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The General Counsel Report 2021Rising To Today’sChallenges andBuilding Resiliencefor the Future

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREIn corporate legal departments, recent years have seen a steady risein planning and establishing programs to mitigate anticipated risks.Alongside this focus on proactive risk management, the role of thegeneral counsel evolved from the office of “no,” to one of significant strategicinfluence. Once largely viewed as a cost center, or barrier to corporateprogress, the general counsel of today are business drivers in their own right.This evolution for the general counsel came in the nick of timeAs much as the world is hoping for a quick recovery from thefor the turmoil of 2020. In the 2007 best-seller, The Black Swan:fallout of 2020, many of today’s challenges will persist into 2021The Impact of the Highly Improbable, by Nassim Nicholas Taleb,and very likely beyond. The burden of maintaining businessthe author discussed the discovery of the first black swan inresiliency and stability in this environment will continue toAustralia—when the people of the “Old World” assumed withfall on the GC’s shoulders. To continue to rise to today’s chal-certainty that all swans were white—as a metaphor for thelenges, corporate legal departments must embrace the lessonsimpact of rare and unpredictable events. Although Taleb haslearned from Black Swan events, expand their existing respon-questioned whether the Black Swan is a metaphor for thesibilities and take ownership of their newly assigned roles. ToCOVID-19 pandemic alone, the idea of Black Swan incidentshelp their organizations successfully navigate 2021, GCs areserves as an excellent guide for analyzing the sequence oftasked with elevating their role in the following capacities:unpredictable events that have shaped 2020, and changed theworld of chief legal officers for 2021 and beyond. The pandemic,changing technology, increased risk, economic uncertainty, asocial justice awakening and political unrest have combined tochallenge beliefs on the Old World of the general counsel asthese leaders build resilience for the future.“The pandemic has yetagain shown that the roleof the general counsel isinfinitely expandable.”To better understand the current in-house environment, FTITechnology and Relativity engaged Ari Kaplan Advisors tointerview general counsel from a range of industries in aconversation about their role today. The study examined howcorporate legal departments are responding to the pandemic,a shifting digital landscape, diversity, equity and inclusion, the technological competency of lawyers and the roadahead. In addition to providing new perspectives on currenttrends and future directions, this report also offers year-overyear comparisons to the findings of the previous study, TheGeneral Counsel Report: Corporate Legal Departments in 2020.2 A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and RelativityGuardian Over Emerging RiskCounsel are navigating a minefield of both anticipatedand unforeseen risks. Data protection, security andprivacy, emerging data types and intellectual propertyloss were identified as top concerns that have intensified due tothe events of 2020.Chief Health Officer and Custodian ofEmployee SafetyMore than 80 percent of GCs surveyed said they areresponsible for or primary decision makers in determining company policies for bringing employeesback to in-person work and ensuring workplacehealth and safety.Mitigator of Skills Gaps and OutsourcingMany GCs recognize skills gaps and bandwidth limitationsamong their in-house teams, which is driving specificneeds for outsourcing to external experts, serviceproviders and law firms.

