THE Air ForcE AssociATion The Air Force In The Vietnam War

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THE Air Force AssociationThe Air Force inthe Vietnam War1

The Air Force AssociationThe Air Force Association (AFA) is anindependent, nonprofit civilian organization promoting public understanding ofaerospace power and the pivotal role itplays in the security of the nation. AFApublishes Air Force Magazine, sponsorsnational symposia, and disseminates information through outreach programs of itsaffiliate, the Aerospace Education Foundation. Learn more about AFA by visiting uson the Web at Aerospace Education FoundationThe Aerospace Education Foundation(AEF) is dedicated to ensuring America’saerospace excellence through education,scholarships, grants, awards, and publicawareness programs.The Foundation alsopublishes a series of studies and forumson aerospace and national security.TheEaker Institute is the public policy andresearch arm of AEF.AEF works through a network of thousands of Air Force Association membersand more than 200 chapters to distribute educational material to schools andconcerned citizens. An example of thisincludes “Visions of Exploration,” an AEF/USA Today multi-disciplinary science,math, and social studies program.To findout how you can support aerospaceexcellence visit us on the Web at 2004 The Air Force AssociationPublished 2004 by Aerospace Education Foundation1501 Lee HighwayArlington VA 22209-1198Tel: (703) 247-5839Fax: (703) 247-58532Produced by the staff of Air Force MagazineDesign by Guy Aceto, Art Director

The Air Force inthe Vietnam WarBy John T. CorrellBy John T. CorrellDecember 2004To those who fought there, it seems like yesterday, butit was 40 years ago that the US Air Force deployed infighting strength to Southeast Asia. The Air Force and theNavy flew their initial combat missions in late 1964 andearly 1965.The Vietnam War began in earnest in March 1965 withOperation Rolling Thunder, which sent US aircraft onstrikes against targets in North Vietnam. Soon, our groundforces were engaged as well. Eight years would pass before US forces withdrew from the war, which had by thenclaimed 47,378 American lives.It was a war we didn’t win but one in which the US armedforces performed with honor, courage, dedication, andcapability. On the 40th anniversary of its beginning, thisalmanac collects the numbers, the dates, and the key factsof the US Air Force experience in that war.1

Table of ContentsPeopleSoutheast Asia (Map)US Military Personnel in Southeast Asia45OrganizationLines of Command7th Air Force and 7th/13th Air ForceThe Commanders678USAF Order of BattleUSAF Aircraft in Thailand and South VietnamUSAF Squadrons in Southeast AsiaUSAF Attack AircraftPrincipal USAF Aircraft of the Vietnam WarPrincipal US Navy and Marine Corps AircraftThe MiGs9910111313A B-52 drops bombs over North Vietnam.OperationsNotable Air OperationsAttack Sorties in Southeast AsiaThe Route Packs (Map)USAF Sorties in North VietnamAir Operations in Laos (Map)USAF MiG VictoriesBombing Halts and Pauses in Air OperationsUSAF Bomb Damage Assessment Claims in North VietnamUSAF Operational Linebacker II SortiesUSAF Targets in Operation Linebacker IIRestricted and Prohibited Zones (Map)Aerial Refueling Tracks (Map)Tankers and Tanker Sorties in Southeast AsiaUSAF Air Munitions ConsumptionDesignated USAF Campaigns of Vietnam Service141415161617171818181920202121The EnemyNorth Vietnamese Air Force Combat Aircraft InventoryNorth Vietnamese Anti-Aircraft ArtilleryNorth Vietnamese SAM EffectivenessInfiltration from North Vietnam, 1959-67North Vietnamese Airfields (Map)SAM Coverage (Map)2222222232324F-4C pilot Capt. Max Cameron (r) and1st Lt. Robert Evans, his rear seat pilot,shot down a MiG-17 with a Sidewinder.

