Guideline Clinical Practice Guideline: Nasal Irrigation For Chronic .

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Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology Vol. 15, No. 1: 5-23, February 2022 1976-8710 eISSN 2005-0720GuidelineClinical Practice Guideline: Nasal Irrigation forChronic Rhinosinusitis in AdultsDo-Yang Park1,* ·Ji Ho Choi2,* ·Dong-Kyu Kim3 ·Yong Gi Jung4 ·Sue Jean Mun5 ·Hyun Jin Min6Soo Kyoung Park7 ·Jae-Min Shin8 ·Hyung Chae Yang9 ·Seung-No Hong10 ·Ji-Hun Mo11Department of Otolaryngology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery,1Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon; 3Department ofOtorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon;Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul;4Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan; 6Department of5Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul; 7Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Headand Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon; 8Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery,Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul; 9Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chonnam National University MedicalSchool and Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju; 10Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, SMG-SNUBoramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul; 11Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery,Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, KoreaThe Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Korean Rhinologic Society appointed a guidelinedevelopment group (GDG) to establish a clinical practice guideline, and the GDG developed a guideline for nasal irrigationfor adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The guideline focuses on knowledge gaps, practice variations, and clinical concerns associated with nasal irrigation. Nasal irrigation has been recommended as the first-line treatment for CRS invarious guidelines, and its clinical effectiveness has been demonstrated through a number of studies with robust evidence.However, no guidelines have presented a consistent nasal irrigation method. Several databases, including OVID Medline,Embase, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched to identify all relevant papers using a predefined searchstrategy. When insufficient evidence was found, the GDG sought expert opinions and attempted to fill the evidence gap.Evidence-based recommendations for practice were ranked according to the American College of Physicians grading system. The committee developed 11 evidence-based recommendations. This guideline focuses on the evidence-based qualityimprovement opportunities deemed the most important by the GDG. Moreover, the guideline addresses whether nasal lavage helps treat CRS, what type of rinsing solution should be used, and the effectiveness of using additional medications toincrease the therapeutic effect.Keywords. Sinusitis; Treatment; Guideline; Saline Solution; Equipment; Steroids; Irrigation Received April 6, 2021Revised June 14, 2021Accepted June 17, 2021 Co-Corresponding author: Dong-Kyu KimDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, ChuncheonSacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, 77 Sakju-ro,Chuncheon 24253, KoreaTel: 82-33-240-5180, Fax: 82-33-241-2909E-mail: Corresponding author: Yong Gi JungDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, SamsungMedical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine,81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, KoreaTel: 82-2-3410-3579, Fax: 82-2-3410-3879E-mail:*These authors contributed equally to this work as first authors.Copyright 2022 by Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ich permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.5

6Clinical and Experimental OtorhinolaryngologyAVol. 15, No. 1: 5-23, February 2022BCDEFrontal sinusEthmoid sinusSphenoid sinusNasalcavityMaxillary sinusFGHFig. 1. Mechanism and sequence of irrigation of the nasal cavity and nose. (A) The diagram showing the location and relationship of each sinus and nasal cavity. (B-H) The irrigation fluid first hits the nasopharynx and then indirectly enters the sinus. According to cadaveric and threedimensional modeling studies, the fluid first passes through the ethmoid and nasopharynx, then the ipsilateral maxillary and sphenoid sinuses,followed by the frontal sinus and then the opposite side of the maxillary sinus.INTRODUCTIONRhinosinusitis is a disease with a relatively high prevalence characterized by inflammation of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. Depending on the duration of symptoms, it is divided intoacute or chronic, and it is classified as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)when symptoms last for more