Capitan Reef Complex Structure And Stratigraphy

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Capitan Reef ComplexStructure and StratigraphyReportbyAllan Standen, P.G.Steve Finch, P.G.Randy Williams, P.G.,Beronica Lee-Brand, P.G.Assisted by Paul KirbyTexas Water Development BoardContract Number 0804830794September 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Executive summary.12. Introduction.23. Study area geology.43.1 Stratigraphy .43.1.1 Bone Spring Limestone.93.1.2 San Andres Formation .93.1.3 Delaware Mountain Group .93.1.4 Capitan Reef Complex.103.1.5 Artesia Group.113.1.6 Castile and Salado Formations.113.1.7 Rustler Formation .123.1.8 Triassic Bissett Conglomerate .123.1.9 Cretaceous Formations.123.1.10 Quaternary-Tertiary Sedimentary Deposits and Volcanics .123.2 Geologic History of the Delaware Basin and the Capitan Reef Complex .133.2.1 Structure.143.2.2 Faults.164. Data sources .184.1 Additional subsurface data sources .184.1.1 Published geologic maps and reports.184.1.2 Oil and gas geophysical logs and scout tickets.194.1.3 Online well records and logs.194.1.4 Revised aquifer outline .214.2 Geology and fault data sources .214.3 Stratigraphic interpretation.214.4 Lithologic and driller’s logs interpretations .234.5 Geophysical log interpretations.244.6 Generalized hydraulic communication characteristics of the geologicformations or groups .244.7 Cross-Sections.284.8 Surface contouring methodology .284.8.1 Faults identified during structural contouring.395. Gridding of Capitan Reef Complex top, thickness contours, and base .405.1 Top Elevation of the Capitan Reef Complex .405.2 Thickness contours of the Capitan Reef Complex .405.3 Base of the Capitan Reef Complex .406. Structural and stratigraphic features that affect groundwater flow.446.1 Structural features .446.2 Stratigraphic features that affect groundwater flow.46i

FIGURESFigure 1Study Area and Geologic Features.3Figure 2Reef Facies and Geologic Formations and Groups.6Figure 3Stratigraphic Cross-Section.7Figure 4Schematic of Delaware Basin and Local Stratigraphy.8Figure 5Study Area Faults .15Figure 6Type Geophysical Log Signatures .20Figure 7Compiled Well Locations.22Figure 8Geologic Formations Overlying the Capitan Reef Complex .25Figure 9Geologic Formations Underlying the Capitan Reef Complex .27Figure 10Cross-Section Key.29Figure 11Apache Mountains, Texas .30Figure 12Guadalupe Mountains, Texas.31Figure 13Eddy County, New Mexico.32Figure 14Lea County, New Mexico .33Figure 15Pecos County, Texas .34Figure 16Glass Mountains, Texas .35Figure 17Capitan Reef Complex Top Contours, Mapped Faults, and AquiferExtent Comparison.37Figure 18Capitan Reef Complex Thickness Contours .38Figure 19Top Surface Elevation Grid of Capitan Reef Complex.41Figure 20Capitan Reef Complex Thickness Grid.42Figure 21Base Elevation Grid of Capitan Reef Complex .43Figure 22Regional Groundwater Flow .45Figure 23Gross Isopach Grid of Interbedded Fine Sand, Silt, and Clay within theCapitan Reef Complex .47ii

TABLESTable 1Summary of geologic formations and groups forming the Capitan ReefComplex and Delaware Basin .5APPENDICESAppendix A Database DevelopmentAppendix B GIS Attribute Definitionsiii

AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to thank Dr. J. P. Nicot of the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, whocontributed his knowledge of the Capitan Reef Complex, Dr. Mark Helper of theUniversity of Texas at Austin for his assistance with the creation and interpretation of thestructural contours of the top of the Capitan Reef Complex, and Mr. Paul Kirby and Mr.Kenny Calhoun of DBS&A for their expert assistance in database construction and GIStasks.iv