US Casualties in the Vietnam WarUSAF Aircraft Losses in Southeast AsiaUSAF Aircraft Losses by CauseNavy/Marine Corps Victories and LossesSouth Vietnamese Air Force Aircraft LossesUSAF Sortie/Loss Rate in Three WarsPhoto via Martin WinterCasualties and Losses252526262626Aces and HerosVietnam War AcesAir Force Medal of Honor RecipientsSketches of USAF Medal of Honor RecipientsChronology272728Lines of Air Force F-4s sit in theirhardened revetments and hangars at aSoutheast Asian base.30PerspectivesRecommended ReadingWords from the WarWeb Sites Featuring Vietnam War TopicsPlacesFactoids3434353535Pieces of the WarAir CommandosTactical ReconnaissanceRescue and RecoveryTactical AirliftStrike MissionsCommand and ControlForward Air ControllersThe Versatile HerculesPhantomsStrategic AirliftGunshipsAirmen in Southeast AsiaTankersHeavy BombersPOW and MIA3637383940414243444546474849503

Southeast AsiaChinaNorth Vietnam Dien Bien Phu HanoiLaos HaiphongGulf of Tonkin Thanh HoaBarthelemy Pass Vinh VientianeMu Gia Pass UdornBan Karai Pass DMZNakhon PhanomThailandKhe Sanh Da NangYankee StationHo Chi MinhTrailTakhliKoratChu LaiUbonPhu CatDon Muang BangkokPleikuCambodiaQui NhonTuy HoaU TapaoNha TrangCam Ranh BayPhan Rang Phnom PenhSouth VietnamBien HoaGulf of Siam SaigonTan Son NhutPrincipal USAF BasesBinh ThuyDixie StationSouth China Sea4

PeopleUS Military Personnel in Southeast AsiaSouth VietnamAir ForceAll ServicesThailandAir ForceAll 5,13542,469June 1973Forward air controllers directed air attacks in Vietnam.The American military presence in Southeast Asia peaked in 1968. “Viet namization”of the war began the next year, with the first US troop withdrawals in July 1969. Alltold, some 3.4 million troops from all branches of the armed services spent timeon duty in Southeast Asia. Except for 1973, the figures on this chart are as of Dec.31 each year. The “All Services” totals include Air Force, Army, Navy, Marine Corps,and Coast Guard.Sources: MACV, MACTHAI, Department of Defense.Pilots and crew chiefs worked togetherclosely, preparing for air operationsover Southeast Asia.Security forces maintained a constantvigil against insurgent attacks onUSAF bases.A1C Gale Mobley from the Medical CivicAction Program innoculates a Vietnamese child.5

OrganizationLines of Command1966-72Joint Chiefs of StaffUS Pacific CommandStrategic Air CommandMilitary Assistance Command VietnamUS Pacific FleetPacific Air ForcesAir Deputy7th FleetTask Force 77US Army VietnamIII Marine Amphibious Force7th Air ForceAir Coordinating Committee7th Air Force13th Air Force8th Air Force,Guam7th/13th AFDeputy CommanderSource: Gen. William W. Momyer, USAF (Ret.), Air Power in Three Wars.Military Assistance Command Vietnam was a subunified command of US Pacific Command, with Army, Marine Corps, andAir Force elements. MACV controlled the war in South Vietnam, but Pacific Command in Hawaii retained control of thewar in North Vietnam, via Pacific Air Forces and Pacific Fleet.The commander of 7th Air Force was chairman of a coordinating committee for key operations in North Vietnam.Seventh Air Force in Saigon was under operational controlof MACV for operations in South Vietnam and Route Pack1 (the southern part of North Vietnam), but 7th Air Forcewas controlled by PACAF for operations in North Vietnam(Route Packs 5 and 6A). Air Force wings in Thailand werepart of 13th Air Force in the Philippines, but were under theoperational control of 7th Air Force in Saigon. At Udorn AB,Thailand, 7th/13th Air Force was headed by a general officerwho was deputy commander of both 7th and 13th Air Forces.Aircraft based in South Vietnam were used primarily in SouthVietnam. Aircraft in Thailand were used in North Vietnam andLaos. Strategic Air Command retained control of B-52 bombers, tankers, and strategic reconnaissance aircraft.6

