Companion Animal Nutrition 1 - Purdue University

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Objective:To understand themisinformation that mayexist about companionanimal nutrition12Facts:Myth:Raw food dietis appropriatefor dogs andcats Raw food diet questions:– Complete & balanced nutrition?– Safety from food-borne pathogens?– Problems associated with bones?3Facts:4Myth:It’s safe tofeed mykitten rawchickenand beef The SAFE way to feed dog or cat– Commercial pet food– Respected manufacturer– Complete & balanced according toAAFCO procedures56

Facts:Myth:Feeding raw meat andbones results in betterskin and hair coat, andhas more energy Feeding raw meat– Complete & balanced?– Contain bacteria? Zoonotic transfer to humans– Parasitic cysts? Cook any meat offered as a treat7Facts:8Myth: Protein and fat are importantnutrients for skin and hair coat andenergy Complete & balanced diets accordingto AAFCO procedures contribute tolustrous coat and healthy skinCooking destroysenzymes and nutrients9Facts:10Facts: Cooking is beneficial:– Improves the bioavailability of nutrients– Alters structure of amino acids– Breaks down non-nutritional factors To increase digestibility Dogs and cats make enzymes needed todigest food and use nutrients Manufacturers of high quality pet foodsbuild safety margins into formulations– Account for losses during normalprocessing and storage– Kills bacteria and parasites1112

Facts:Myth: Most chicken meal, poultry by-product meal(PBM) and real chicken contain quality protein(digestible and palatable)Chicken meal is superiorto poultry by-productmeal and real chicken Chicken meal is primarily chicken necks andbacks – has more ash per unit of protein thanPBM PBM is slightly more concentrated proteinsource, if properly processed1314Facts:Myth: Chicken meal is primarily chicken necksand backs – has more ash per unit ofprotein compared to real chickenChicken meal is asuperior protein sourcecompared to realchicken Real chicken is derived from striatedmuscle of chickens15Ingredient% ProteinPoultry by-product meal65-70Meat & bone meal50-55Chicken meal63-67Chicken60 Lamb meal48-55Fish meal60-65Soybean meal46-50Corn gluten meal60-64Rice gluten meal40-50Dried egg product43-4816Myth:Animal protein is betterquality than plant & grainprotein1718

Fact:Facts:Animal & Plant Sources AreGood Sources of Protein No single source ofprotein is perfect No single source containsall essential amino acids1920Protein QualityQuality Protein Ingredients High quality smaller portions required(high quality high content and digestibility) Amino acid composition Complementary proteins– provide limiting amino acids soybean meal is low in methioninechicken is high in methionineEgg (dried)WheyCorn gluten mealLamb / Lamb mealChicken / Chicken mealSoybean mealPea proteinPoultry by-product mealCaseinLiverBeef / Beef mealPorkSalmonWheat germTroutDuck21IngredientProteinSource of:(%)BVOther22IngredientProtein(%)Source ofBVDried Egg45-49High quality94AlmostcompleteproteinFish meal59High tryptophan,lysine,methionineSoybeanMeal48High intryptophan,lysine73Complementsmeat sourcesCorn glutenmeal60High Beef, lamb,pork,chicken58High lysine,methionineMinerals varyCorn(whole)8Low tryptophan,lysine,methionine5929Good source,low intryptophanFat variableRice7Adequate source647423OtherComplementsmeat sourcesLow minerals24

Myth:Facts:Soy products have very littlenutritive value for dogs andcats Soy is an excellent source of:–––––Amino acids (9/10 essential amino acids for dogs)FatFiberPotassiumCholine Soy can be as digestible asmeat or poultry meals2526Facts:Myth: Not true, soybean meal does not “eat”or deplete body of zinc storesSoybean meal depletesbody of zinc stores Phytate is found in most plants With excess dietary calcium, phytate:– Binds dietary zinc– Limits dietary zinc availability– No effect on zinc already in body2728Facts:Myth: “Fillers” have no nutritional or functional value Corn is finely ground to help ensure digestibility Each ingredient in product helps to achievespecific nutritional, functional, or palatabilitygoals Products are tested to ensure digestibility in dogor cat Corn is not a “filler”Corn is a filler and ispoorly digested2930

Facts:5 Grades of Corn USDA official standards for grain Corn is an excellent source of nutrients Corn is a highly available source of: Dictated by pounds (bushel wt), damagedkernels (heat or broken), foreign materials(other grains, weed seeds, debris) Complex carbohydrates Fats #1 highest quality, #5 lowest quality #1 grade is generally for human consumption Pet food uses #2 grade corn in formulas– USDA #2 or better grade yellow dent corn Linoleic acid (healthy skin & coat) Essential amino acids Fiber Ground corn can be 98% digestible3132Gastric Dilatation-VolvulusMyth: Bloat, twisted stomach, stomach torsion Process:Soybean meal causesbloat in dogs–––––gastric dilatation with air, fluid, excess foodstomach twistsoccludes both ends, blood flowsplenic engorgement, blocks abdominal vesselscardiovascular collapse Signs: retching, enlargement of abdomen,pain Treatment - decompress, surgery3334Risk Factors for BloatRisk Factors for Bloat Gas associated with bloat isswallowed air Dogs who develop bloat: “greedy eaters” “gulp” water Older dogs younger dogsPure breeds mixed breedsFamilial linkDeep-chested dogsNervous, fearful dogsEats one meal per day Not caused by dietary factors3536