1. Executive summaryThe Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc. (DBS&A) team, consisting of DBS&A, JohnShomaker & Associates, Inc., Bar-W Groundwater Exploration, and the Texas Bureau ofEconomic Geology, was contracted (Contract # 0804830794) by the Texas Water DevelopmentBoard (TWDB) to construct a stratigraphic and structural framework of the Capitan ReefComplex. The purpose of the work is to develop a geologic framework that can serve as thefoundation of a future groundwater availability model (GAM) of the Capitan Reef ComplexAquifer. The study area covers approximately 22,000 square miles in far west Texas andsoutheastern New Mexico and consists of all or portions of Winkler, Loving, Ward, Pecos,Reeves, Jeff Davis, Culberson, Brewster, and Hudspeth counties in Texas and Eddy and LeaCounties in New Mexico. The project consisted of compiling surface and subsurface geologicaldata and information, constructing a geodatabase, and building a stratigraphic geologic model.A total of 726 geophysical logs, driller’s reports (oil, gas and water), and scout tickets werecompiled into a geographical information system (GIS) geodatabase that was used to createCapitan Reef Complex surface, thickness, and base shapefiles and grids. An additional sandthickness grid was created of the subsurface sand-filled erosional channels between Capitan ReefComplex highs. The extent of the TWDB’s Capitan Reef Complex Aquifer outline has beenmodified based on available data. The DBS&A team also compiled GIS shapefiles of theformations overlying and underlying the Capitan Reef Complex.1

2. IntroductionA team led by Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc. (DBS&A) and also including JohnShomaker & Associates, Inc. (JSAI), Bar-W Groundwater Exploration, and the Texas Bureau ofEconomic Geology (TBEG) were retained under Contract # 0804830794) by the Texas WaterDevelopment Board (TWDB) to construct a stratigraphic and structural framework of theCapitan Reef Complex for the future building of a groundwater availability model (GAM). Theproject consisted of compiling surface and subsurface geological data, constructing ageodatabase, and building a stratigraphic model that can be used for groundwater availabilitymodeling of the Capitan Reef Complex Aquifer.The scope of this project was to delineate the aquifer system top and base of the Capitan ReefComplex and to identify structural and/or stratigraphic features that impact groundwater flow inthe Capitan Reef Complex. Deliverables for this project include: A GAM-compatible geographical information system (GIS) geodatabase Top and base elevation maps of the Capitan Reef Complex Thickness contour maps of the carbonate and sand facies within the Capitan Reef Complex Identification of structural and/or stratigraphic features that impact groundwater flow A report describing methodology, data sources and resultsThe study area covers approximately 22,000 square miles in far west Texas and southeasternNew Mexico and consists of all or portions of Winkler, Loving, Ward, Pecos, Reeves, JeffDavis, Culberson, Brewster and Hudspeth counties in Texas and Eddy and Lea Counties in NewMexico (Figure 1). The Capitan Reef Complex is a near-continuous stratigraphic unit depositedaround the edge of the Permian Delaware Basin (Figure 1) that graded into fore-reef and backreef depositional environments. As a result, the geologic contact for the Capitan Reef Complexis complicated by back-reef, reef, and fore-reef depositional sequences with abrupt or gradationalvertical and lateral facies changes. Therefore, the structure and stratigraphy of the Capitan ReefComplex and surrounding stratigraphic units were investigated during the study.The Capitan Reef Complex has been recognized as a minor aquifer (Ashworth and Hopkins,1995), with the TWDB designated boundaries confined to the known stratigraphic contactdefined by past geologic studies. The objectives of the present study are to update the subsurfaceexpression of the Capitan Reef Complex, using the geologic framework of the eastern half of thecomplex developed by Hiss (1976) as a starting point, and to define hydraulically confining andconnected geologic units surrounding the Capitan Reef Complex. All of the figures in this reportuse the revised aquifer outline discussed in Section 4.1.4 of this report.2

psNew MexicoGuDelawareBasinCulbersonMonahansBasi ne HwStattainsI 10y285StateHw17wyelCHwUSateStAlpineHwsG laouMsnsaitnyeyHovSheffieldChannelHwhanny 166y67HwStatePecosState Hsvi insDa ntaouM0y9Fort StocktonJeff DavisValentine18y1N:/Client/Water Resources/Capitan Aquifer/GIS/MXDs/Capitan Figure 1.mxdHw7BalmorheaGrandfallsy 203Hw118US90y2Hw yHwUS9y 32State Hwy 18oun17eMToyah BasinHw yWildHorseFlat I 10ReevesStateachUSVan HornWickettPyoteToyaheStatBaylorMountains57pur ThorntonvilleBarstowPecosVictorio FlexureApI rmlatfoState Hwy 54Sa l tDiabloPlateauex302Hw yStateKermitin PbFlWinklerLovingState Hwy 115BabTe x a sBaswy 62PattersonHillsareDelaw instaMounUS HtralCenDell City385luainuntoeMLeaadaEddyBrewsterUS Hwy 90ExplanationCapitan Reef Complex outline (revised)Capitan Reef Complex outcropCitiesMajor roadsTexas/New Mexico borderN0102030MilesCounty boundaryCAPITAN REEF COMPLEXDaniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc.08/28/2009JN WR08.0039Study Area and Geological FeaturesFigure 1