7th Air Force and 7th/13th Air ForceJuly 15, 1969Pacific Air Forces(Hickam AFB, Hawaii)Air Force AdvisoryGroup(Tan Son Nhut)7th Air Force(Tan Son Nhut)Deputy Commander7th/13th Air Force(Det. 1, 7th AF, Udorn)13th Air Force(Clark AB, Philippines)6250th SupportSq.(Tan Son Nhut)834th Air Division(Tan Son Nhut)315th Special OpsWing(Phan Rang)483rd TacticalAirlift Wing(Cam Ranh Bay)2nd Aerial PortGroup(Tan Son Nhut)3rd Tactical FighterWing(Bien Hoa)12th TacticalFighter Wing(Cam Ranh Bay)14th Special OpsWing(Nha Trang)31st TacticalFighter Wing(Tuy Hoa)35th TacticalFighter Wing(Phan Rang)37th TacticalFighter Wing(Phu Cat)366th TacticalFighter Wing(Da Nang)460th TacticalRecon Wing(Tan Son Nhut)377th CombatSupport Group(Tan Son Nhut)504th Tactical AirSupport Group(Bien Hoa)505th Tactical Control Group(Tan Son Nhut)632nd CombatSupport Group(Binh Thuy)1964th Communications Group(Tan Son Nhut)633rd Special OpsWing(Pleiku)3rd Aerial Rescue& Recovery Group(Tan Son Nhut)1st Weather Group(Tan Son Nhut)8th Tactical FighterWing(Ubon)355th TacticalFighter Wing(Takhli)388th TacticalFighter Wing(Korat)432nd TacticalRecon Wing(Udorn)553rd TacticalRecon Wing(Korat)631st CombatSupport Group(Don Muang)635th CombatSupport Group(U Tapao)CommandOps control56th Special OpsWing(Nakhon Phanom)Task Force Alpha(Nakhon Phanom)Source: Carl Berger, The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia, 1961-1973 (USAF).7

The CommandersUS Pacific Command, HonoluluAdm. Harry D. FeltAdm. U.S. Grant SharpAdm. John S. McCain Jr.Adm. Noel A.M. GaylerJuly 31, 1958June 30, 1964July 31, 1968Sept. 1, 1972June 30, 1964July 31, 1968Sept. 1, 1972Aug. 31, 1976Aug. 1, 1964Feb. 1, 1967Aug. 1, 1968Aug. 1, 1971Oct. 1, 1973Jan. 31, 1967July 31, 1968July 31, 1971Sept. 30, 1973June 30, 1974Pacific Air Forces, HonoluluGen Hunter Harris Jr.Gen. John D. RyanGen. Joseph J. NazzaroGen. Lucius D. ClayGen. John W. Vogt Jr.PACAF Commander Gen. John Ryan (l)meets with 7th Air Force chief Lt. Gen.William Momyer.Military Assistance Command Vietnam, SaigonGen. Paul D. HarkinsGen. William C. WestmorelandGen. Creighton W. AbramsGen. Frederick C. WeylandFeb. 6, 1962June 20, 1964July 1, 1968June 29, 1970June 20, 1964July 1, 1968June 29, 1970March 29, 19737th Air Force, Tan Son Nhut AB, VietnamOrganized April 1, 1966, replacing 2nd Air DivisionLt. Gen. Joseph H. Moore*Gen. William W. MomyerGen. George S. BrownGen. Lucius D. Clay Jr.Gen. John D. LavelleGen. John W. Vogt Jr.April 1, 1966July 1, 1966Aug. 1, 1968Sept. 1, 1970Aug. 1, 1971April 7, 1972June 30, 1966July 31, 1968Aug. 31, 1970July 31, 1971April 6, 1972Sept. 30, 1973*Moore was commander of 2nd Air Division from Jan. 21, 1963, to March 31, 1966. Seventh Air Force left Vietnam andmoved its headquarters to Nakhon Phanom AB, Thailand, in March 1973.Army Gen. William Westmoreland (l)and Army Gen. Creighton Abrams (r)pin a fourth star on USAF Gen. WilliamMomyer.7th/13th Air Force, Udorn AB, ThailandMaj. Gen. Charles R. Bond Jr.Maj. Gen. William C. Lindley Jr.Maj. Gen. Louis T. SeithMaj. Gen. Robert L. PetitMaj. Gen. James F. KirkendallMaj. Gen. Andrew J. Evans Jr.Maj. Gen. DeWitt R. SearlesMaj. Gen. James D. HughesJan. 6, 1966June 1, 1967June 1, 1968June 1, 1969April 15, 1970Oct. 12, 1970July 1, 1971Sept. 9, 1972March 31, 1967May 31, 1968May 31, 1969March 5, 1970Oct. 11, 1970June 30, 1971Sept. 8, 1972April 19, 1973The commander was a deputy commander of both 7th Air Force and 13th Air Force. In March 1973, 7th/13th Air Forcereverted to Det. 7 of 13th Air Force.8Gen. Lucius Clay Jr. (l) transfers command of 7th Air Force to Gen. JohnLavelle in 1971.