than 12 weeks [1]. Unlike acuterhinosinusitis, the etiology of CRS shows more complex characteristics of inflammation. It is known that approximately 30% ofpatients with CRS undergo surgery because they do not respondto maximal medical treatment or have refractory CRS symptoms[2-5]. Due to the refractory characteristics and complex etiologyof CRS, various methods such as corticosteroids, antibiotics, antihistamines, nasal decongestants, immunomodulators, anti-in-H I G H L I G H T S The Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and NeckSurgery and Korean Rhinologic Society developed a practiceguideline for nasal irrigation to treat chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS) in adult patients. The committee developed 11 key action statements. The statements deal with the effect of nasal irrigation, the preparation of the solution, the management of the equipment, disinfection, and posture. The target audience of this guideline is any clinician or individual involved in the management of adult patients with CRSin any setting. This guideline is intended to promote more active use of nasalirrigation to treat CRS, improve treatment outcomes, and enhance the doctor-patient relationship.terleukins, other medications, and nasal irrigation have beenused to manage CRS. Of these methods, nasal irrigation is expected to have anti-inflammatory effects. The effectiveness andnecessity of nasal irrigation have been sufficiently verified. Toavoid abuse of antibiotics, nasal irrigation is encouraged as thefirst-line treatment for CRS in various guidelines, and its clinicaleffectiveness has been demonstrated through many highly reliable studies [6,7]. In addition, during the postoperative periodafter endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), sinus irrigation has beendemonstrated to be an important method for promoting woundrecovery in the nasal cavity and sinuses and as a method to reduce the use of unnecessary drugs.Nasal irrigation is expected to have anti-inflammatory effects.The effectiveness and necessity of nasal irrigation have been sufficiently verified, but studies on the method of use and characteristics of irrigation liquids have been somewhat inconsistent.Despite the efficacy of irrigation, the complex structure of thesinuses and the various connections between the sinuses makeit challenging to determine the cleaning process and anti-inflammatory mechanism. Recently, through three-dimensional modeling and cadaveric studies of the nasal sinuses, it has been revealed that the irrigation fluid flows mainly indirectly, as opposed to directly penetrating the sinuses. The irrigation fluid wasfound to flow in the following order: ethmoid sinus, nasopharynx, ipsilateral maxillary sinus, contralateral maxillary sinus,and ipsilateral frontal sinus (Fig. 1) [8-12]. Nasal saline irrigationmay improve nasal mucosa function through several physiological effects, including direct cleaning of the mucus to preventbacterial growth. Moreover, saline dilutes the mucus to promotecleaning and removal of antigens and bacterial biofilm and promotes inflammatory mediators to improve inflammation and

Park DY et al. The Way to Correctly Perform Nasal Irrigationmucociliary function [13]. Nasal saline irrigation in CRS afterESS has been proven to clean the nasal cavity and promote therestoration of mucosal function [14-16].Despite the importance of nasal irrigation for the managementof CRS, a nasal irrigation guideline for consistent medical practice and patient education has not been published. The targetpopulation of this guideline is patients who are 18 years or olderwith a clinical diagnosis of uncomplicated rhinosinusitis. We defined rhinosinusitis as symptomatic inflammation of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. The guideline development group(GDG) preferred the term “rhinosinusitis” because sinusitis isaccompanied by inflammation of the nasal mucosa. Therefore,the term rhinosinusitis was used in this guideline. We defineduncomplicated rhinosinusitis as cases without clinical extensionof inflammation outside the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity,such as neurologic, ophthalmologic, or soft tissue involvement.HEALTHCARE BURDENCRS is a significant health problem, and the overall prevalenceof symptom-based CRS has been reported to be between 6%and 28% [17-20]. The prevalence of CRS is suggested to be between 3% and 6% in those diagnosed through a combinationof symptoms and tests such as endoscopy and computed tomography [21-23]. CRS has also been shown to have a number ofnegative socioeconomic effects. It has been reported that 18.3million patients in the United States (US) visited hospitals withsymptoms of CRS and received more than five times as manyprescriptions as those with other diseases [24,25]. In 2007 alone, 8.3 billion was