Final Pest Risk Analysis For Cut Flower And Foliage .

1y ago
3.11 MB
244 Pages
Last View : 4m ago
Last Download : 6m ago
Upload by : Mollie Blount

Final Pest Risk Analysis forCut Flower and FoliageImports—Part 1June 2019

Commonwealth of Australia 2019Ownership of intellectual property rightsUnless otherwise noted, copyright (and any other intellectual property rights, if any) in this publication is owned bythe Commonwealth of Australia (referred to as the Commonwealth).Creative Commons licenceAll material in this publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence, save forcontent supplied by third parties, photographic images, logos and the Commonwealth Coat of Arms.Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence is a standard form licence agreement that allows you to copy,distribute, transmit and adapt this publication provided you attribute the work. A summary of the licence terms isavailable from The full licence terms are availablefrom nquiries about the licence and any use of this document should be sent to publication (and any material sourced from it) should be attributed as: Department of Agriculture 2019, FinalPest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1. CC BY 3.0.Cataloguing dataDepartment of Agriculture 2019, Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1, Department ofAgriculture, Canberra.This publication is available at of AgricultureGPO Box 858 Canberra ACT 2601Switchboard: 61 2 6272 3933 or 1800 900 Australian Government acting through the Department of Agriculture has exercised due care and skill inpreparing and compiling the information in this publication. Notwithstanding, the Department of Agriculture, itsemployees and advisers disclaim all liability, including liability for negligence and for any loss, damage, injury,expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information or data inthis publication to the maximum extent permitted by law.Department of Agricultureii

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1ContentsContentsAcronyms and abbreviations . viiSummary . 1123Introduction . 41.1Australia’s biosecurity policy framework . 41.2This Pest Risk Analysis . 4Commercial trade and production . 92.1Australian cut flower and foliage industry . 92.2Global production practices . 102.3On arrival in Australia . 142.4Production and export statistics. 14Cut flower and foliage pathway .173.145678Cut flowers and foliage as a pathway for exotic pests . 17Previous import policies and principles .214.1Chronology of events . 214.2Summary of recent import conditions . 244.3Stakeholder consultation . 254.4Conclusion . 26Changing patterns of activity and risk .275.1Importations by consignment, country and flower type . 275.2Arthropod interceptions by commodity, country and flower type. 305.3Types of arthropods historically intercepted . 345.4Non-compliance with revised import conditions, post 1 March 2018. 355.5Conclusion . 37Pest risk assessment.386.1Biology of mites, aphids and thrips . 386.2Risk ratings assigned in previous pest risk assessments . 456.3Pest risk assessment . 476.4Conclusion . 54Pest risk management .557.1Pest risk management measures and phytosanitary procedures . 557.2Operational system for the maintenance and verification of phytosanitary status . 617.3Consideration of alternative options. 667.4Review of processes . 67Conclusion .68Department of Agricultureiii

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1ContentsAppendix APermitted flowers and foliage.69Appendix BContaminating pests.70Appendix CConsultation by the department .71Appendix DArthropod interception analysis .76Appendix EGroup pest risk analysis method .94Appendix FMites, aphids and thrips associated with cut flowers and foliage . 103Appendix GList of quarantine and regulated mites, aphids and thrips. 195Appendix HIssues raised in stakeholder comments . 202Glossary . 210References . 216FiguresFigure 1 Number of consignments arriving in Australia per year: 2007 to 2018 . 28Figure 2 Countries exporting to Australia by total number of consignments: 2007 to 2018 . 29Figure 3 Trend in import quantities for the eight largest exporters to Australia: 2007 to 2018 . 29Figure 4 Number of consignments recorded against cut flower tariff codes: 2007 to 2018 . 30Figure 5 Heatmap of arthropod interceptions recorded against cut flower/foliage type and arthropodgroup . 33Figure 6 Consignment non-compliance by import measure: March 2018 to April 2019. 36Figure 7 Consignment non-compliance by month: January 2017 to May 2019 . 37TablesTable 2.1 Cut flower production in Australia: 2017–2018 . 9Table 2.2 Principal cut flower production areas of Australia. . 9Table 5.1 Top ten exporting countries and number of live arthropod interceptions: 2007 to 2017. 31Table 5.2 Proportion of different flower types with interceptions: 2007 to 2017 . 32Table 5.3 Arthropod interceptions (identified to Class, Order and Subclass) . 34Table 5.4 Taxonomic breakdown of the intercepted mites, thrips and true bugs. 34Table 6.1 Summary of risk ratings assigned in previous pest risk assessments . 46Table 6.2 Summary of unrestricted risk estimates for mites, aphids and thrips on the fresh cut flowerand foliage pathway . 53Table 7.1 Pest risk management measures for quarantine and regulated mites, aphids and thrips ofcut flowers and foliage from all countries. 55Table 7.2 Pre-export methyl bromide fumigation rates for cut flowers and foliage . 60Table I Arachnid interceptions (higher classifications) . 76Table II Mite interceptions (identified to family) . 77Table III Mite interceptions (identified to genus) . 78Table IV Mite interceptions (identified to genus and species) . 81Department of Agricultureiv