USAF Order of BattleUSAF Aircraft in Thailand and South VietnamAll 6752421853SAC B-52 bombers were the workhorses of the Vietnam War.Figures are as of June 30 each year. Additional B-52s were based on Guam, the number varying from about 30 in 1965 toabout 150 in 1972. In Thailand, the attack force included 65 A-7s and 45 F-111s by late 1972.Source: Wayne Thompson, To Hanoi and Back (Smithsonian/USAF).The F-105 Thunderchief was a key factor early in the war.USAF Squadrons in Southeast AsiaIn 1968SquadronsAircraftVietnamTactical Fighter/Bomber/Attack23408Special Operations11204Tactical Airlift7167Tactical Air Control6280Recon/EW6101Rescue340Total Vietnam561,200In landStrategic Bombers, Tankers266—Tactical Fighter/Bomber1323911Special Operations5854Tactical Airlift—12—Tactical Air Control2413Recon/EW/Drone Support61042Rescue1211Total Thailand2956821142371458586130715Total Southeast Asia989851,76829Figures are as of the end of FY68 and FY72.Source: USAF Management Summary Southeast Asia, September 1973.9

USAF Attack AircraftJuly 1968-December 19721968July 31Dec. 31Bases in South VietnamBien HoaBinh ThuyAC-474F-454Nha Trang1970June 30 Dec. 311971June 30Dec. 311972June 30 Dec. 31322A-1555AC-474AC-1194755502219F-100Cam Ranh BayDa Nang1969June 30Dec. 5768666777657559F-100Phu Cat433AC-47361AC-1193434303236F-46965F-100Tan Son NhutTuy HoaA-1AC-47183184AC-1191735AC-119887486F-100Total South Vietnam45542815137Phan RangPleiku5417559104888635028818617962920Bases in -105Nakhon AC-473AC-1193940353534273742104F-412113Total Thailand269281296290253243187225419409Grand Total724709713640541429366287428429Source: Col. Perry L. Lamy, Air War College, 1995.10673124

Principal USAF Aircraft of the Vietnam WarFighter and Attack AircraftA-1 Skyraider. Propeller-driven Navyattack bomber, adapted for use by AirForce. Air Commandos flew the A-1E“Spad” two-seat version. The singleseat A-1H “Sandy” flew escort forrescue operations.A-7D Corsair II. Began service withNavy, deployed in Southeast Asia bythe Air Force in the late summer of1972, and used in the closing monthsof the war for tactical bombing and asan escort on gunship missions.F-4 Phantom. Best fighter of theVietnam War and most versatile. Usedfor air superiority, dropping bombs, reconnaissance, and forward air control.Originally developed by the Navy, adopted by the Air Force and deployed toSoutheast Asia in 1965. Early versionsrelied on missiles in combat, havingno guns. The F-4E had a 20 mm cannon. F-4s accounted for 107 of the 137MiGs shot down by the Air Force.C-5A Galaxy. Huge, with more capacity than other airlifters but did not makeits appearance in Vietnam until August1971 in the later phase of the war.C-7 Caribou. Light airlifters, takenover by the Air Force from the Armyin 1966. Worked smaller and moreremote locations.A-7D Corsair IIF-100 Super Sabre. USAF’s firstsupersonic fighter. Used extensivelyon missions over North Vietnam inthe early part of the war. F-100F hadtwo cockpits, was flown by the “Misty”forward air controllers.F-105 Thunderchief. The Lead Sled,The Thud. Signature airplane of theRolling Thunder campaign from 1965to 1968. Thuds flew 75 percent of thestrikes and took more of the lossesover North Vietnam than any othertype of airplane. F-105Fs flew as WildWeasel aircraft, finding and destroyingsurface-to-air missile (SAM) sites.C-5A GalaxyAirlifters and TankersPhoto by Ed Skowron via Warren ThompsonA-37 Dragonfly. Armed variant of theT-37 jet trainer, it was flown by USAFand the South Vietnamese Air Force. Itwas an effective performer, both in theattack role and as a forward air controlaircraft.A-1H SkyraiderC-123 Provider. Previously declaredobsolete and scheduled for retirement.Supported South Vietnamese groundforces in early 1960s, later served aslight airlifter for US forces as well. Performed with distinction at Khe Sanh,landing with supplies that could not beairdropped and evacuating casualties.C-124 Globemaster. Aging, propellerdriven aircraft known as “Old Shaky.” Itwas the Air Force’s long-range airlifteruntil the C-141 was fielded. Clamshelldoors opened in the nose so vehiclescould be driven on and off.F-100 Super SabreC-130 Hercules. Four-engine turboprop. USAF’s main tactical airlifter inSoutheast Asia. Also used as gunship,airborne command post, and for othermissions. Still in service 40 years laterand going strong.BombersB-52 Stratofortress. The Buff. In action from 1965 on, flying Arc Light missions, but political constraints kept itfrom being used with full effect againsttargets in North Vietnam until Operation Linebacker II in December 1972.B-52D StratofortressB-57 Canberra. First American jetaircraft deployed to Vietnam. Used inNorth Vietnam in early part of the war,later employed for night interdiction inLaos and in other roles. Variant of aBritish design.B-57 Canberra11