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREAdvocate of TechnologyProficiencyCorporate legal departments are adaptingto remote workplace productivity toolsand increasing overall technology proficiency. Confidence intechnological capabilities increased by more than 15 percentsince 2019.Champion of Technology AdoptionOne third of in-house legal teams are now using artificial intelligence (AI) as part of their technology stack (aslight increase from 2019) and 70 percent use cloud orSaaS systems. Some survey participants noted that theirplans to modernize their legal departments were hamperedwhen COVID-19 lockdowns went into effect.Steward of Inclusion and DiversityWith equity issues having reached the forefront ofsocietal attention and debate, GCs today arelikewise at the forefront of tackling diversity,equity and inclusion programs within theirorganizations.Mentor for the Legal FieldSurvey respondents had a wide range of advicefor their peers and their outside legal partners.Top takeaways included remembering to exerciseempathy, remaining flexible and listening intently tocolleagues and clients.General Counsel areEmbracing a New Worldof Infinitely Expanding,Stormy RolesOld World ideas of the role of the general counsel were already changing in the first edition of thisreport, The General Counsel Report: CorporateLegal Departments in 2020. In last year’s report, 97percent of respondents saw the role of the GC transitioning to more of a business strategist. This turnedout to be a self-fulfilling prophecy, with less than 20percent of respondents this year saying the scopeof their role was not impacted, or only minimallyimpacted, by the instability of 2020. One GC summedit up as, “I am currently in the eye of the storm.”19 81Has COVID impacted the scope of your role?19%No81%YesA Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity 3

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREOthers were specific about theways their roles have shifted amidthe pandemic.Key Comments“The pandemic has yet again shown that the role of thegeneral counsel is infinitely expandable. There havebeen a lot of risk-based and leadership issues thatGCs have had to take on during this crisis. The corecompetencies of the GC have been extremely valuable.”“I serve in many more roles and new roles for alawyer, such as being the chief medical officer for thecompany. My job title means nothing because youhave to pitch in to be a part of the team, and thoseopportunities are great for lawyers.”is increasingly winging it. We had to figure outwhat has to be closed and when we reopen, howdo we do it? There are a lot of interesting socialissues that we have had to address.”Achieving proactive goals is still important, butmore difficult. With a broader workload and somany issues to manage, legal departments arestruggling to make time for strategic or proactiveinitiatives. “We have become 80-90 percentreactive. I feel like a legal janitor. It has cut into my time inkeeping senior management up to speed. I spend moreadministrative time planning for the department,” said one GCin the survey. Still, in-house legal recognize the importance ofkeeping work on track as much as possible. “There are also aset of strategic goals that the legal department has to achievethis year that are not going away just because of the pandemic.It makes the job harder and more stressful.”“I took the opportunity to be more of a visible leader.”“It has added pandemic-associated responsibilities,such as office re-opening issues and labor-relatedconcerns.”Inside TakesBusiness viability keeps many GCs up at night.General Counsel Guardian OverEmerging RisksGCs interviewed said they feel a tremendous amount ofresponsibility to help the business remain viable during thepandemic, and are working with other company executivesto navigate revenue and expenses and make tough decisionsabout furloughs and layoffs. One said, “What a loadedquestion. I am working more than I have ever workedin my life. It has caused the legal function to beinvolved in more of the day-to-day operation of theorganization.”Workloads are heavier and more diverse than ever. Theexpansion of the GC’s role into so many new responsibilitieshas naturally also led to a dramatically increased workload.One GC said, “It has made me busier because I am the leadon the policies, procedures and decisions related to thepandemic. It has resulted in a significant amount of work overthe past few months.” Another added, “It has caused us all towork differently. Every one of my attorneys has had their workload and subject change as a result of the pandemic. Everyone4 A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and RelativityManaging risk has always been a core function of therole of general counsel. As they embarked on theNew World for general counsel, the Year of the BlackSwan has heightened this critical capability by addingwide-reaching and rapidly evolving risks to the alreadylong list managed by general counsel. One of the mostnotable emerging risks GCs encounter and feel ill-prepared to navigate is the impact of emerging datasources on e-discovery, investigations and regulatorycompliance. Other top concerns included data protection, security and privacy, COVID-19 implicationsand IP risk. Across the board, GCs feelings of preparedness for top risks improved since 2019.

