News Consumption & Fake News1
Contents010203 And Nothing ButThe TruthGenerational NewsConsumptionHabitsTraditional vsAlternative News040506New NewsSocial Media &News.comFake News2
And Nothing ButThe TruthThe news landscape is growing andchanging in many ways for thebetter with information being moreaccessible than ever inaccurate information for personalgain.To the annoyance of some and theentertainment of many false news isnothing new, no wonder OxfordDictionary’s Word of the Year 2016is Post-Truth.“A lie gets halfway around the worldbefore the truth has a chance to getits pants on”- Winston ChurchillThe advancements in social mediahave blurred the lines between realfacts and fictional baits, making itmore difficult to tell the two apart.“In this era Nobody cares about thetruth if the lie is more entertaining”- @cthagod3
Tribes bringnewscredibility intoquestion.“I think news can be a bit dodgy because a lot of it can beexaggerated and opinionated (suchas the mirror and the daily mail) totarget a particular audience andprovide entertainment.”-Cathy, Female, 21, Mainstream4
Generational NewsConsumption HabitsDespite today’s saturated news landscape, young people still formhabits when it comes to news. 74% of 18-34 year olds turn totraditional new sources in order to get a balanced point view(Newsworks, 2015).As expected millennials are more likely than previous generation touse digital devices for news which gives them the freedom to ‘snack’on small but frequent bits of news throughout the day that theyintegrate with their daily activities.Interestingly enough, there are very few differences in newsconsumption habits between generations. Although the biggestinfluence for remains to be engagement and interest in news ratherthan their generation group.
Newsworks identified five newshabits, which transcend bothmillennials and boomers:FixersTrackersFillers- access news constantly,prompted by a general needand state of distraction- access news regularlythroughout the day to keep upto date with breaking stories- access news to pass thetime when moving from oneplace to anotherIndulgersInvestor- making time to enjoy thenews as a break fromeverything else in the day- read the news regularly toget an in-depth perspective onstories6
Traditional vsAlternative NewsDAMNED IF YOU DO, DAMNEDOF YOU DON’TTribes actually use a range ofsources when seeking news stories,often supplementing traditionalmedia which they trust but believeto be potentially biased with othersources of news which despitetrusting less, contains a morediverse range of opinion.“If you don't read the newspaper,you're uninformed. If you read thenewspaper, you're mis-informed.”-Mark TwainTraditional news was recognised byTribes as ‘proper news’ which has areputation for providing trustedproviding factual news such as BBCNews, The Times and The Guardianand ‘celebrity gossip news’ such asThe Mirror and The Daily Mail thatbrands themselves as sources ofcelebrity gossip type news.“The Daily Mail - I like to know thelatest celebrity gossip and this siteis perfect for this. I would describethe brand as the younger - morecurrent sibling of the Guardian.”-Female, 247
User GeneratedContentThe Tab has been anonline news networkpublishing originalstories by youngjournalists to report andwrite, professionallyand independently.New NewsFemale FocusedAlthough traditionalfemale brands are stillaround (i.e.cosmopolitan) – thereis movement onlinetowards more‘feminist’ facing onlinepublishers such asbitch media‘Lad’ ContentContent is often pushedvia social media and fewchoose to visit pagesdirectly.There is also confusionon the positioning ofpublishers having movedfrom ‘laddish’ content tomore neutral views.Alternative news however has abroader range of news optionsavailable for readers that Tribesenjoy due to the perception thatthe newer sources of news arenot subject to the same politicalmotivations/ restrictions asmore traditional news outlets.Publishers such as The DailyMash and Huffington Post holdvalue due to their perceived‘unbiasedness’ among Tribes.“Daily Mash - quirky I think it isthe range of topics covered.And I can pick and choose - nothave a more biased traditionalmedia telling me what to think.”-Male, 19“LadBible and Metro havebecome a joke these days Iheard LadBible was taken overby some boring old woman - sothere no more tits and jokes its all boring crap. Dont get mewrong I love hearing romanticstories and all that - but thatsnot what LadBible was about.”-Female, 248
BuzzFeedA social news and entertainment companythat aims to provide “the most ent and video”.BuzzFeed is very visible in their social mediathreads and for many is seen as a boredombuster.The tone of voice is perceived to be morelight-hearted than mainstream media whichdelivers a wide repertoire factual content in away which is easy to understand withoutbeing dumbed down.“I go to Buzzfeed mainlybecause Ive clicked on a postwhen bored and searchingthrough Facebook. I usually goto the publisher for short entertaining pieces. -See above-I would describe the brand aslight-hearted and amusing Less serious than mostmainstreammedia/moreenjoyable to read.”BuzzFeed often ‘gamifies’content– creating content thateducates Tribes about topicsthatrepresenttheirgeneration’s needs, concernsand interests in a fun andentertaining way.about but are too scared orembarrassed to talk about.”However, they are sometimescriticisedforhavingacontradictory set of values (forexamplepromotingbodyconfidence but then bodyshaming).“They have a lot of differenttopics to look at - whether thatbe bug news events or littlenostalgic feeling articles. Inornally go there for their funarticles. I would describe theirbrand as quirky and being aimedat younger people in the way it isall written. You get a biggervariety from this publisher.”“They are particularly goodbecause they are funny andentertaining whilst providingfactual content - usually ontopics that people often wonder9
ViceLeading EdgeDazed and ConfusedMentioned by a few Tribes as being an alternative source of newscontent – giving space to niche topics or news stories which mightnot make it into mainstream media.“VICE - cool, edgy takes on current events, and often shining a lighton lesser known issues, their documentaries are amazing! I think itworks because the brand is so unpretentious and just managesSeen as a source for alternative news, specifically around arts, cultureand music.“Dazed Confused: I go to this for current art news. Articles onexhibitions and artists. Id describe them as alternative art news. Theylook at works that the traditional media tends to overlook.”to capture the essence of being an effortlessly cool, worldly youngperson”10