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1ContentsTable V Insect interceptions (identified to Order) . 83Table VI Hemiptera interceptions (identified to family) . 84Table VII Aphid interceptions (identified to genus) . 85Table VIII Aphid interceptions (identified to genus and species). 86Table IX Thrips interceptions (identified to family) . 88Table X Thrips interceptions (identified to genus) . 88Table XI Thrips interceptions (identified to genus and species) . 90Table XII Nomenclature for likelihoods . 97Table XIII Matrix of rules for combining likelihoods. 98Table XIV Decision rules for determining consequences impact score . 100Table XV Decision rules for determining the overall consequences rating for each pest . 100Table XVI Risk estimation matrix . 101Table XVII Mites, aphids and thrips pest categorisation . 103Table XVIII Criteria for inclusion of pest species in Table XVII . 194Table XIX Mites, aphids and thrips of biosecurity concern to Australia on imported cut flowers andfoliage (as at June 2019). 195MapsMap 1 Map of Australia . viDepartment of Agriculturev

Final Pest Risk Analysis Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1Map of AustraliaMap 1 Map of AustraliaDepartment of Agriculturevi

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1Acronyms and abbreviationsAcronyms and abbreviationsTerm or abbreviationDefinitionACTAustralian Capital TerritoryBCABiological control CNSWNPPONTPRAQldSASPS AgreementTas.The departmentUREVic.WAWTODepartment of AgricultureAppropriate level of protectionAustralia’s Biosecurity Import Conditions SystemThe former Department of Agriculture and Water ResourcesFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsFloriculture Sustainability InitiativeInstituto Colombiano AgropecuarioIntegrated Cargo SystemInspector-General of BiosecurityInterim Inspector-General of BiosecurityInternational Plant Protection ConventionInternational Organisation for StandardisationInternational Standard for Phytosanitary MeasuresKenya Flower CouncilNew South WalesNational Plant Protection OrganisationNorthern TerritoryPest risk analysisQueenslandSouth AustraliaWTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary MeasuresTasmaniaThe Australian Government Department of AgricultureUnrestricted risk estimateVictoriaWestern AustraliaWorld Trade Organizationvii

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1SummarySummaryFresh cut flowers and foliage have been imported into Australia on a commercial basis for about45 years. The global cut flower trade has changed, specifically in relation to increased volumes oftrade, different flower and foliage species being traded, and the countries from which theflowers and foliage originate. These factors increase the risk of arthropod pests of biosecurityconcern, associated with the fresh cut flower and foliage pathway, arriving in Australia.In 2017, the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources (now known as the Departmentof Agriculture) conducted an Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper-funded review of theimport conditions for fresh cut flowers and foliage. This identified a high number of arthropodpests being found on consignments of imported cut flowers and foliage. Based on thesefindings, the department revised the import conditions for fresh cut flowers and foliage toreduce the risk of quarantine pests arriving in Australia, as well as initiated this Pest RiskAnalysis (PRA). The revised conditions were introduced on 1 March 2018.The department initiated this PRA to assess the pests of biosecurity concern to Australiaassociated with fresh cut flower and foliage imports; and to determine whether the introductionof revised import conditions manages the biosecurity risks to achieve the appropriate level ofprotection (ALOP) for Australia. The PRA is being conducted in two parts, (i) an assessment ofthe three major arthropod pest groups—mites, aphids and thrips, and (ii) an assessment ofother arthropod pests associated with fresh cut flowers and foliage. This report presents theassessment of Part 1 of the PRA for cut flower and foliage imports.The department has taken a group approach in conducting this PRA, grouping all flower andfoliage commodity types and major pests. With numerous species of flowers imported from atleast 19 countries, a group pest risk analysis is an efficient, consistent and practical approach.The group approach is consistent with relevant international standards and requirementsincluding, ISPM No.2 Framework for pest risk analysis (FAO 2016a), ISPM 11: Pest risk analysisfor quarantine pests (FAO 2016d), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on theApplication of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) (WTO 1995).This PRA found that of all commodity types arriving in Australia between the years 2000 and2017, a high proportion of interceptions of arthropod pests (23 per cent) occurred on importedcut flowers and foliage. Imports of consignments of cut flowers and foliage arriving in Australiahave tripled in the past decade, from 2,271 consignments in 2007 to 8,097 consignments in2018. Detections of live arthropod pests at the Australian border have also been of concern, with58 per cent of total consignments having live arthropods detected in 2017, and 50 per cent oftotal consignments having live pests of biosecurity concern detected from 1 March 2018 to28 February 2019. In addition, the three major pest groups assessed in this PRA have beendetected on the majority of cut flower and foliage types exported to Australia.The department assessed all 259 species of mites, aphids and thrips known to be associated withthe imported commercial cut flower and foliage pathway. Of the 259 species, a total of 47 mites,21 aphids and 84 thrips are identified as quarantine pests and/or regulated articles forAustralia. A further 32 aphids are identified as potential regulated articles because they cantransmit viruses that are quarantine pests for Australia (the definition of ‘regulated articles’ isgiven in the Glossary). These pests did not achieve Australia’s ALOP and therefore, requirespecific risk management measures to manage the biosecurity risks.Department of Agriculture1