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREWhat do you see as the top area of legal risk forbusiness today (more than one may apply)?Inside TakesEmerging data and privacy are colliding.Most legal departments are highly aware of,65%35%protection, security,business/work-and/or data riskforce implicationsPrivacy, dataCOVID-1916%IP lossand moderately prepared for, data privacyand data protection issues. But they worry about howthe increasing use of unsanctioned tools or cloud-basedcollaboration applications will impact compliance. One GCsaid of emerging data sources, “The entire data privacy sideof these tools is highly underrated as most companies are notreally aware of the legal and privacy implications they createKey Comments“Companies are ill-prepared to deal with emergingdata sources. Simple tools like Slack and Teamspresent challenges for legal holds in litigation. Thereare new compliance challenges concerning emergingdata sources. Also, employees are not as careful withcommunications and video in messaging platforms asthey are in email.”and how to comply with them.”Employees are critical to reducing risk. One GC wasclear that employees must be made to feel valued andengaged, so they are motivated to play an active role inmitigating risks. “The best way to manage risk is to makeemployees feel that the company cares about them andis doing everything in the best interest of their safety. Thatis not, however, just about managing the legal risk. It is aboutcreating an environment where employees feel safe and heard,“I have a thousand concerns, which compete for thebiggest. My biggest concern is what I cannot control.”and that manages legal risk.”Working from home creates unexpected issues. “I worry“Everyone is dealing with financial instability andCOVID hit us all like a wave. COVID has touched somany things that it has ‘eaten the world’ and takesover everything affecting every conversation. It pushesall of our priorities aside.”that people get tired of working from home; it sounds great,but I believe that people want to end up in a world whenthey have an ability to work from home and to see peoplewhen working in an office,” said one GC. Another also raisedconcerns about the legal and tax implications of employeesworking remotely from various states and/or countries. “As“The top area of risk continues to be cybersecurity Since many employees are working remotely, they maynot have the protection of the office network at home,which often serves as a significant barrier. Unless yourIT security team has properly configured remote workset up, knowledge workers are operating in vulnerable conditions. If GCs have not already experiencedit, they will need to focus more on cybersecuritygoing forward.”employees relocate, there are now tax questions the GC isrequired to answer, e.g., if a New York resident winters inFlorida, what are the tax implications? Security is also thesubject of a new set of issues due to working from homebecause now you have a host of new questions toanswer due to having a geographically dispersedworkforce. How do you know employees arenot disclosing information while working atthe beach?”“It is like anything. We stretch and flex. It was initiallya lot to make sure that we were paying attention toareas with which we are not as familiar. We also hadto concentrate on country-specific and state-specificrules, and stay as current as possible. We have foundour way and are as on top of that as we can be.”A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity 5

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREOn a scale from 1-5 (with 5 being “very prepared” and 1 being “not prepared at all”), how prepared are companies tohandle the following issues? (weighted averages):201912202034512345Data privacy laws and regulations such asGDPR and CCPAInformation governance and data remediation4. data sources (social media, Office 365,Gmail, cloud-based collaboration apps, etc.3.77Cyberattacks/hackingAI and machine learningBlockchain and cryptocurrencyGeneral Counsel Chief Health Officerand Custodian ofEmployee SafetyThe pandemic has forced many corporatelegal departments to fulfill the critical role of ChiefMedical Officer and assessing and recommendingpolicies to balance maintaining business activitieswith the health and safety of their employees. Thisspans how the company handles COVID-19 exposure in the workplace, implementing CDC guidelinesand keeping an eye on the mental health of theiremployees, where many are balancing the pressuresof simultaneously working, parenting, teaching andcare-giving.33.232.942.672.12.321.7584 16Is your legal team playing a key role in the timing,considerations and approach for the return to the officeof employees?16%No84%YesKey Comments“The head of environmental, health and safety isleading the COVID response so the legal department isat the center of these issues and benchmarking withother companies.”