spent on CRS, with more than 250,000 surgicalprocedures performed annually, at an average of 7,700 each. Inthe United Kingdom, 2,974 was found to be spent on primaryand secondary care for CRS annually [26]. The direct cost ofCRS was reported to be 1,501 per year in a group of Dutchpatients with CRS and nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The highest direct cost was incurred in patients who experienced recurrenceeven after surgery [27,28]. As rhinosinusitis can occur in younger patients, higher absenteeism due to the disease has been reported than is the case for a number of other diseases. Rhinosinusitis has very high costs for workers in the US. On average,there are 1 to 2 days of missed working days per worker peryear, and the total indirect costs for the management of CRS arereported to exceed 20 billion per year [29-31]. Additionally,the overall productivity loss for patients with refractory CRS isreported to be 10,077 per patient annually [32]. The significantadverse effects of CRS have been reported to negatively affectthe quality of life in general healthcare questionnaires [33-36]and rhinological symptom questionnaires [37,38]. In patientswith CRS, quality of life scores in terms of chronic pain and adverse social effects were reported to be worse than those for angina, back pain, and congestive heart failure [39-42].7GUIDELINE SCOPE AND PURPOSEThis guideline aims to provide quality improvement opportunities in the application of nasal irrigation and to create concreteand actionable recommendations to implement these opportunities in clinical practice. This guideline aims to improve the effectiveness of nasal irrigation, promote appropriate drug use,and promote effective disease management by presenting a general nasal irrigation method and detailing the appropriate management of irrigation fluid and devices based on the findings ofrobust studies. The guidelines are intended for all clinicians whoare likely to manage rhinosinusitis and recommend nasal irrigation to patients. This guideline aims to increase the efficiency ofnasal irrigation and can be applied in any setting for adults withrhinosinusitis who have undergone ESS. However, this guidelineis not aimed at patients with rhinosinusitis complications orthose under the age of 18 years. The GDG believes that the effectiveness of nasal irrigation will not differ significantly between children/adolescents and adults with CRS. However, inpediatric patients, it is thought that the degree of adaptation inresponse to various tonicities and the response to additionaldrugs in the irrigation solution may differ, and we did not findsufficient evidence regarding this possibility. Accordingly, sincethe papers we searched and cited in establishing this guidelinewere for adults, pediatric patients were excluded from the application. In addition, these guidelines do not apply to diseasessuch as allergic rhinitis, eosinophilic nonallergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, and allergic fungalrhinosinusitis.METHODSOrganization of the committeeThe Task Force Chairman (YGJ), who was appointed by the Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery(KORL-HNS) President with the approval of the committee, selected the members of the GDG. The GDG consisted of 11 specialists in rhinology from South Korea. The Korean RhinologicSociety recommended a review member (JHM), and the member supervised the academic content of this paper and participated in the manuscript as an author. The GDG had completeeditorial independence from the KORL-HNS. In developing thisconsensus-based clinical practice guideline, the GDG followedthe Clinical Practice Guideline Development Manual, Third Edition with the aim of creating actionable statements [43]. The firstmeeting was held in July 2020, and a total of 20 conferencecalls or meetings were held. In a series of conference calls andmeetings, the GDG defined the scope and objectives of the proposed guideline and selected key questions. The GDG determined that the development of a consensus-based clinical practice guideline for nasal irrigation would be most beneficial for

