10/5/2012Using CFD to Predict thePerformance of InnovativeWind Power GeneratorsCOMSOL Conference Boston 2012Boston Marriott NewtonNewton, MA 02466 USAOctober 3-4, 2012Dr. Daryoush Allaei, PEChief Technical OfficerSheer Wind, Inc.1Excerpt from the Proceedings of the 2012 COMSOL Conference in BostonUsing CFD to Predict the Performance ofInnovative Wind Power GeneratorsTopics1. Motivation2. Possible Solutions3. Model4. Results5. Conclusions1
10/5/2012Using CFD to Predict the Performance ofInnovative Wind Power GeneratorsTopics1. Motivation2. Possible Solutions3. Model4. Results5. ConclusionsMotivationIs it possible to ingsRetail StoresCruiseShipsConsumerProductsRapid DeployablePower for SoldiersNaval ShipsSchoolsFEMAHomeland SecurityRuralCommunitiesEmergency PowerGenerationAffordable, Clean, SafeEnergy forEveryone, EverywhereUnderdeveloped CountriesEconomic DevelopmentEmergencyMedicalDisaster PowerGenerationWaterTreatmentPoweringHospitals2
10/5/2012Wind Power Generation MarketPrimary MarketOnshoreUtility aryMarket FocusUSAMarketSheerWindUnitsMarket Growth on] by 2030MarketsTurbines(2010 GWEC Report)BuildingsMilitaryApplicationsMicroPower 10USA - 2010ConsumerProducts 50MicroElectronicsUSA - 2030 w MarketsBy INVELOXGlobal (2030)Energy ConsumptionEnergy Consumption (Source: 2011 DOE-NREL Report)U.S. vs World & U.S. Consumption Breakdown3
10/5/2012Energy Consumption by BuildingsEnergy Consumption (Source: 2011 US Energy Information Administration Report)Building Sector vs Industry & Transportation2010 Building Energy Consumption in USA [TWh]& Market Value [ B], Energy Price: 0.1/KWhBuildingSectorTotal20%RenewableMarket Value [ B]8,792 8791,758 176Electrical power consumptionby market sector (2011)Using CFD to Predict the Performance ofInnovative Wind Power GeneratorsTopics1. Motivation2. Possible Solutions3. Model4. Results5. Conclusions4
10/5/2012Possible Energy SolutionsSources of Energy: Cost, Public Safety/Health, EnvironmentLine No.012345678910Type of PowerAverage Price perPublicGeneration Plant MWh (1000 KWh), SafetyWind ‐ INVELOX 69.00Hydro 89.90Natural Gas Fired 92.84Wind 96.80Geothermal 99.60Advanced Nuclear 112.70Coal 117.50Biomass 120.20Solar PV 156.90Solar Thermal 251.00Wind — Offshore 330.60PublicHealthEnvironmentPossible Solutions: Wind TechnologiesZeroBladeJoby EnergyTraditional Wind TowersWind Lens(Ducted Turbines)Megenn PowerAltaeros EnergiesMakani PowerOptiWind5
10/5/2012INVELOX Solves Traditional Wind Power IssuesRadarInterferenceLow FrequencyNoise & OpticalFlickeringHigh Cut-inWind SpeedTurbine ReliabilityDistance from GridTMLarge Land UseIcingTraditional Wind TowersVisual ImpactHigh CostBird Strikes&WildlifeINVELOX Solves Traditional Wind Power IssuesMinimizesRadarInterferenceNo Low FreqNoise &FlickeringLow Cut-inWind SpeedImproved TurbineReliabilityTMReduced Landby 90%No Icing(turbine blades notexposed)(turbine & generator notexposed)38% LessCostReduced Distancefrom GridImprovedVisual ImpactNo Bird StrikeOr Wildlifeissues6
10/5/2012How it WorksINVELOX Operates Similar to Hydropower1. Water intake12. Water is channeled3. Water accelerates4. Hydro power conversion system25. Excess water discharged345How it WorksINVELOX Operates Similar to Hydropower1.1. 2. Wind1Wateracceleratesaccelerates3.3. WindHydropowerpowerconversionconversion systemsystem4.4. WindExcess windwaterdischargeddischarged5.5. Excess12Omnidirectional INVELOX2334 4 557
10/5/2012Design Parameters for Wind Power GenerationHigher Towers & Longer Turbine BladesHigher TowerHigher Wind SpeedLonger BladesMore PowerMore PowerPower proportional to (Wind Speed)3Power proportional to (Turbine Radius)2Power versus Wind Speed and Blade Diameter1000007 m/s19 m/s9 m/s21 m/s11 m/s25 m/s13 m/s27 m/s15 m/s30 m/s17 m/sPower [KW], Log Scale100001000Increasing Speed100101612182430374349556167Blade Diameter [m]73798591981041108