3. Study area geologyThe Capitan Reef (Capitan Limestone) encompasses the Permian Delaware Basin in far westTexas and southeastern New Mexico. Due to exposures in the Guadalupe, Glass, and ApacheMountains and extensive oil and gas exploration in the Delaware Basin, the Capitan Limestonehas been the subject of nearly 80 years of study resulting in numerous publications such as King,1930, 1948, Wood, 1968, Hiss, 1976, Uliana, 2001, Kerans and others, 1994, Kerans and Tinker,1999, and Hill, 1999, to name a few. Terminology for the Delaware Basin Permian section wasoriginally defined by King (1948).Sediments deposited during the Leonardian epoch underlie the Capitan Reef Complex. TheGuadalupian series represents the Delaware Basin depositional setting and development of theCapitan Reef Complex. The Ochoan Series represents the filling of the Delaware Basin withevaporite deposits. The time series has been commonly used as descriptive terms on oil and gaslogs. A summary of stratigraphic units and time series for the Capitan Reef Complex and theDelaware Basin is provided in Table 1. Figure 2 illustrates the areal extent relationships of thecarbonate facies (forereef, reef, and backreef) and the lateral boundaries of the geologicalformations or groups listed in Table 1.3.1 StratigraphyThe Capitan Reef Complex forms a horseshoe shaped feature in the Permian Delaware Basin andconsists of massive fossiliferous white limestone. The Capitan Reef Complex combines the GoatSeep Limestone, Capitan Limestone, and Carlsbad Limestone (Hiss, 1975) and grades intoadjacent fore-reef and back-reef facies. The back-reef facies are predominantly massivelimestone and gypsiferous limestone and consist of the Artesia Group (Yates, Queen, SevenRivers, and Grayburg Formations). The fore-reef facies consist of evaporites and thin beddedlimestone, shale, and sandstone units. The Capitan Reef Complex geologic model of fore-reef,reef, and back-reef facies was described in detail by King (1948) and is illustrated in Figure 3, byMelim and Scholle (1999).The Capitan Reef Complex is exposed in outcrops in the Guadalupe Mountains (Eddy County,New Mexico and Culberson County, Texas), Patterson Hills (Culberson and Hudspeth Counties,Texas), Apache Mountains (Culberson and Jeff Davis Counties, Texas), and Glass Mountains(Brewster and Pecos Counties, Texas) (Figure 1). Geologic descriptions stem primarily fromdetailed mapping in the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains (King, 1930, 1948).Analysis of the Capitan Reef Complex requires knowledge of the depositional sequences of theDelaware Basin and the characteristics of the underlying and overlying rocks. Sections 3.1.1through 3.1.9 provide stratigraphic descriptions, from oldest (bottom) to youngest (top), of theformations underlying, overlying, and grading into the Capitan Reef Complex (Table 1).Figure 4 (Hill, 1999) illustrates the Delaware Basin and selected stratigraphic sequence crosssections of the Capitan Reef Complex and associated geological formations and groups.4