“As you start to reopen your office, the GC becomes thechief medical officer making decisions about contactof employees and body temperature thresholds. Wheredo I balance my role as GC and the well-being of myemployees? The chief medical officer or ‘chief momofficer’ is a significant change when you are askingpeople to self-disclose, and the parameters aroundsharing that information is critical.”6 A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTURE“We are designing all of the recommendations and mirroring government rules and regulations.”General counsel have become the chief interpreterof CDC guidelines and evolving local health codes.For geographically dispersed organizations, the task“The legal team is integral to that decision, as is HR.”“We are actively engaged and influence a global committee. We assigned roles and responsibilities back inMarch for all HR, operational and other departmental issues related to COVID-19.”of creating internal policies that address the unique andever-changing requirements across regions is overwhelming.“We have tracked approximately 950 government ordersrelated to our workforce, as well as CDC, WHO and staterecommendations,” said one respondent. Another added,“The most important thing is to understand that there is noone-size-fits-all approach.”“I provided the assurance to the CEO of the return tothe office.”Inside TakesGCs are concerned about well-being. Manyrespondents expressed deep concern for thetoll working from home is taking on employeemental health and wellness. Burnout was a recurringGeneral Counsel Mitigator of Skills Gapsand Outsourcingtheme, with one GC saying, “There are certain benefits tobeing around your co-workers and having a community. It isharder to do now and I worry about burnout. I employ a lotof people with young children and think that working a fulltime job and being a full-time parent is tough. While peoplehave stepped up, I worry that they may burn themselvesout.” Another added, “We have focused on taking care ofthe team and looking out for team members. We have seenyounger professionals suffering more than more experiencedpeople. The concept of the support model that you put inplace for people is critical. We now have a different approachto capitalism and people are more thoughtful about businessdecisions, such as layoffs, and recognize a broader socialresponsibility to one another.”Communication is critical. “It has demonstrated theThe need for outside expertise remains a foundational element of the GC’s legal toolset. Serviceproviders, specialists and law firms provide skills andknowledge that are either unavailable or too expensive to maintain as part of the legal department’spermanent in-house resources. Service providersgive corporate legal departments the ability to addcritical capabilities, including legal technology expertise, on a just-in-time basis to better manage time,efficiency, defensibility, cost and risk.When asked to select their top drivers for outsourcinglegal work to law firms or service providers, surveyedgeneral counsel identified:importance of effective communication in terms ofthe technology and connecting with people,” saidone GC regarding the impact the pandemic has hadon the legal department. When discussing the returnto the office, one GC said, “On the overall safety campaign,there is no one-shot of adrenaline. You must ensure a safeworking environment, such as sanitation stations, schedulesfor cleaning work stations, providing visibility into personal84%55%32%Needing expertiseAdding band-not available onwidth to yourCost savingsof outsourcingyour in terms ofvs hiring.head count.protective equipment and communicate frequently. Bediligent, strategic and communicate well in advance.”A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity 7

35 32 29 16 10THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREWhen asked about the factors that influence a decision toreplace a law firm or legal service provider, respondentsfocused on:35%32%29%16%CostExpertise/ QualityLackingServices(i.e.: timeliness,billing issues,bad results,poor communication)Relationships10%DiversityInside TakesExpertise reigns supreme. A clear driver in thecorporate legal team’s outsourcing decision-makingprocess is specialized expertise and a high quality ofwork, especially for matters that exceed their department’score capabilities and scalability. “Specialized knowledge is thenumber one driver,” said one GC.Counsel differentiates between value and price. Acritical distinction made by numerous respondentswas that of value vs. price. Given the recent increasein emphasis on cost management, it’s understandableto think of price as a key driver. However most GCsconsider value—quality of work, communication and trust—above cost. “I’m not looking for the lowest cost provider Ialso want to work with someone who can provide practical,Key Commentsbusiness-focused advice.”