10/5/2012Example: Increased in VelocityAssume Speed Ratio of 4 Venturi Speed/ Free Stream WindFreeTMStream Wind Speed:7 m/s [15 mph]OmnidirectionalINVELOXVenturi Wind Speed:28 m/s [60 mph]Power Density versus Wind Speed45,000Wind Power Density [W/m2]Available Power in Sweep Area of a BladeWind Power Density [W/m2]40,00038,91735,000AvailablePower Ratio:1 to 6430,00025,00022,521Traditional 41153000071345Wind Speed [mph, m/s]206027753490409
10/5/2012Using CFD to Predict the Performance ofInnovative Wind Power GeneratorsTopics1. Motivation2. Possible Solutions3. Model4. Results5. ConclusionsComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)1)2)3)4)Solid Model of INVELOXVirtual Wind TunnelBoundary ConditionsInput & Output10
10/5/2012Using CFD to Predict the Performance ofInnovative Wind Power GeneratorsTopics1. Motivation2. Possible Solutions3. Model4. Results5. ConclusionsComputer Models & SimulationsPressure Field inand around theINVELOX TowerAtmosphericPressureFunnel InletPressure is highTower OutletPressure is Low12
10/5/2012Computer Models & SimulationsVelocity Field inand around theINVELOX TowerWind Speed15 mphat 2nd Bend –Min:9 mphMax:33 mphFunnel Inlet SpeedMin:4, Max:10 mphTower Outlet SpeedMin:15, Max:24 mph52% increaseComputer Models & SimulationsEnergy Balance at 6.7 m/s (or 15 mph) Free Stream WindEnergy Density : J/m3Static PressureEnergy (PE)Dynamic PressureEnergy (KE)Total Energy(PE KE)Free Stream100,00027100,027At the 7StageAt the End of Intake Funnel (1st Bend)At the End of2ndBendRight Before Exit (Turbine Location)Far from Exit99,96760100,027100,00027100,027Ratio of Dynamic Energies:Turbine Location / Free Stream 2.23 (or 123%)13
10/5/2012Computer Models & SimulationsEnergy Balance at 15 m/s (or 34 mph) Free Stream WindEnergy Density : J/m3Static PressureEnergy (PE)Dynamic PressureEnergy (KE)Total Energy(PE KE)Free Stream100,000135100,135At the Intake100,10629100,13599,834301100,135StageAt the End of Intake Funnel (1st Bend)At the End of 2nd Bend99,834301100,135Right Before Exit (Turbine Location)99,834301100,135100,000135100,135Far from ExitRatio of Dynamic Energies:Turbine Location / Free Stream 2.23 (or 123%)CFD Models & SimulationsVelocity Field inand around theINVELOX TowerWind Speed15 mphFunnel Inlet SpeedMin:4, Max:10 mphat 2nd Bend –Min:9 mphMax:33 mphTower Outlet SpeedMin:15, Max:24 mph52% increase14
10/5/2012Capable of CreatingDonut-ShapedVelocity Profile atTurbine LocationWind Speed over thehub does notgenerate powerCFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) ModelComparison between Two Independent Models1. ANSYS CFD was utilized by CCNY(CCNY City College of New York)2. COMSOL CFD was employed by QRDC(QRDC is an R&D Company in Chaska, MN)3. A virtual wind tunnel was constructed toexamine the performance of an INVELOXsystem4. The results are in agreement15
10/5/2012CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic)Model Comparison between Two Independent ModelsThe ModelCFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic)Model Comparison between Two Independent ModelsSummary ResultsFree Stream Wind Speed: 6.7 m/s (or 15 mph)NormalSpeed Ratio Based on Average Speed: 1.6Speed Ratio Based on Maximum Speed: 1.816
10/5/2012CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic)Model Comparison between Two Independent ModelsSummary ResultsCFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic)Model Comparison between Two Independent ModelsSummary Results - Close-up17
10/5/2012CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) - Additional Results Using COMSOL ModelCFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) - Additional Results Using COMSOL ModelWith Supporting ColumnsSupportingColumns18
10/5/2012CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) - Additional Results Using COMSOL ModelDom-Shaped TopCFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) - Additional Results Using COMSOL ModelDom-Shaped Top19