8Clinical and Experimental OtorhinolaryngologyVol. 15, No. 1: 5-23, February 2022clinicians who manage patients with CRS. After deciding on thescope and objectives, the development of this consensus-basedclinical practice guideline took place over 3 months, and all thekey questions and the corresponding action statements werecreated based on supporting evidence, balancing the benefitsand potential harm of each. The recommendations contained inthis consensus-based clinical practice guideline were developedbased on the selected best literature published through December 2020 depending on the opinion of the GDG members. If wecould not find enough data, we used a combination of clinicalexperience and expert consensus. When any disagreements occurred, a third author created the actionable statements as necessary. The clinical practice guideline developed also underwentextensive external peer review. Finally, comments were compiled and reviewed by the GDG members. The final modifiedversion of the clinical practice guideline was distributed and approved by the board of directors of the KORL-HNS. A total of11 guideline recommendations regarding nasal irrigation are included, along with corresponding action statements and profiles,which are reproduced in the results section.Literature searchAfter establishing the key questions, the GDG reached a consensus about the keywords to use in the literature search. Thisliterature search was performed using a validated filter strategyto identify clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, case series, or expert opinions. English-language searches were performed in multiple databases, including the Cochrane Library,Embase, and PubMed. Additionally, targeted searches for lowerlevel evidence were performed by GDG members to addressany gaps identified. During the literature search, we applied thefollowing limits: search fields (title, abstract, keywords), species(adult humans), and target disease (CRS, with or without polyps). Specifically, we excluded studies in which the majority ofpatients had cystic fibrosis, allergic fungal sinusitis/eosinophilicfungal/mucinous rhinosinusitis, aspirin-exacerbated respiratorydisease, or a history of surgery for nasal polyps within 6 weeksof entry into the study. However, to obtain sufficient literature,the search was not limited by publication year. At least two review members of GDG independently screened all titles andabstracts of the studies obtained from the database searches toidentify potentially relevant studies and exclude those deemedto be irrelevant. After removing duplicates and irrelevant references, the GDG members performed a full-text review to determine the papers for final inclusion.Classification of evidence-based statementsClinical practice guidelines are intended to reduce inappropriatevariations in clinical care, minimize harm, promote cost-effectivepractice, and produce optimal health outcomes for patients. Thus,an evidence-based approach to guideline development requiresTable 1. Level of evidenceTermDefinitionHigh-quality evidence RCTs without important limitations or overwhelmingevidence from observational studiesMedium-qualityRCTs with important limitations or strong evidenceevidencefrom observational studiesLow-quality evidence Observational studies/case studies/expert opinionRCT, randomized controlled trial.that the evidence supporting a policy be identified, appraised,and summarized and that an explicit link between the evidenceand statements be defined. The recommended actions are statedalong with the specific circumstances under which to performthem, linked to the supporting evidence. The potential benefitsand risks associated with the recommendations are also described.Therefore, evidence-based statements should reflect both thequality of evidence and the expected balance between the benefits and harm for patients. Similar to previous guidelines, theGDG evaluated the evidence levels of the literature as highquality, medium-quality, or low-quality evidence (Table 1). Inthis framework, RCTs are designated as high-quality evidenceand case series or expert opinions as low-quality evidence basedon the probability of bias. The GDG developed evidence-basedstatements that reflected both the quality of evidence and thebalance between potential harm and benefits. The definitions ofevidence-based statements are listed in Tables 2 and 3 [44]. Table2 was adapted to include only treatment recommendations fromthe Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. This clinicalpractice guideline is based on the best available scientific evidencefor the key questions as determined by the GDG. This meansthat our clinical practice guideline is not intended to replace theprofessional judgment of clinicians, but should help to informclinical decision-making in particular clinical circumstances. TheGDG proposed that action statements would be strongly recommended when less frequent variation in clinical practice may beexpected (Table 3). By contrast, those deemed to be an “option”could be selected depending on the clinical situation. Therefore,clinicians should always act and decide in a way that they believewill best serve their patients’ interests and needs, regardless ofour recommendations in this guideline. The primary goal of theGDG was to establish a clinical practice guideline through atransparent process and to document this process.Description of action statementsHere, we will clearly describe the processes that led to the profile of each consensus-based action statement. Each consensusbased action statement is expressed as follows: an action statement in bold, followed by the strength of the recommendationin italics. Each action statement is also followed by the “actionstatement profile” with quality improvement opportunities, level of confidence in the evidence, aggregate evidence quality,benefits, risk/harm/cost, benefit-harm assessment, value judg-