“Twitter is very fast and up to date - you can get updated on an issuealmost instantly - which is very important.”- Dee, Female, 19, Leading EdgeSocial Media& News.comMany of the Tribes described news as themedium in which people receive informationand are made aware of current affairs. Theyalso mentioned its ever changing usage,becoming more than the newspaper you pickup from your local but it has evolved intotweets and memes for the digital age.It is also worth mentioning that theyhighlighted increased accessibility and thespeed at which news travels, especially ontwitter where news can be released and canbe updated and replied to within seconds.“I think things are constantly changing - and not necessarily for thebetter. More young people than ever are following and believinganything and everything. Tweets from untrustworthy sources andsuch. Memes are being put forward as facts. Its a positive thing thatwe make light of the negative things happening - but - there seems tobe memes and silly jokes for everything that happens - and theyspread like wildfire.-Wahid, Male, 19, Leading edgeSome also felt that social media diverts our attention away fromimportant stories. Entertaining viral videos often overshadow mainnews stories in an age where timelines ranked news in terms ofpopularity rather than importance an relevance."I think social media has made 15-minutes of fame more the topic ofthe day. For example a sad news article will get trumped (pardon theword usage) by a video of some silly person getting stuck in a bin orsomething. Though its also allowing more people to rant and talkabout the latest events such as politics and really rave on aboutwhichever side their on.”-Ruby, Female, 23, Leading Edge11
Fake NewsWith these developments in mediaand news, the freedom to publish andessentially be your own news outlethas raised concerns on false newsand post-truth. During the USelections Facebook, Twitter & Googlehave faced backlash, accused ofallowing false information to spreadon their feed.BuzzFeedalsopublishedanintelligencereport filled withscandalous and unconfirmed claimsabout Donald Trump’s claimedbehaviour in Russia. This triggered adebate over media ethics andresponsibilities as the news spreadquickly and many questioning thecredibility of today’s journalism.Tribes suggested, the creation of fakenews is motivated by the media’sneed to broaden their audience.Pressured by a highly competitiveenvironment, releasing shocking factsis a way to grasp attention, and toensure a strong reaction.12
Tribes Identified 3 Typesof Fake News:Facts taken out ofcontext.Exaggerated news.Completely madeup stories.Tribes described the possible consequences of falling for fake news and it being dependent on the story. Ifthey have invested emotion in a news story such as happiness, shock, sadness or anger, they will feel more letdown if it turns out to be fake.13
ConclusionThe ease in which false news can beshared through social mediaplatforms is an appealing marketingtool for those who want to broadentheir reach and influence people.Tribes have become increasinglycareful when it comes to newsconsumption and now fact check theinformation and may completelydismiss the source.Skepticism has led them toestablished sources like the BBC,where they hope not to be deceived.New media platforms such asBuzzFeed are becoming increasinglywidespread among Tribes becausethey understand young people.These new platforms are creatingstrong bonds, despite theirunconventional journalism.
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Traditional news was recognised by Tribes as 'proper news' which has a reputation for providing trusted providing factual news such as BBC News, The Times and The Guardian and 'celebrity gossip news' such as The Mirror and The Daily Mail that brands themselves as sources of celebrity gossip type news. "The Daily Mail - I like to know the
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18 3. Cross-platform news consumption 23 4. News consumption via television 29 5. News consumption via radio 32 6. News consumption via newspapers 39 7. News consumption via social media 52 8. News consumption via websites or apps 61 9. News consumption via magazines 64 10. Multi-sourcing 68 11. Importance of sources and attitudes towards news .
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Episode #102: What is the global effect of fake news? The Guardian on fake news algorithms for Facebook, a Stanford research paper, Wiki on fake news, fake news on social media about shooting in Las Vegas, the history of fake news. Leading thinkers are breaking their heads over how to stem
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CHARACTERISTICS OF FAKE NEWS IN MALAYSIAN CYBERSPACE: A CASE STUDY OF FAKE NEWS POSTS ON FACEBOOK SARAH YEOH YU-EN . acknowledgement has been given in the bibliography and references to ALL sources be they printed, electronic or personal. . 1.1 Construction of Selected Origins of Fake News 2 1.2 Fake News, Social Media, Media Landscape, and .
3. Previous deﬁnitions of fake news 3.1. False news One common deﬁnition has it that fake news is simply false news (see, e.g. Levy 2017). This seems to be how President Trump uses the term, calling any reporting with whichhe disagrees‘fakenews.’ Thisdeﬁnitioncertainly captures the aforementioned examples of fake news. For instance, the
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direct access to newspaper websites. Real news consumption on these sites dwarfs fake news consumption. Fake news travels faster and further on social media sites. Algorithm-driven news distribution platforms have reduced market entry costs and
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In this work, fake news is defined as fabricated information that has the format of news content but not the editorial standards and practices of legitimate journalism (Lazer et al, 2018). Consumption of fake news makes people more likely to adopt various political misperceptions (Guess et al., 2020) that can