C-141 Starlifter. Main strategic airlifterin the war. First deployed in 1965.Twice as fast as C-124 and twice theload capability. Made daily shuttleflights between US and SoutheastAsia, taking cargo in and bringingpeople and casualties out.KC-135 tankers. On their way into combat, strike flights met the KC-135s to topoff their fuel tanks, then met them againon the way out for fuel to get home. Thetankers were notorious for violating therules and crossing “the fence” into NorthVietnam to gas up fighters running onfumes.C-141 StarlifterRescue HelicoptersHH-3E Jolly Green Giant. Most famousof the rescue and recovery helicopters,built for missions deep in North Vietnam.It could be refueled in flight and had arange of 736 miles. It entered service inSoutheast Asia in 1967.Forward Air ControllersO-1 Bird Dog. Forward air control aircraft,found and marked targets for strike flights.Low and slow, with a top speed of 115mph. Carried smoke rockets but no armament.O-2 Skymaster. A little bigger and a littlefaster than the O-1. It had two enginesto the Bird Dog’s one, making it morelikely to survive a hit from ground fire. Itcould be fitted with a pod for a 7.62 mmminigun.O-2 SkymasterOV-10 Bronco. Twin turboprop, introducedin 1968, considerably sturdier than O-1and O-2. Four 7.62 mm machine guns.Max speed of 281 mph.Reconnaissance and ControlAC-130A SpectreAC-119G Shadow and AC-119K Stinger.Shadow had four miniguns instead ofthree. Stinger added two 20 mm cannon.Shadow flew close air support and airbase defense missions. Stinger concentrated on trucks on the Ho Chi Minh Trail.RF-4C. Took over most of the tactical reconnaissance job from 1967 on. Typicallyflew missions over North Vietnam withoutescort. Continued to set the standard foraerial photo reconnaissance through GulfWar I in 1991.RF-101. USAF’s primary photo reconnaissance aircraft over North Vietnam in theearly years of the war. RF-4C, which hadmore sophisticated cameras and sensorsand which could better cope with the MiG21, took over in the north, but the RF-101flew missions in Laos and South Vietnamuntil 1970.AC-130 Spectre. The ultimate gunship. Inaddition to miniguns, two 20 mm cannonsand two 40 mm Bofors guns. It workedat night, enabled by infrared sensors, alow-level TV sensor, and a “Black Crow”sensor that detected electronic emissions.EC-121D Super Constellation12HH-43F Huskie. “Pedro.” Utility helicopterdesigned for base fire and crash work,pressed into service for rescue missionsearly in the war. It was slow and had ashort operating range, but it accounted formore lives saved than any other rescuehelicopter in the war.HH-53C Super Jolly. Largest, fastest,and most powerful of the rescue helicopters. It had a top speed of 195 mph andcould carry up to 24 litter patients. In addition to its other capabilities, it mountedthree 7.62 miniguns for defense.GunshipsAC-47 Spooky. The first gunship. Madeits debut with the Air Commandos inDecember 1964, breaking up a Viet Congattack on an outpost. It had three 7.62mm miniguns that could pump out 6,000rounds a minute.HH-3E Jolly Green GiantEC-121 Super Constellation. Twovariants saw service in Southeast Asia.“College Eye” EC-121Ds—the oneswith radomes above and below thefuselage—flew radar and airborne earlywarning missions. “Bat Cat” EC-121Rs,with camouflage but no radomes, flewlong missions to monitor “Igloo White”intelligence sensors seeded along the HoChi Minh Trail.