“Most of my outsourcing is to enlist experts, such asSEC and M&A, or capacity. I tend to outsource itemsat the highest level, such as very complex deals, andlower level, such as commercial contracts.”expertise and bandwidth are the top reasons to seek a service“The biggest driver is that we are focused on gettingthe right expertise for the right project.”GCs don’t hesitate to make changes when needed. Whileprovider, of equal importance are the variables corporate legalteams consider when deciding to retain or make a switch froma law firm or other partner. Most GCs said they will quicklymake a change when outside providers fail to meet theirstandards. Corporate legal teams demand quality first andforemost, as well as an understanding of their business. One“Expertise, time pressure and bandwidth. If it mustbe done quickly or we couldn’t ask our internal teamto manage such a large project, we would look tooutsource.”GC said, “I look at whether they have staffed the right peopleon the matter and whether they are current on theissues I face.” Another added, “If you are getting thingswrong and not delivering the level of sophisticationthat is useful to us, I would pay more elsewhere.”“The quality of the work, opinions, and thoughts weare receiving. If the quality is not there, I am notworking with you.”“We believe that price is what you pay, and value iswhat you get. Price is less important than the valuereceived.”8 A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREGeneral Counsel Advocate ofTechnology ProficiencyThe pandemic—in the form of ramping up on remotework and collaboration tools and completing workwithout relying on the in-person help of supportstaff—has created a New World of more tech-savvylegal departments. More than half (55 percent) of thisyear’s participants reported that they believe lawyers have adequate technological competence. Thisreflects a material increase from the 39 percent whoagreed with that assessment in 2019.While there is visible improvement on this front, it only goesso far. A large gap remains between capability and talent, and“The pandemic is shifting the technological competenceand driving an increase in self-sufficiency.”“The pandemic has changed the degree to which peopleneed to get up to speed in terms of remote work. Thereare two types of competence: one being able to usetechnology for your work; and, two, using technologyto enhance your efficiency and productivity forgetemerging technologies, which are still a black box formost lawyers.”“With the business-ification of law departments, GCsare pushing law departments to change.”“I think people have had to get more educated becausethey no longer have an IT department to support them.My knowledge of Slack, Zoom and other tools hasincreased. Since you are forced to use these tools more,competence has increased.”aptitude using collaboration tools like Slack or Teams vs.advanced e-discovery techniques or other complex software.One GC interviewed in the survey said, “Lawyers have anadequate level of competence when using tools, but they lack astrategic understanding of technology and how it can improvetheir business.”Inside TakesTech fluency has been forced. One GC said,“The pandemic has to be positively impacting thetechnological competence of lawyers because theyDo attorneys have adequate technical proficiency?2019202039 51 1045 55Don’t Know10%39%Yes51%No55%Yes45%NoKey Comments“Adequate means that they are capable of performing their job, so most meet that standard, but thereare very few, maybe the top 10 percent, who can usetechnology to enhance their productivity to be moreefficient.”don’t have an assistant next door or outside theiroffices, whether it is sending a zip file, leveraging DocuSignor using other tools. Since we are now forced to be moreresourceful, lawyers are becoming more adept with technology.”But many were also quick to point out that this doesn’t translatedirectly to advanced technology aptitude. Another respondentsaid, “The pandemic has improved this, but in rudimentaryways. It has forced a lot of us to use basic tools. Not many of usare that good about going in and pulling data to dump it into apivot table. There is still a gap that exists across the board.”Litigation support staff are largely viewed as havingstrong technology capabilities. GCs have high expectationsfor litigation support competence among their outsidevendors. When asked about litigation support specifically oneGC said, “Yes, certainly when it comes to applying technologyto litigation, which is an area that has become muchmore sophisticated.” Another said, “All litigationsupport professionals have adequate technologicalcompetence, and if they don’t, your team is workingwith the wrong law firm or vendor.”A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity 9

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTUREGeneral Counsel Champion ofTechnology AdoptionTechnology use and adoption by legal departmentshave grown in recent years, though the circumstancesof the pandemic have caused a delay in some technology implementations. When asked about technology,one GC said, “My role is to modernize the law department, but the pandemic has prevented many of thoseinitiatives.”Almost one third of survey participants reported using AI intheir law departments, which reflects an increase from the 25percent who did so in 2019. Skepticism for cloud-based datahosting and applications has continued to subside, replacedby the general sentiment that cloud solutions are necessary fororganizational efficiency. Still, cloud adoption appears to haveplateaued in 2020.201920206 53 281333 67Don’t Know12%29%Yes2019202075 257030 29%No25%No5%54%No67%No33%Yes71%Yes75%Yes61 19 3107How many unique software products does your legal teamutilize in your legal technology stack?Other7%20 11-19: 3%Are you currently using AI for any legal function within yourlegal team?Plan ToSoonDoes your organization use SaaS or other cloud technologies to perform legal tasks?10%19%6-1061%1-5Key Comments“We were excited about using cloud tools prior to thepandemic, but halted the roll-out due to cost-cutting. ““We are using machine learning in document discovery, so when we need to perform a forensic review ande-discovery on very large sets, exclusively on unstructured data, we have used machine learning and it hasbeen a positive experience.”