10/5/2012Using CFD to Predict the Performance ofInnovative Wind Power GeneratorsTopics1. Motivation2. Possible Solutions3. Model4. Results5. ConclusionsUsing CFD to Predict the Performance ofInnovative Wind Power Generators1) It was shown that INVELOX can be designed tocapture and accelerate wind to speed ratios of 2 and3 for omnidirectional INVELOX without and with fins,respectively.2) Increasing wind speed by a factor of 2 or 3, resultsin increased power output by a factor of 4 to 8.3) It was further shown that COMSOL is an effectivecomputational tool to model and analyze theINVELOX systems.20
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) Model Comparison between Two Independent Models 1.ANSYS CFD was utilized by CCNY (CCNY City College of New York) 2.COMSOL CFD was employed by QRDC (QRDC is an R&D Company in Chaska, MN) 3.A virtual wind tunnel was constructed to examine the performance of an INVELOX system 4.The results are in agreement
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.
refrigerator & freezer . service manual (cfd units) model: cfd-1rr . cfd-2rr . cfd-3rr . cfd-1ff . cfd-2ff . cfd-3ff . 1 table of contents
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Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
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Phần II: Văn học phục hưng- Văn học Tây Âu thế kỷ 14- 15-16 Chương I: Khái quát Thời đại phục hưng và phong trào văn hoá phục hưng Trong hai thế kỉ XV và XVI, châu Âu dấy lên cuộc vận động tư tưởng và văn hoá mới rấ
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A.2 Initial Interactive CFD Analysis Figure 2: Initial CFD. Our forward trained network provides a spatial CFD analysis prediction within a few seconds and is visualised in our CAD software. A.3 Thresholded and Modiﬁed CFD Analysis Figure 3: Threshold. The CFD is thresholded to localise on
performing CFD for the past 16 years and is familiar with most commercial CFD packages. Sean is the lead author for the tutorial and is responsible for the following sections: General Procedures for CFD Analyses Modeling Turbulence Example 3 - CFD Analysis
CFD Analysis Process 1. Formulate the Flow Problem 2. Model the Geometry 3. Model the Flow (Computational) Domain 4. Generate the Grid 5. Specify the Boundary Conditions 6. Specify the Initial Conditions 7. Set up the CFD Simulation 8. Conduct the CFD Simulation 9. Examine and Process the CFD Results 10. F
The CFD software used i s Fluent 5.5. Comparison between the predicted and simulated airﬂow rate is suggested as a validation method of the implemented CFD code, while the common practice is to compare CFD outputs to wind tunnel or full-scale . Both implemented CFD and Network models are brieﬂy explained below. This followed by the .
Emphasis is on comparing CFD results, not comparison to experiment CFD Solvers: BCFD, CFD , GGNS Grids: JAXA (D), ANSA (E), VGRID (C) Turbulence Models: Spalart-Allmaras (SA), SA-QCR, SA-RC-QCR Principal results: Different CFD codes on same/similar meshes with same turbulence model generate similar results
misleading results. The single and 2-phase models in the CFD tool need to be validated with the test data applicable to the PWR fuel design. To support validation, the CFD model results were compared to LDV data from 5x5 rod bundle tests for a spacer grid design. The CFD predictions were then compared to 5x5 rod bundle single phase mixing data
(CFD) is a useful technique to predict the two-phase ow behavior under any condition. The CFD (model) is capable of simulating the two-phase Àow by using different physical models. Wachem & Almstedt (2003) conducted a review of the mathematical formulation for CFD models to predict the behavior of the fluid-fluid flow and solid-fluid Àow.
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