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1SummaryThe department recommends phytosanitary measures to manage the biosecurity risks posed bythrips, mites and aphids, to achieve Australia’s ALOP: before cut flowers and foliage are exported to Australia, the exporting country must useone of three arthropod pest management options:ooo NPPO-approved systems approach, orpre-export methyl bromide fumigation, orNPPO-approved alternative pre-export disinfestation treatmentin addition, the exporting country must ensure consignment freedom from livequarantine arthropod pests verified by NPPO pre-export visual inspection and remedialaction if live pests are found, prior to export.import permits may be required in certain circumstances, for example, when a countrycontinues to export consignments with high levels of live pests, import permits will berequired to allow the department to have greater oversight and assurance that theproduct arriving in Australia is compliant.when consignments arrive in Australia, they will be:ooovisually inspected to verify that the biosecurity status of consignments of cutflowers and foliage meet Australia’s import conditions.released if arthropod pests are non-quarantine or unregulated, subject tofreedom from other contaminants and pathogens.treated if arthropods are identified as quarantine or regulated, or if theconsignment does not meet Australia’s import conditions.Written submissions on the draft report were received from 24 stakeholders. The departmenthas made a number of changes to the report following consideration of technical comments fromstakeholders and subsequent review of literature. These changes include: addition of Appendix A, listing the taxa of cut flowers and foliage that were permitted entryinto Australia at the time of publication of this Final PRA.incorporation of departmental interception data from March 2018 to May 2019 into theanalysis of compliance with import conditions.addition of import permits as a phytosanitary measure for highly non-compliant pathways.reassessment of the distribution likelihood for mites and aphids from ‘High’ to ‘Moderate’,and reassessment of the spread likelihood for mites from ‘Moderate’ to ‘High’. The change inlikeihood ratings does not alter the unrestricted risk estimate for mites and aphids on thispathway, which remain at ‘Low’ to ‘Moderate’ for both groups.amendment of text in the pest categorisation table (Appendix F) to include additionalspecies that were intercepted between 1 March 2018 and 28 February 2019, to recogniseDepartment of Agriculture2

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1 Summarypests of regional significance to Western Australia, and to update the distribution of certainspecies on the advice of NPPOs.addition of Appendix H ‘Issues raised in stakeholder comments’, which summarises keystakeholder comments, and how they have been considered in this final report.updated Australian production statistics and import volumes and amended the value ofimported cut flowers and foliage in Australia.minor corrections, rewording and editorial changes for consistency, clarity andweb-accessibility.Department of Agriculture3