“Our company is exclusively cloud and has nolocal storage in the legal department. It has enabledgreat mobility in the pandemic.”10 A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity

THE GENERAL COUNSEL REPORT 2021: RISING TO TODAY’S CHALLENGES AND BUILDING RESILIENCE FOR THE FUTURE“We started using cloud-based technologies forlegal tasks over a decade ago because service levelsand support levels from our internal IT were notwhat we needed them to be. We chose cloud-basedtools to be more self-sufficient. Just about all of ourlegal applications, with the exception of our exportcompliance system, is cloud-based.”“We use an automated tool for legal intake thatuses some AI functionality and are evaluating it forcontract management.”Inside TakesAI remains a mixed bag. Despite the enthusiasmfor AI (such as automated processes, machinelearning tools and advanced analytics), similar toGeneral Counsel Steward of Inclusionand DiversityHeightened intensity in calls for social justice andimprovements in workplace inclusion and diversity have motivated many organizations to revisit orrefresh their internal practices and diversity, equityand inclusion programs. This year’s survey revealedthat GCs are largely at the forefront of these efforts,either as internal drivers and stewards of diversity,equity and inclusion, or as dedicated stakeholders incompany-wide initiatives.the findings of last year’s survey, those who are notWhen asked to rank the effectiveness of their organization onusing it still do not have a viable use case. AI use among themanaging and promoting inclusion and diversity, the respon-chief legal officers in the study leveled out, with a modestdents offered an average of six out of 10. They were fairly candidreported increase from 2019 to 2020. However, a recognizablein their assessments of success in this area. “We have doneshift did occur year-over-year in “don’t know” and “plan toa lot of things to be responsive to it in terms of training andsoon” responses for AI usage, falling from five percent andreevaluating our hiring, but it is a process that doesn’t happen12.5 percent to zero in both categories, respectively. Basedovernight,” said one GC.on interviews in these areas, respondents appeared to haveevaluated the potential fit for AI usage in their departmentover the last year, with some opting to leverage and othersdetermining the need for AI didn’t exist. “Our operation isrelatively basic so we don’t have a need for it and I can’tWhat is your role in managing and promoting inclusion anddiversity within your organization?71%Said they have some role, oversight orpriority focused on diversity, equity andimagine how we would use it,” said the GC of a financialinclusion initiatives for their company and/services company. “We are not planning to deploy any AI foror legal departmentthe near term; we have talked about contracts, but have notdone anything with it,” added another.Ease of use is critical in legal software purchasingdecisions. On a scale of one to five, with five being thehighest, respondents gave an average rating of 4.3 to theimportance of ease of use when purchasing legal software.Usability is key given that 32 percent of legal teams use morethan six unique tools as part of their technology stack. “Easeof use is the most critical determinant of the factors we usein the software selection process,” said one GC. Anothersaid, “We are dealing with people who are nottechnologically trained and in order for them tobecome familiar with the product, they need tobe able to adapt, which they can do quickly tosystems that are user-friendly.”On scale of 1-10 (with 10 being extremely effective and1 being extremely ineffective), how effective is your organization currently in managing and promoting inclusionand diversity?13 68 163Effective or extremelyeffective (ranked 7-10) Did not answer 3%Ineffective or minimallyeffective (ranked 1-3)16%13%68%Average or aboveaverage (ranked 4-6)A Joint White Paper from FTI Consulting, Inc. and Relativity 11


general counsel evolved from the office of "no," to one of significant strategic influence. Once largely viewed as a cost center, or barrier to corporate progress, the general counsel of today are business drivers in their own right. This evolution for the general counsel came in the nick of time for the turmoil of 2020.

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