TheConstitution determines that it is the duty of the State “toprotect fauna and flora, forbidding, by law, practices that putits ecological function at risk, cause the extinction of speciesor submit animals to cruelty”. The Faunal Protection Lawbanned professional hunting and deliberate trade in speciesof Brazilian wildlife. It allowed, however, for amateur hunting,considered as a management strategy, and encouragedespecially the establishment of breeding facilities for wildanimals for economic or industrial purposes.Breeding Brazilian wildlife in captivity for economicpurposesThe breeding of native animals in captivity for commercialor economic purposes is provided for by Article 6 of LawNo. 5197, 3rd January 1967 and regulated by edicts publishedby IBAMA. Edict No. 118/97 deals with the implantation ofcommercial breeding facilities for species that have no specificmanagement plan. The species most often bred under theterms of this edict are: capybara, collared peccaries, whitelipped peccaries, quail, pacas, partridge, coypus, rheas,snakes, cayman, parrots, parakeets, and macaws. Therecommendation given to IBAMA’s state agencies is thatthe initial breeding and reproductive stock should preferablyoriginate from other registered breeding facilities or be theproduct of confiscation by the inspecting agencies. The cap89

Ministry of EnvironmentTable 2-43. Type and location, size of collection and origins of the specimens in Brazilian Zoological Collections.InstitutionRegion TaxonTotalEcosystems coveredspecimensZoology Reference Collection ofthe Universidade Federal doMato Grosso do Sul (UFMS)Instituto Nacional de Pesquisasda Amazonia (INPA)CW3,4048351,5719,655292667Cerrado, Pantanal and continental n.i.Arachnidan.i.Crustacea7,040Insectaover hylan.i.Piscesover 100,000AmazoniaColeção Mastozoológica DeoclécioGuerra, Universidade Federal dePernambuco (UFPE)NEMammalia1,361Amazonia, Atlantic forest, Cerrado, Caatinga andurban ecosystemsUniversidade Federal do RioGrande do Norte (UFRN)Pisces1,000Continental watersPontifícia Universidade Católicado Rio Grande do Sul ibiaNESAmphibiaReptiliaArachnidaPiscesture of wild animals may be authorised in situations wherethey are proved to be causing damage to agriculture, or wherethe species is abundant according to the demographiccharacteristics of each species, and only through a formalrequest containing a population survey of the species andinformation concerning capture methods.Brazil currently has around 120 commercial breedingfacilities registered with IBAMA. Of these, around 45% arecapybara breeders, mainly in the state of Sao Paulo. Captivemanagement plans and the norms for the breeding andmaintenance of each species are published in specific edicts.The species which may be managed and the edict whichregulates their breeding and management are as follows:Pantanal CaymanIBAMA Edict No. 126, 13th February 1990, deals theregistration of breeding facilities for Caiman crocodilusyacare in the Rio Paraguay basin. Up to 1990, the Policy for901,8537,05850,000160,000Amazonia, Araucaria pine forest, Cerrado, Caatinga,Pantanal, Atlantic Forest, Parkland Savannahs, andurban ecosystems.breeding crocodilians in captivity had been based on asystem of Farming , while acquiring breeding stock fromthe wild. In the late 1980s, however, viability studies werecarried out for the Ranching system, where only eggs arecollected from the wild. The research was carried out by theFederal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, at the FazendaOlhos D’água in the municipality of Aquidauna, Mato Grosso do Sul, and resulted in the edict for breeding Pantanalcaymans in the Rio Paraguay basin. The edict determinesthat eggs from up to 80% of the nests identified following asurvey of the property. Incubation is artificial and the stockis raised under cover, where temperature, humidity and foodare controlled which results in skin without osteoblasts andosteoderms, referred to by crocodile ranchers as the classicskin . There are about 50 commercial breeding facilities forPantanal caymans in Brazil, and about 30 of thes

botanical gardens and/or research centres, beside the development of human resources. 2.4.4 Zoological Gardens Ninety-one zoological gardens in Brazil are responsible for maintaining some 40,000 wild animals in captivity, the large majority of them species naturally occurring in Brazil (Table 2-45, Figure 2-35). These zoos also carry out zoological

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