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 11Introduction1.1Australia’s biosecurity policy frameworkIntroductionAustralia’s biosecurity policies aim to protect Australia against the risks that may arise fromexotic pests entering, establishing and spreading in Australia, thereby threatening Australia'sunique flora and fauna, as well as those agricultural industries that are relatively free fromserious pests.The risk analysis process is an important part of Australia’s biosecurity policies. It enables theAustralian Government to formally consider the level of biosecurity risk that may be associatedwith importing goods into Australia. If the biosecurity risks do not achieve the appropriate levelof protection (ALOP) for Australia, risk management measures are proposed to reduce the risksto an acceptable level. If the risks cannot be reduced to an acceptable level, the goods will not beimported into Australia until suitable measures are identified.Successive Australian Governments have maintained a stringent, but not a zero risk, approach tothe management of biosecurity risks. This approach is expressed in terms of the ALOP forAustralia, which is defined in the Biosecurity Act 2015 as providing a high level of protectionaimed at reducing risk to a very low level, but not to zero.Australia’s risk analyses are undertaken by the Department of Agriculture (the department)using technical and scientific experts in relevant fields, and involve consultation withstakeholders at various stages during the process.Risk analyses may take the form of a biosecurity import risk analysis or a review of biosecurityimport requirements (such as scientific review of existing policy and import conditions,pest-specific assessments, weed risk assessments, biological control agent (BCA) assessments orscientific advice).Further information about Australia’s biosecurity framework is provided in the BiosecurityImport Risk Analysis Guidelines 2016 located on the department’s alysis/conducting).1.2This Pest Risk AnalysisThis Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) is being conducted for commercial fresh cut flower and foliageimports into Australia. The import pathway for cut flowers and foliage into Australia has notpreviously been subject to a full risk analysis. This PRA focuses on key arthropod pest groupsassociated with cut flowers and foliage and determines the pests that are of biosecurity concernto Australia. The PRA draws upon relevant risk analyses conducted by the department and otherNational Plant Protection Organisations (NPPOs), 18 years of interception data collected atAustralia’s borders, information provided by NPPOs of countries that export cut flowers andfoliage to Australia, and an extensive literature review.The ISPM No.2 Framework for pest risk analysis (FAO 2016a) states that ‘Specific organismsmay be analysed individually, or in groups where individual species share common biologicalcharacteristics.’ The department is undertaking a group approach to this PRA which is consistentwith relevant international standards and requirements—including ISPM 2, ISPM 11: Pest riskDepartment of Agriculture4

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1Introductionanalysis for quarantine pests (FAO 2016d) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreementon the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) (WTO 1995).This PRA is being conducted in two parts. This has allowed for earlier consultation on the importconditions, which have been put in place to manage the biosecurity risks to achieve Australia’sALOP.1.2.1BackgroundFor around 45 years Australia has permitted the importation of fresh cut flowers andnon-woody foliage from many countries, provided Australian biosecurity requirements are met.With this trade comes the potential to introduce quarantine pests into Australia. Imports ofvarious species of cut flowers have increased and are likely to continue to increase, due tosignificantly lower production costs in overseas countries, and continuing consumer demand forvaried and new varieties throughout the year (Interim Inspector-General of Biosecurity 2015).In 2017, the department conducted an internal review of Australia’s import conditions for freshcut flowers and foliage. This was part of a program of import condition reviews funded by theAgricultural Competitiveness White Paper, under the biosecurity surveillance and analysisinitiative (more information is availablefrom o-surveillance-analysis). The importconditions review considered whether the import conditions in place at that time: were easy to understand and find in the department’s Biosecurity Import Conditionssystem (BICON).were based on current information and risk management approaches.provided the department the ability to identify treatments available to managebiosecurity risks such as pests, diseases and contaminants.The import conditions review found, at that time, that cut flower and foliage imports intoAustralia had increased considerably, citing Australian Bureau of Statistics data that showedgrowth in imports from around 14.8 million in value in 2000–01 to 64.1 million in value in2015–16 (in 2015–16 dollar rate) (ABS 2017). An analysis of interception records showed that ahigh proportion of consignments of cut flowers and foliage had been infested with arthropodpests (primarily thrips, aphids and mites), with some countries having in excess of 50 per cent ofconsignments infested with live arthropods. This high approach rate of arthropod pests waspreviously addressed through the use of onshore methyl bromide fumigation, however thisplaced significant reliance on one pest control measure at the border.In November 2017, the department finalised the Group pest risk analysis for thrips andorthotospoviruses on fresh fruit, vegetable, cut-flower and foliage imports (Group Thrips PRA)(Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources 2017). The GroupThrips PRA considered the biosecurity risk posed by all thrips across numerous importpathways, including cut flowers and foliage, and the biosecurity risk posed by the virus genusOrthotospovirus, which is transmitted by certain thrips species. The Group Thrips PRAidentified phytosanitary measures for quarantine and regulated thrips (the definition of‘regulated articles’ is given in the Glossary and more detail is provided in Section 6.1.3) toreduce the risk of entry, establishment and spread of these organisms to Australia.Department of Agriculture5