Precautionary strategies for bloat Feed several smaller meals per dayHigh water content (i.e., gravy)Easily digestible dietRestrict exercise before and aftermeals Know signs of bloat and what to do Know the phone number of nearest vetclinicSoybean Facts: No association between soybeanmeal consumption & bloat Dogs on meat-based diets just aslikely as dogs on soy-based dietsto develop condition leading tobloat[Cornell College of Vet. Medicine Newsletter, 1991]37Flatulence:38Facts: Fiber tends to cause flatulence(gas) in some dogsExcessive gas in thestomach and intestines Soy has fiber Fiber in soy may be one cause offlatulence in some dogs3940Facts:Myth: Small firm stools are not a direct measureof digestibility of pet food Many factors influence stool size:Soy causes loose stools– Type & level of fiber– Physical nature of diet, etc. Properly cooked & processed pet foodscontaining soy products:– Highly digestible– Produce firm stools4142

More on loose stools Puppies / kittens frequently have loose stools– No cause and effect with high-quality puppy orkitten food containing soy has been established Other contributing factors:––––––Sudden diet changesSpoiled food (garbage, etc)Rich or spicy foodsLactose intoleranceOther food allergies not related to soyGI parasitesMyth:Soy products cause skinallergies43Clinical Significance44Dog Dermatology StudiesIn dogs: 1 in 400 have a food allergy 15% suffer from an allergic disease– atopy, contact allergy, flea bite, food Food hypersensitivity maycontribute to:– “itching” in 62% of non-seasonalallergic skin diseases– chronic GI diseases 10 studies- 253 dogs– Skin surface lesions associated with foodallergy– Beef, dairy products & wheat account for65% of all reported cases of food allergies– Chicken, eggs, lamb & soy account for 25%of all reported cases of food allergiesRoudebush, Guilford, Shanley (2000) Adverse Reactionsto Food. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition (4th ed.)45Clinical Significance In cats:46Cat Dermatology Study 8 studies or case reports– 45 cats with skin surface lesionsassociated with food allergy– 80 % of food allergies to beef, dairyproducts or fish– 6% chronic skin abnormalities fromfood sensitivity (university practice) Food sensitivity 2nd most commoncause of allergic dermatitis– Up to 11% of cats with skin surfacelesion dermatitisRoudebush, Guilford, Shanley (2000) Adverse Reactions to Food.Small Animal Clinical Nutrition (4th ed.)4748

Facts About Food Allergens Almost exclusively proteinsAverage Molecular WeightAverageMolecular Weightof NURISH 1500:12,168 Allergens are a certain sizeAverage Molecular Average MolecularWeight of Protein in Weight ofPVD HA-FormulaUnmodified ISP:28,96118,000 - 36,000 Daltons– 18,000-36,000 daltons– capable of eliciting immune responseRange of common food allergens049Myth:5,00010,00015,00020,00025,000 30,00035,000Molecular Weight (Daltons) determined by HPLC40,00050Facts: No protein more or less likely tostimulate allergic responseCorn is highly allergenic Any protein is potentially allergenic51Dog Dermatology Studies 10 studies52Cats & Food Allergies 55 cats with primary GI problems– 253 dogs had skin surface lesions– 16 (29%) food sensitive– Corn gluten responsible in 3 of 16 catsassociated with food allergy– Only 6 had allergies to corn Æ 2.4%Roudebush, Guilford, Shanley (2000) Adverse Reactions toFood. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition (4th ed.)53 Guilford et al (2001) Food Sensitivity in Cats with ChronicIdiopathic Gastrointestinal Problems. J Vet Intern Med 15:7-1354

Facts:Myth: Hot spots result from skin irritationExcessive protein causeshot spots As dog scratches, condition intensifies Most hot spots caused by flea orcontact allergies No evidence to support associationwith dietary protein5556Myth:Fact:High dietary protein doesnot cause kidney diseasein otherwise healthy dogsand catsExcess proteincauses kidneydisease571992 Veterinary Survey:Protein Survey of veterinarypractitioners 42% thought high proteincaused kidney damage 82% recommended lowerprotein diets forgeriatric dogs(Finco 1992)58Amino acids fromcell breakdownDietary amino acidsSynthesisof proteinsAmino acidpool in cellEnergyproduction59Free ammoniaUrea synthesisin the liverUrinary excretion60

Research: Protein andCanine Kidney DiseaseResearcher (Affiliation)Bovee (UPenn)Bovee (UPenn)Robertson (UPenn)Finco (UGA)Finco (UGA)Finco (UGA)Polzin (UMinn)Churchill (UMinn)Fact:% Dietary Protein8, 18, 26, 54%19, 27, 56%19, 27, 56%18, 34%17, 34%16, 24, 50%8, 17, 44%22, 39%61 Diets between 10% and 40% proteinhad no adverse effect on kidneyfunction Diets differed in phosphorus andother nutrients62Myth:Fact:Older dogs should notbe protein restrictedunless medicallynecessaryOlder dogs should beprotein restricted6364Protein TurnoverResearch in Older DogsCatabolismDIETARYPROTEIN Lean mass decreases Body fat increasesAMINO ACIDS Protein turnover decreasesPROTEINSENERGYSynthesis Older dogs need more proteinthan younger dogs6566