Principal US Navy and Marine Corps AircraftA-4 Skyhawk. The single-engine A-4 lightattack bomber was the Navy’s primarylight attack aircraft at the beginning of thewar. It had been designed in the 1950sto be light and agile. Unlike most carrier aircraft, it did not have folding wingsbecause of its short (27 feet, 6 inches)wingspan. It was also used by the MarineCorps from land bases. The “Scooter” flewmore bombing missions in Vietnam thanany other Navy aircraft. In 1974, a variantof the A-4 replaced the F-4 for the Navy’sBlue Angels aerial demonstration team.F-4 Phantom. The F-4 entered servicefirst with the Navy, then with the Air Force.It was the best fighter of the Vietnam War.All of the Navy and Air Force aces wereF-4 pilots. The F-4 was also used for interdiction, reconnaissance, close air support,and forward air control missions. It remained in production until 1979 and flewwith the air arms of numerous nations.A-4 SkyhawkA-6 Intruder. The twin-engine A-6 wasan excellent all-weather bomber. It couldcarry more than 15,000 pounds of ordnance. It has been operational since 1963.It was subsonic but had good range andaccuracy not available from other aircraftin the theater. The A-6 was instantlyrecognizable by the refueling probe, whichrose like a crank handle in front of thecockpit. It was crewed by a pilot and anavigator, seated side by side. It was stillin service for Gulf War I in 1991.A-7 Corsair. The A-7 deployed to Vietnamin 1967, supposedly to replace the A-4 inthe light attack role. Instead, both of theaircraft continued in service for the rest ofthe war. The A-7 was modeled on the F-8Crusader (both were Vought aircraft) butwas shorter and had less sweep to thewings. The A-7 was also flown by the AirForce late in the war and stayed in servicewith the Navy until replaced years later bythe F/A-18.F-8 Crusader. The F-8 was the principalfighter for the Navy and Marine Corps inthe early part of the war. It carried Sidewinder missiles but relied mainly on its 20mm cannon, being the last US fighter designed with guns as the primary weapon.It accounted for 18 MiGs shot down incombat and also operated in other roles,including photo reconnaissance.A-6A IntruderF-8 CrusaderThe MiGsMiG-15. An updated model of the Soviet jet fighter that confronted—and wasbested by—the American F-86 Sabrein the Korean War. The MiG-15 wasobsolete and of limited combat value,but the North Vietnamese continued tofield it in considerable numbers. It wasused mostly for training.MiG-17. Advanced , faster, and morestable version of the MiG-15. Three ofNorth Vietnam’s 16 fighter aces flewMiG-17s. Especially effective at loweraltitudes, where its 23 mm and 37 mmcannons could be used to advantagein a turning fight. The MiG-17 defendedNorth Vietnam’s airfields and patrolledthe approach and departure routesused by US aircraft.MiG-19. Chinese variant of the supersonic Soviet fighter of the late 1950s.It did not appear in Vietnam until afterthe 1968 bombing halt. It carried twoheat-seeking Atoll missiles (similar tothe US AIM-9 Sidewinder) but depended mostly on its three 30 mm guns.MiG-21MiG-21. North Vietnam’s best fighterand a close match in capability withthe American F-4. The F-4 was slightlyfaster, but the MiG-21 had better acceleration. The MiG-21 was especiallyeffective at higher altitudes. It had a23 mm cannon but relied mainly on itsfour Atoll missiles. Thirteen of NorthViet nam’s 16 fighter aces flew MiG21s.13

OperationsNotable Air OperationsOperationDatesDescriptionFarm GateOct. 1, 1961-July 28, 1963Training and support for South Vietnamese Air Force.Ranch HandJan. 7, 1962-Jan. 7, 1971Defoliation of jungle to expose Viet Cong sanctuaries, movements,and ambushes.Barrel RollDec. 14-April 17, 1964Support of ground forces in northern Laos.Flaming DartFeb. 7-11, 1965Precursor to Rolling Thunder. Air strikes against North Vietnam inreprisal for Viet Cong attacks on US bases.Rolling ThunderMarch 2, 1965-Oct. 31, 1968Sustained air campaign over North Vietnam.Steel TigerApril 3, 1965-Feb. 21, 1973Interdiction of Ho Chi Minh Trail.Arc LightJune 18, 1965-Aug. 15, 1973Strategic Air Command B-52 strikes in Southeast Asia.BoloJan. 2, 1967“MiG Sweep” in which seven North Vietnamese aircraft are shotdown in 12 minutes.Eagle ThrustNov. 17-Dec. 29, 1967Huge airlift of troops and cargo from Ft. Campbell, Ky., to BienHoa.Commando HuntNov. 1, 1968-March 30, 1972Intensified air strikes in southern Laos.The “Menus”March 18, 1969-May 1970Covert bombing of Cambodia; series of missions named Breakfast,Lunch, Dinner, Snack, Supper, and Dessert.Linebacker IMay 10-Oct. 23, 1972Resumed bombing of North Vietnam, almost four years after endof Rolling Thunder.Linebacker IIDec. 18-29, 1972Massive air strikes on Hanoi and Haiphong.Attack Sorties in Southeast AsiaBy US Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and South Vietnamese Air Force1966196719681969197019711972January1973In North 6—10—459VNAF814127—————In South ,429Other SEALaos, ,958244,21521,121Source: Department of Defense report, November 1973.1472978744—