Park DY et al. The Way to Correctly Perform Nasal Irrigation9Table 2. Aggregate grades of evidence by question typeGradeOCEBM LevelA1B2C3–4DX5NATreatmentHarmSystematic review of randomized trialsSystematic review of randomized trials, nested case-control studies, orobservational studies with dramatic effectRandomized trials or observational studies withRandomized trials or observational studies with dramatic effects or highlydramatic effects or highly consistent evidenceconsistent evidenceNonrandomized or historically controlled studies,Nonrandomized controlled cohort or follow-up study (post-marketingincluding case-control and observational studiessurveillance) with sufficient numbers to rule out a common harm,case-series, case-control, or historically controlled studiesCase reports, mechanism-based reasoning, or reasoning from first principlesExceptional situations where validating studies cannot be performed and there is a clear preponderance of benefit over harmOCEBM, Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine; NA, not applicable.Table 3. Guideline definitions for evidence-based statementsStatementDefinitionStrong recommendationRecommendationOptionImplied obligationA strong recommendation means that the benefits of the recommendedClinicians should follow a strong recommendationapproach clearly exceed the harms (or that the harms clearly exceed theunless a clear and compelling rationale for anbenefits in the case of a strong negative recommendation) and that thealternative approach is present.quality of the supporting evidence is excellent (grade A or B). In someclearly identified circumstances, strong recommendations may be madeon the basis of lesser evidence when high-quality evidence is impossibleto obtain and the anticipated benefits strongly outweigh the harms.A recommendation means that the benefits exceed the harms (or that theClinicians should also generally follow aharms exceed the benefits in the case of a negative recommendation),recommendation but should remain alert tobut the quality of evidence is not as strong (grade B or C). In some clearlynew information and sensitive to patientidentified circumstances, recommendations may be made on the basis ofpreferences.lesser evidence when high-quality evidence is impossible to obtain andthe anticipated benefits outweigh the harms.An option means that either the quality of evidence that exists is suspectClinicians should be flexible in their decision(grade D) or those well-done studies (grade A, B, or C) show little clearmaking regarding appropriate practice,advantage to one approach versus another.although they may set bounds on alternatives.Patient preference should have a substantialinfluencing role.ments, intentional vagueness, the role of patient preferences, exclusion, policy level, and differences of opinion. Several paragraphs subsequently discuss the evidence supporting this statement. In the action statement descriptions, we have shared ourdecision-making by referring to the risks and benefits of treatment and providing information on patient preferences thatcould enhance the doctor-patient relationship. An overview ofeach consensus-based statement covered in this guideline is presented in Table 4.KEY ACTION STATEMENTSStatement 1. Nasal saline irrigation: clinicians should recommend nasal saline irrigation to patients with CRS or thosewho have undergone ESS. Strong recommendation based onmultiple systematic reviews and RCTs, as well as a preponderance of benefits over harm.Action statement profile: 1 Quality improvement opportunity: To improve the utilizationof nasal irrigation for the treatment of patients with CRS. Nasal irrigation improves the patient’s symptoms safely and is associated with a low financial burden. It also provides a routethrough which various drugs can be effectively delivered tothe nasal cavity and sinuses. Level of confidence in evidence: High. Aggregate evidence quality: Grade A, based on systematic reviews and multiple RCTs. Benefits: Nasal irrigation washes away inflammatory mediators, crust, and dirty mucus; disrupts biofilms; improves mucociliary transport; decreases mucosal edema; and hydrates themucus sol layer. Risk, harm, and cost: There is a low probability of local irritation, a nasal burning sensation, nausea, itching, pain, otalgia,and epistaxis. It is very inexpensive to perform a nose washtwice a day; thus, the financial burden is limited. Benefit-harm assessment: Preponderance of benefits overharm.