Table 1. Summary of geologic formations and groups forming the Capitan Reef Complex and Delaware BasinApache Mountains(Wood, 1968; Uliana, 2001)Back ReefReefPeriod/Epoch or SeriesGuadalupe Mountains(King, 1948; Hiss, 1975; Kerans and others,1994; Kerans and Tinker, 1999)Back ReefReefQuaternary TertiaryDepositsQuaternary to TertiaryQuaternary TertiaryDepositsGlass Mountains(King, 1930; Hill, 1999)Back ReefReefQuaternary TertiaryDepositsBissettMunnYatesSeven RiversQueen/ GrayburgUpper San AndresCherry liamGoat SeepDolomiteVidrioCherry CanyonLower San Andres(equivalent to Brushy Canyon)Word Formation(Cherry and Brushy CanyonEquivalent)Victorio Peak (Member of the Bone Spring Limestone)Leonard andHess Member of Leonard FormationNote: Cell sizes are not to scale for formation thicknessSources: Modified after King, 1930, 1948; Wood, 1968; Hiss, 1975; Uliana, 2001; Hill, 1999; Kerans and others, 1994; Kerans and Tinker, 1999Formations overlie Capitan Reef Complex between the Guadalupe and Glass MountainsCherry CanyonBrushy CanyonPipeline ShaleMemberCutoff Shale (Member of Bone Spring Limestone)YesoBell CanyonTesseyDelaware Mountain GroupPermian/GuadalupianRustlerSalado aCastile aCapitan Reef ComplexSeven RiversCapitanLimestoneCapitan Reef ComplexYatesRustler aTansillArtesia Group5Artesia GroupTansillCapitan Reef ComplexPermian/OchoanaQuaternary n/LeonardianDelaware BasinBone Spring Limestone

steFAnnefre S a d )ck nd at eBa p a n tieuro erG d if fsia (unreArReeforereefEddyLeadrArdAnf an )ere S e dck nd iatBa p a en tu rro feG d ifsia (unteadGuTe x a sDelawareBasinWinklerLovingBasinCulbersonessi nOchoan Rustler, Salado, and WardCastile (undifferentiated) ountainserer e efF o ReAr BacS e t e s i k rean ve aedn Gr fM Ri ouun ve prnFm ss.Reef freeForeApPecosfM Daou vnt isEoc Baien acnse krJeff Davisvo eelc fanicsN:/Client/Water Resources/Capitan Aquifer/GIS/MXDs/New figures 082509/Figure 2.mxdref n Andk reaBa c and S ed )uptiatG r o r re nesia nd if fe(uro uNew MexicoBaQuoa Baa l e v e r l y t e r n c k reing ary efntofDe Sa n a lluvlwAa re n d r i u mMo es Fun m.tainGMSa l tuivpei nsArtp)aeslutao unGlassMnouitaBrewsterExplanationnsd teef nre . a e r akc Fm mBa m gloa oniill CG ettssBiNCapitan Reef Complex outline (revsied)Capitan Reef Complex outcrop0Texas/New Mexico borderCounty boundary102030MilesCAPITAN REEF COMPLEXReef Facies and Geologic Formations and GroupsDaniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc.08/28/2009JN WR08.0039Figure 2

N:/Client/Water Resources/Capitan Aquifer/GIS/MXDs/New figures 082509/Figure 3.mxdSource: Melim and Scholle, 1999Figure 3CAPITAN REEF COMPLEXDaniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc.08/28/2009JN WR08.0039Stratigraphic Cross-Section

S:\PROJECTS\WR08.0039 CAPITAN REEF\VR-DRAWINGS\WR08 0039 01W GEOLOGIC SCHEMATIC.CDRArtesiaGroupNORTH SIDEp itanFmla doEAST SIDE.reefforeree fSan AndresSeTexasepDELAWAREBASINC ut of f sh al eCastile and SaladoEvaporitesC a p it a nSALT BASINforeernita fpCa reeefHoveyChannelArtesiaGroupVidrioGLASS MTNS.Te s s eyLsBackreefGilliamMunnAPACHE MTNS.BackreefLsatSaladoeyGoNew MexicossSan AndresDelaware GroupEquivalentCaTeBackreefantpiCa LsCapitaLs nWEST SIDEadlsbCar oupGrGUADALUPE MTNS.SaSources: Modified after Hill, 1999; King, 1930, 1937, 1948;Figure 4Wood, 1968; Kerans and others, 1994; Kerans and Tinker, 1999CAPITAN REEF COMPLEXSchematic of Delaware Basin and Local StratigraphyDaniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc.8-31-09JN WR08.0039