Effect of Dietary Protein on %Body Fat in Aging PointersEffect of Dietary Protein on %Body Lean in Aging Pointers8025781516.5% protein45.6% protein1050% Body Lean% Body Fat20767416.5% protein45.6% protein727068Kealy, 1998(-) 9 mo.1 yr.2 yr.Purina R&D66Kealy, 1998(-) 9 mo.1 yr.2 yr.Purina R&D67Myth:68Normal Liver FunctionDietary protein should berestricted in liverdiseaseNutrient metabolism– Carbohydrate– Fat– Protein Synthesis of blood proteins– Albumin– Clotting factors Deamination of protein / ureaformation69Normal Liver Function Vitamin metabolism70Liver Disease- CommonDiagnoses Cat– Water soluble (B vitamins)– Fat soluble (A, E, D, K)– Hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver)– Cholangiohepatitis (inflamed liver andbile tract) Bile production Detoxification Dog– Drugs, toxins, bacteria from GI tract &bloodstream71– Portosystemic shunt (abnormality ofblood vessels in liver)– Cancer– Cirrhosis (end-stage scarring)72

Nutritional Goals with LiverDiseaseLiver Disease Treatment and diet recommendedbased on underlying disease Provide enough nutrients to:– Basis of “liver diet” criticism– Maintain pet– Promote liver cell regenerationHowever, there are some basicnutrition principles. Do not overwhelm remainingmetabolic capacity– May lead to accumulation of toxicmetabolites73Liver Disease- Diet74Liver Disease- Protein Abnormalities in protein metabolism Palatable Small frequent meals Highly digestible– Theoretically, highly branched-chain aminoacids would be beneficial, but proof islacking Protein requirement is comparable to(or higher than) a healthy dog or cat What is an adequate proteinintake for liver patients? Bottom line: Protein should not berestricted unless signs of proteinintolerance (encephalopathic signs)75Encephalopathic LiverDisease - Protein76Liver Disease Summary Multiple causes / multiple treatments Diet is supportive therapy– Ensure adequate caloric intake Titrate protein level - goal:– Minimize neurologic signs– Maintain adequate blood proteinlevels 1/3 of caloric intake supports liver organregeneration and function– Protein restriction only if proteinintolerance (neurologic signs) Albumin Liver patient has normal to elevated proteinrequirements– Highly digestible carbohydrate & fat7778

Facts:Myth:Protein causesdevelopmental boneproblems in large breedpuppies Research at Utrecht University in theNetherlands– No detrimental effects on skeletaldevelopment from protein up to 32% of diet– Puppies fed only 15% protein had evidenceof inadequate protein intake7980Review of calciumimportance in LargeBreed dogs Facts: Large breed puppies require fewercalories / body weight than smallerbreeds Avoiding excessive calories helps:– Manage growth and excessive weightgain– Beneficial to skeletal development inlarge breed puppies81Functions of Calcium82Dietary Calcium Bone & dental structureEnzymatic & metabolic reactionsMuscle contractionRelease & uptake ofneurotransmitters Activation of blood clotting factors Breeds differ in ability to digest andabsorb nutrients Some more predisposed to calciumsensitive conditions Some metabolize calcium more/lessefficiently Calcium recommendations for puppiesbased on breed size?8384

Calcium DeficiencyExcess Calcium Puppies: In growing animals– Poor growth rates– Reduced mineralization of bone– Subsequent defects: rickets, stressfractures– Inhibits growth– Induces bone defects(osteochondrosis)– Lameness– Interferes with absorption of othernutrients (zinc) Adult dogs:– Depletion of bone calcium– Weakened bone structure– Muscle weakness85Calcium & Large Breed Dogs Avoid calcium less than 0.55%86Calcium & Large Breed Dogs Calcium 1.0% - 1.55%–Safe & adequate for allbreeds– Deficient for growth Calcium 0.8% - 0.9% (dry matter basis)– Adequate for Great Dane & giant breedpuppies– Marginal for other large breed puppies Calcium 1.5% - 2.0% (dry matter basis)Laflamme (2000 Purina Nutrition Forum) Effect of Breed Sizeon Calcium Requirements for Puppies– Appears safe for large breeds– No data available for giant breedpuppiesLaflamme (2000 Purina Nutrition Forum) Effect of Breed Sizeon Calcium Requirements for Puppies8788

chicken 16 Facts: Chicken meal is primarily chicken necks and backs - has more ash per unit of protein compared to real chicken Real chicken is derived from striated muscle of chickens 17 Chicken 60 Dried egg product 43-48 Rice gluten meal 40-50 Corn gluten meal 60-64 Soybean meal 46-50 Fish meal 60-65 Lamb meal 48-55 Chicken meal 63-67

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