Final Pest Risk Analysis for Cut Flower and Foliage Imports—Part 1IntroductionAs a consequence, import conditions were revised and implemented on 1 March 2018. Theseconditions require exporting countries to manage biosecurity risks before they send cut flowersand foliage to Australia, so as to reduce the number of pests that arrive at Australia’s borders.Australia now also recognises multiple pest control options (relating to production, packagingand the export system) and pre-export treatments which give greater confidence that any pestson these items are dealt with appropriately before they reach Australia.As required under the SPS Agreement, this PRA was initiated to assess the pests of biosecurityconcern to Australia that are associated with global imports of fresh cut flowers and foliage, andwhether the introduction of revised import conditions will manage the biosecurity risks toachieve the ALOP for Australia.1.2.2ScopeThe scope of the PRA is restricted to arthropod taxa associated with the pathway forcommercially produced fresh cut flower and foliage imports for decorative purposes from allsources to Australia. In this PRA fresh cut flowers and foliage are defined as stems with flowersand foliage, without propagules (for example, bulbils, fruit and seeds).The PRA does not examine the risks posed by pathogens, weeds or non-arthropod pests on thecut flower and foliage pathway, except for the orthotospoviruses transmitted by thrips. It alsodoes not examine Australia’s current requirements for herbicide devitalisation for propagatablespecies.The PRA incorporates: findings from previous internal and publicly-available risk analyses and policy reviewsof the cut flower pathway, including the department’s policy reviews on the importationof Lilium species cut flowers and Phalaenopsis nursery stock from Taiwan, and the Finalgroup pest risk analysis for thrips and orthotospoviruses on fresh fruit, vegetable, cutflower and folia

This PRA found that of all commodity types arriving in Australia between the years 2000 and 2017, a high proportion of interceptions of arthropod pests (23 per cent) occurred on imported cut flowers and foliage. Imports of consignments of cut flowers and foliage arriving in A ustralia

Related Documents:

Bruksanvisning för bilstereo . Bruksanvisning for bilstereo . Instrukcja obsługi samochodowego odtwarzacza stereo . Operating Instructions for Car Stereo . 610-104 . SV . Bruksanvisning i original

pest from causing more damage than is reasonable to accept. Even though a pest is present, it may not do very much harm. It could cost more to control the pest than would be lost because of the pest's damage. The three main objectives of pest control are: prevention—keeping a pest from becoming a problem, suppression—reducing pest

application of control measures. PEST INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD An organism that is not a serious pest in its native environment can become a devastating pest when introduced into a new environment. Often the natural controls that are present in the pest's native environment are not present in the new area, allowing the pest to flourish.

method of approach to pest control is not feasible. Hence, we have to form an integrated approach in pest management. IPM. Integrated Pest Management is an ecological approach in which utilization of all available techniques of pest control to reduce and maintain the pest population at levels below economic injury level _.

identifying the proper pest, finding out where and how the pest is getting in, and starting pest management. Following are brief descriptions of common urban pests. For each pest listed there is a picture, a guide to its actual size, a general description of the pest, whether it's a nuisance pest or a health concern, and some basic control

10 tips och tricks för att lyckas med ert sap-projekt 20 SAPSANYTT 2/2015 De flesta projektledare känner säkert till Cobb’s paradox. Martin Cobb verkade som CIO för sekretariatet för Treasury Board of Canada 1995 då han ställde frågan

service i Norge och Finland drivs inom ramen för ett enskilt företag (NRK. 1 och Yleisradio), fin ns det i Sverige tre: Ett för tv (Sveriges Television , SVT ), ett för radio (Sveriges Radio , SR ) och ett för utbildnings program (Sveriges Utbildningsradio, UR, vilket till följd av sin begränsade storlek inte återfinns bland de 25 största

Hotell För hotell anges de tre klasserna A/B, C och D. Det betyder att den "normala" standarden C är acceptabel men att motiven för en högre standard är starka. Ljudklass C motsvarar de tidigare normkraven för hotell, ljudklass A/B motsvarar kraven för moderna hotell med hög standard och ljudklass D kan användas vid