The Route PacksRailroad linesReRiver6AThuThai Nguyen idgd R5dChinaPhuc YeneSon Tay6B Hanoi Kep HaiphongGulf of TonkinLaos4 Thanh HoaRailroad lines3 Vinh2Photo via Martin Winter1An RF-101 took this reconnaissancephoto while passing over North Vietnamese AAA batteries.Photo via Martin WinterIn December 1965, US Pacific Command divided North Vietnam into “routepackages.” Route Pack 6 was laterdivided into 6A and 6B. The Air Forceroute packs were 5 and 6A. Navy packswere 2, 3, 4, and 6B. Route Pack 1, initially assigned to the Navy, was placedunder operational control of MACV inApril 1966.The F-100 Super Sabre performedclose air support.An F-4 was armed with a new weaponthat would change warfare—the laserguided bomb.15

USAF Sorties in North 327Total171,4087,30340,69641,18091,357351,949Five gunship sorties (four in 1967, one in 1972) have been added to the “Total” column.Source: Wayne Thompson, To Hanoi and Back (Smithsonian/USAF).Air Operations in Laos“Barrel Roll” in northern Laos and“Steel Tiger” in the south referred bothto operations and to geographic designations. Steel Tiger East—also called“Tiger Hound”—was considered anextension of the fight in South Vietnamand was under the operational controlof MACV. Pacific Command retainedcontrol in the rest of the country. TheUS ambassador to Laos exerted stronginfluence and constraints on all operations in Laos. Air operations, bothsouth and north, were conducted by7th Air Force, employing aircraft basedin Thailand and South Vietnam. SAC B52s also operated extensively in Laos.North VietnamBarrelRollNorthBarrel RollWestBarrel RollEastPlain of JarsSources: Col. Perry L. Lamy, Air War College, 1995;Gen. William W. Momyer, USAF (Ret.), Air Power inThree Wars (USAF). VientianeThailandSteelTigerEastSteelTiger WestCambodia16

USAF MiG Victoriesby Aircraft and WeaponWeapons/TacticsMiG-17MiG-19 MiG-21TotalF-4CAIM-7 SparrowAIM-9 Sidewinder20 mm gunManeuvering tactics412320000101010142242F-4DAIM-4 FalconAIM-7 SparrowAIM-9 Sidewinder20 mm gunManeuvering tactics4404002200120322526562F-4EAIM-7 SparrowAIM-9 SidewinderAIM-9/20 mm gun (combined)20 mm gunManeuvering tactics00000200118414010415120 mm gun1001F-105D20 mm gunAIM-9 SidewinderAIM-9/20 mm gun (combined)22210000002221F-105F20 mm gun2002B-52D.50 cal. gun002261868137F-4D/F-105FTotalsPhotos via Martin WinterAircraftMaj. Ralph Kuster shot down this MiG17 with his F-105’s 20 mm guns.The Air Force fighter most successful against the MiGs in aerial combat was the F-4. The radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow accounted for more of the victories than any other weapon.Source: Carl Berger, Aces & Aerial Victories (USAF).Bombing Halts and Pauses in Air Operations Over North VietnamMay 12-May 18, 1965.Purpose was to test Hanoi’s response and willingness to negotiate.March 31, 1968.Halt of bombing north of 20th parallel. Under political pressure,the line was moved south to the 19th parallel.Dec. 24, 1965-Jan. 31, 1966.Christmas cease-fire, extended by Lyndon B. Johnson’s “peaceinitiative.” Hanoi failed to respond.Nov. 1, 1968-April 6, 1972.Halt of all bombing of North Vietnam. Reconnaissance flightscontinued and attacks on them led to “protective reaction” strikes.Feb. 8-13, 1967.Cease-fire for Tet religious holiday. Perception was that Hanoimight be willing to negotiate. Instead, North Vietnam took the opportunity to move 25,000 tons of war materiel south.Jan. 15, 1973.Suspension of mining, bombing, and other offensive operationsagainst North Vietnam as Paris peace talks approached conclusion.Aug. 24-Sept. 4, 1967.Cessation of attacks around Hanoi.Jan. 28, 1973.Cease-fire, prior to US disengagement from the war.Jan. 29, 1968.Unilateral 36-hour cease-fire for Tet. On Jan. 31, North Vietnamand the Viet Cong launched the Tet Offensive against bases allover South Vietnam.In addition, there were routine halts of 48 hours at Christmasand