3.1.1 Bone Spring LimestoneThe Bone Spring Limestone is part of the Leonard Series, and consists predominantly of thinbeds of cherty black limestone. Total thickness of the Bone Spring Limestone ranges between1,500 and 2,000 feet. In general, these rocks are located basin-side and below the Capitan ReefComplex. In the western part of the study area, the distribution of the Bone Spring Limestone iscomplicated by the faulting associated with the Salt Basin. As a result of this faulting, rocks ofthe Bone Spring Limestone crop out along the western side of the Delaware Mountains. InCulberson County where the formation commonly crops out, the thickness of the Bone SpringLimestone varies from 900 to 1,700 feet (Dietrich and others, 1983).West of the Capitan Reef Complex and toward the Delaware Basin fringe, the Bone SpringLimestone grades into the Victorio Peak Limestone (gray limestone) and the time-equivalentYeso, Leonard and Hess Member of the Leonard Formation. The Bone Spring Limestone hasbeen subdivided into two members, the Victorio Peak Member and the overlying Cutoff ShaleMember. The Cutoff Shale Member is a black, platy, siliceous shale and shaly sandstoneranging from 50 to 150 feet in thickness (King, 1948). The Cutoff Shale Member forms a lowpermeability barrier between the underlying Victorio Peak Limestone and the overlying SanAndres or Delaware Mountain Group stratigraphic equivalent (Table 1, Figure 3).3.1.2 San Andres FormationThe San Andres Formation was deposited during Guadalupian time. The San Andres has beensubdivided into the Upper and Lower San Andres formation (Ward and others, 1986; Kerans andothers, 1994). The lower half is called the lower cherty limestone member and the top half isreferred to as the upper non-cherty limestone member. Total thickness of the San AndresFormation is 700 to 1,000 feet. The San Andres Formation is a widespread shelf carbonatedeposit found throughout most of New Mexico and west Texas. The lower member of the SanAndres Formation grades downward forming an unconformity with the Cutoff Shale Member ofthe Bone Spring Limestone, Cherry Canyon, and Brushy Canyon Formations of the DelawareMountain Group (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975; Kerans and others, 1994; Kerans and Tinker, 1999;Ward and others, 1986).In the Delaware Basin, the San Andres Formation transition from shelf carbonate to reefenvironments is approximately 3 miles long and trends parallel to the Capitan Reef front (Hill,1996; Hiss, 1975). In the reef margin, the San Andres Formation grades up into the Capitan ReefComplex (Table 1).3.1.3 Delaware Mountain GroupThe Delaware Mountain Group consists of several formations and members of the GuadalupeSeries. Most of the Delaware Mountain Group includes formations that were deposited in theDelaware Basin at the same time that the Capitan Reef complex was being deposited on the basinmargin (Table 1). Units include the Brushy Canyon, Cherry Canyon, and Bell CanyonFormations. Parts of the Brushy Canyon and Bell Canyon Formations were deposited prior tothe formation of the Capitan Reef Complex (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975).9

The Delaware Mountain Group consists primarily of interbedded sandstones, shales, andlimestones. The sandstone beds are commonly massive basin-side and adjacent to the CapitanReef Complex and thin toward the basin center.The basal formation of the Delaware Mountain Group is primarily an interbedded coarse- to finegrained sandstone and sandy shale unit with a maximum thickness of 1,000 feet (King, 1948).At the base of the Brushy Canyon is the persistent black platy Pipeline Shale interbedded withshaly sandstone, sandstone and limestone, and a basal conglomerate (King, 1948).The Cherry Canyon member of the Delaware Mountain Group is primarily thin-bedded, withvery fine-grained quartz sandstone and a few shale beds (Dietrich and others, 1983). Thethickness of the formation is up to 1,000 feet (King, 1948).The Bell Canyon Member of the Delaware Mountain Group is mostly very fine-grainedsandstone with a thickness ranging from 670 to 1,000 feet (Dietrich and others, 1983). TheDelaware Mountain Group is overlain by evaporites and carbonates of the Castile and RustlerFormations in the Rustler Hills east of the Delaware Mountains (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3).The Word Formation is approximately time equivalent to the Delaware Mountain Groupformations and is located in the Glass Mountains (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975). The Word Formationconsists of siliceous shale, chert with very thin units of fossiliferous limestone, sandstone, andconglomerate with thickness up to 1,500 feet.3.1.4 Capitan Reef ComplexFor practical purposes, the Capitan Reef Complex Aquifer (Table 1) is defined as Permiancarbonate reef-forming rocks that include the Goat Seep Limestone, Capitan Limestone, andCarlsbad Limestone (Hiss, 1975). In the eastern section of the Capitan Reef Complex near theGlass Mountains, equivalent rocks include the Vidrio and Tessey Formations described by King(1930) and Hill (1996). The Munn Formation underlies the Capitan Reef Complex in theApache Mountains, is up to 450 feet thick and consists of primarily a thin-bedded dolomite andis stratigraphically equivalent to the Goat Seep Limestone and Vidrio (Barnes and others, 1968;Wood, 1968; Hiss, 1975).Deposition occurred around the margin of the Permian Delaware Basin and on the edge of thenorthwestern shelf. Surface outcrops and subsurface expression of the Capitan Reef Complex inthe Capitan, Apache, and Glass Mountains are shown on Figure 1. The arc-shaped reef structureis about 10 to 14 miles wide and is dissected by the Hovey Channel in Brewster County (Hill,1996; Hiss, 1975).The Capitan Reef Complex is composed of massive white to gray fossiliferous limestone beds.The limestone beds grade from fore-reef to back-reef deposits. The gradation into fore-reefdeposits is typically abrupt, with a defined geologic contact, whereas the gradation into back-reefdeposits is more transitional, with difficult to identify geologic contacts (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975).The rocks that make up the reef complex have been locally dissected by faulting; consequently,they do not form one continuous aquifer but rather a series of disconnected highly permeable10