10Clinical and Experimental OtorhinolaryngologyVol. 15, No. 1: 5-23, February 2022Table 4. Summary of evidence-based statementsStatement1. N asal saline irrigation2. Saline tonicity3. Saline temperature4. Steroid solution5. Antibiotic solution6. Antifungal solution7a. Miscellaneoussolution–hyaluronate7b. Miscellaneoussolution–xylitol7c. Miscellaneoussolution–honey8. I rrigation solutionpreparation9. Equipment10. Disinfection11. PostureActionStrengthClinicians should recommend nasal saline irrigation to patients with chronic sinusitis or those who haveundergone endoscopic sinus surgery.Clinicians may recommend using isotonic saline as a nasal irrigation solution for patients considering cost,convenience, and safety. However, it is unclear whether there is a clear difference in the therapeuticeffect of hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions.Clinicians may recommend using room-temperature saline (around 20 C) as a nasal irrigation solution forpatients considering effectiveness and convenience. If the patient prefers, then it is also completelyacceptable to use a saline solution heated to 40 C. However, it is not recommended to immediately usea solution that has been refrigerated or to use a hot solution that exceeds 40 C for safety reasons.Clinicians may recommend nasal irrigation with solutions containing steroids to patients with chronicrhinosinusitis who have undergone endoscopic sinus surgery.Clinicians should not routinely recommend nasal irrigation with solutions containing antibiotics for themanagement of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis or those who have undergone endoscopic sinussurgery.Clinicians should not routinely recommend nasal irrigation with solutions containing antifungal agents forthe management of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis or those who have undergone endoscopic sinussurgery.Clinicians may recommend nasal irrigation with solutions containing sodium hyaluronate to patients withchronic rhinosinusitis.Clinicians may recommend nasal irrigation with solutions containing xylitol to patients post-endoscopicsinus surgery.Clinicians should not routinely recommend nasal irrigation with solutions containing honey for themanagement of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis or those who have undergone endoscopic sinussurgery.Clinicians should recommend an appropriate irrigation fluid preparation method for patients with chronicrhinosinusitis or those who have undergone endoscopic sinus surgery. For irrigation fluid, bottled ordistilled water should preferably be used. If tap water is used, boil it for at least 5 minutes and coolbefore use or expose it to ultraviolet light for at least 45 seconds.Clinicians should recommend nasal irrigation performed by high-volume with low- or high-pressuredelivery rather than low-volume with low- or high-pressure delivery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.Clinicians should recommend the following techniques for appropriate irrigation equipment care topatients with chronic rhinosinusitis or those who have undergone endoscopic sinus surgery. Irrigationequipment (according to the equipment material and manufacturer’s recommendations, if possible)should be boiled (for more than 2 minutes) or microwaved for 1 minute and 30 seconds regularly beforeand after use.Clinicians may recommend the head down-and-forward position as being better for high-volume nasalirrigation, whereas the nose-to-ceiling position is more effective at delivering low-volume nasal irrigation.StrongrecommendationOption Value judgment: None. Intentional vagueness: There is still a lack of clear high-levelevidence on how to irrigate the sinuses, the type of equipmentto use, the tonicity of the solution, the temperature andamount of the solution, the frequency and duration of irrigation, as well as the best position to perform the irrigation.These are described in the following statements. Role of patient preferences: Low. Exclusions: Cases of active nose bleeding or high risk of aspiration. Policy level: Strong recommendation. Differences of opinion: None.Supporting textNasal saline irrigation plays a crucial role in the treatment ofCRS. Nasal saline irrigation for patients with chronic sinusitis ionRecommendationRecommendationOptionafter ESS was recommended in the Cochrane Review publishedin 2016 [45], the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis andNasal Polyps (EPOS) guideline published in 2020 [7], and theInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology Consensus Statement in 2021 [46]. Nasal irrigation can be actively recommended for patients with CRS because it does not pose a medical riskor financial burden to patients. Nasal irrigation is known to improve CRS by thinning any mucus that is present, mechanicallyremoving the mucus and crust, improving mucociliary transport,decreasing mucosal edema, reducing the surface antigen load,disrupting biofilms, washing out inflammatory mediators, andhydrating the sol layer [46-48]. The side effects of nasal irrigation are generally mild or uncommon, and nasal pain and bleeding may occur. In particular, symptoms such as nasal pain or irritation are related to the us

This clinical practice guideline is based on the best available scientific evidence for the key questions as determined by the GDG. This means that our clinical practice guideline is not intended to replace the professional judgment of clinicians, but should help to inform clinical decision-making in particular clinical circumstances.

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