Seventh Air Force in Saigon was under operational control of MACV for operations in South Vietnam and Route Pack 1 (the southern part of North Vietnam), but 7th Air Force was controlled by PACAF for operations in North Vietnam (Route Packs 5 and 6A). Air Force wings in Thailand were part of 13th Air Force in the Philippines, but were under the

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On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.

Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được

Exercise Center Break Areas with Vending Machines 4. USNTPS Indian Navy/Air Force French Navy/Air Force Royal Navy Royal Australian Navy Canadian Forces Japanese Forces Royal Air Force Royal Swedish Air Force Royal Australian Air Force . Israeli Air Force Swiss Air Force German Air F

b. Air Force Forces (AFFOR) METOC Organization 3 c. Air Force Weather Support to Joint & Air Force Organizations 3 d. Air Force METOC Capabilities: Personnel and Equipment 6 e. Air Force METOC Data Sources 12 f. Air Force Weather Products and Services 13 g. Key Air Force METOC Organizations Contact List 20 2. USA METOC 26 a. Background and .

Department of the Air Force: 57*0704 Family Housing, Air Force 57*0810 Environmental Restoration, Air Force 57X1999 Unclassified Receipts and Expenditures, Air Force 57*3010 Aircraft Procurement, Air Force 57*3011 Procurement of Ammunition, Air Force 57*3020 Missile Procurement, Air Force

Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.

Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.

58 AIR FORCE Magazine / May 2016 Acronyms & Abbreviations AABactivated 1935. Named for Lt. Col. Frederick I. Eglin, Army Air Base AAFRG (ANG), RPA operations; 309th Aerospace Army Airfield AB Air Base ABG Air Base Group ABW Air Base Wing ACC Air Combat Command ACG Air Control Group ACS Air Control Squadron ACTS Air Combat Training Squadron ACWHistory: Air Control Wing

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Glossary of Social Security Terms (Vietnamese) Term. Thuật ngữ. Giải thích. Application for a Social Security Card. Đơn xin cấp Thẻ Social Security. Mẫu đơn quý vị cần điền để xin số Social Security hoặc thẻ thay thế. Baptismal Certificate. Giấy chứng nhận rửa tội

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Phần II: Văn học phục hưng- Văn học Tây Âu thế kỷ 14- 15-16 Chương I: Khái quát Thời đại phục hưng và phong trào văn hoá phục hưng Trong hai thế kỉ XV và XVI, châu Âu dấy lên cuộc vận động tư tưởng và văn hoá mới rấ

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Sergeant, formerly known as the Senior Enlisted Advisor (SEA) AFAF: Air Force Assistance Fund (charity fund raising for AFAS) AFB: Air Force Base . CDC: Career Development Course . AFI: Air Force Instruction (regulations) CDC: Child Development Center . AFIT: Air Force Institute of Technology . CE: Civil Engineer . AFLC: Air Force Logistics .

AFI 36-2201, Air Force Training Program. This Air Force Instruction (AFI) applies to Total Force – Active Duty, Air Force Reserve, Air National Guard (ANG), and Department of Air Force Civilian. Ensure that all records created as a result of processes prescribed in this publication are maintained in accordance with AFMAN 33-363,

In addition to Active Duty (AD) personnel, this publication applies to Air Reserve Component (ARC), the Air Force Reserve (AFR) and the Air National Guard (ANG), . Management of Records, and disposed of in accordance with the Air Force Records Disposition Schedule (RDS) located in the Air Force Records Information Management System .

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PA Airmen to support joint force commanders; Air Force Doctrine Annex 3-61, Public Affairs Operations, provides additional foundational guidance. This Air Force instruction provides additional authoritative guidance and applies to all Airmen who hold the 3N or 35X Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC). 1.1.1.

interface (API) used in a GEANT4 application. A simple application will use concrete classes provided with the toolkit, the developer will provide the detector description a primary generator (possibly using one of the general purpose ones provided with the toolkit), define the physics for the application (the physics list, possibly one of the few provided with the toolkit) and optional user .