aquifers (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975). For example, the uplifted Guadalupe Mountains divide theCapitan Reef Complex Aquifer into two separate disconnected aquifers (Figure 1): one thattrends to the northeast and discharges to the Pecos River in New Mexico and one that originatesalong the western flank of the Guadalupe Mountains and flows south from the Patterson Hillssoutheast toward the Apache Mountains (Hiss, 1975; King, 1948).3.1.5 Artesia GroupThe Artesia Group includes the back-reef (youngest to oldest) Tansill, Yates, Seven Rivers,Queen, and Grayburg Formations (Table 1, Figures 2 and 3). (The term Artesia Group replacedthe older Carlsbad Group nomenclature.) All of these formations gradually grade into theCapitan Reef Complex. The formations that make up the Artesia Group have rapid lateral facieschanges with cyclic deposits of sandstone, sandy dolomite, and dolomite (Hill, 1996; Hiss,1975). The Grayburg and Queen Formations grade into the Goat Seep Limestone, whereas theSeven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill Formations grade into the Capitan Limestone. Characteristicsof these formations are: The basal formation of the Artesia Group is the Grayburg Formation, which overlies theSan Andres Formation and underlies the Queen Formation, and consists of interbeddeddolomite with thin layers of fine-grained sandstone. Total thickness of this formation isapproximately 300 to 400 feet (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975). The Queen Formation is similar to the Grayburg Formation, but with a 100-foot-thicksandstone layer near the top of the formation with thin interbedded dolomite and shale.Because of this upper sand unit, the contact between the Queen and overlying SevenRivers Formation is often identifiable (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975). This formation is up to 420feet thick. The Seven Rivers Formation is a thin-bedded dolomite sandwiched between the upperQueen sandstone and the Yates sand. This formation laterally grades from evaporite to acarbonate facies as it grades into the Capitan Reef Complex. The bedding disappears as itgrades into the Capitan Limestone. This formation is up to 500 feet thick (Hiss, 1975) The Yates Formation was named after the Yates Oil Field in Pecos County, and it is themost widespread horizon used for structure contouring in the Delaware Basin. The YatesFormation consists of siltstone and sandstone beds totaling approximately 300 to 400 feetin thickness near the reef margin (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975). The Tansill Formation conformably overlies the Yates Formation near the reef margin.East of the Guadalupe Mountains, the formation is overlain by the Ochoan time evaporites(Salado Formation). The Tansill Formation consists of gypsum, red clay, and silt(evaporite facies) that laterally grades into dolomite near the reef margin. The thicknessincreases from 100 to 300 feet near the reef margin (Hill, 1996; Hiss, 1975).3.1.6 Castile and Salado FormationsDuring the Ochoan epoch, the Delaware Basin began to fill with evaporite deposits of the Castileand Salado Formations. In places, these evaporite deposits overlie the Capitan Reef Complex.11

The Castile Formation is made up of gypsum, anhydrite, and intermittent, thin- to mediumbedded limestone.

limestone, shale, and sandstone units. The Capitan Reef Complex geologic model of fore-reef, reef, and back-reef facies was described in detail by King (1948) and is illustrated in Figure 3, by Melim and Scholle (1999). The Capitan Reef Complex is exposed in outcrops in the Guadalupe Mountains (Eddy County,

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