Infant And Young Child Feeding

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Infant and Young Child FeedingCounselling Cards for Community Workers

AcknowledgmentsThis set of Counselling Cards is part of The Community Infant and Young ChildFeeding (IYCF) Counselling Package, developed under a strategic collaborationbetween the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) New York and thecombined technical and graphic team of Nutrition Policy Practice (NPP)and the Center for Human Services, the not-for-profit affiliate of UniversityResearch Co., LLC (URC/CHS). The Community IYCF Counselling Packageincludes the Facilitator Guide. Appendices, and Training Aids, for use intraining community workers; the Participant Materials, training “handouts”and monitoring tools; a set of 28 IYCF Counselling Cards and companion KeyMessages Booklet; 3 Take-home Brochures; and an Adaptation Guide including a“Clip Art” Compendium for use by national or local stakeholders in adaptingthis package for use in their own settings. All of the materials found in theCommunity IYCF Counselling Package are available in their electronic formats tofacilitate their dissemination and adaptation.The various elements of The Community IYCF Counselling Package are based onseveral WHO/UNICEF IYCF guidance documents, training and other materials,including the WHO/UNICEF Breastfeeding, Complementary Feedingand Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling training courses. Thepackage also builds on materials developed by the Academy for EducationalDevelopment’s LINKAGES Project; the CARE USA and URC/CHS collaborationin Dadaab Kenya; and the Integration of IYCF Support into CommunityManagement of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM), produced by the ENN/IFE CoreGroup and IASC. The technical content of the package aims to reflect theGuidelines on HIV and Infant Feeding 2010: Principles and Recommendationsfor Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV and a Summary of Evidence relatedto IYCF in the context of HIV. The graphic package draws heavily from IYCFbehaviour change materials and other job aids developed with the technicalsupport of URC/CHS, financed by the United States Agency for InternationalDevelopment (USAID) in Tanzania, Uganda, Niger and Benin; CARE USA inDadaab, Kenya; and the UNICEF offices in Kenya and Malawi.The Community IYCF Counselling Package has been developed by the UNICEFNew York team of Nune Mangasaryan, Senior Advisor, Infant and Young ChildNutrition; Christiane Rudert, Nutrition Specialist (infant feeding); MandanaArabi, Nutrition Specialist (Complementary Feeding); in close collaborationwith the NPP and URC/CHS team of Maryanne Stone-Jiménez, IYCF TrainingExpert; Mary Lung’aho, IYCF Community/Emergencies Expert; Peggy KonizBooher, IYCF Behaviour Change and Job Aids Expert. The package illustrationswere developed Kurt Mulholland, Senior Graphic Artist; and Victor Nolasco,Senior Graphic Illustrator. Many country teams (national authorities,program staff and communities) involved in developing and pretestingprevious materials also warrant acknowledgment for their contributions.The package was reviewed by WHO headquarters colleagues: CarmenCasanovas (Technical Officer), Constanza Vallenas (Medical Officer) and theHIV component by Nigel Rollins (Scientist). External reviewers also includedFelicity Savage and Rukhsana Haider, and comments were received from HollyBlanchard (Maternal Child Health Integrated Program) The contribution ofthe Ministry of Health, UNICEF-Zambia, staff from various partner agenciesand the community workers who participated in the field test of the packagein August 2010 in Lusaka, Zambia, is also acknowledged.Additional input to the revised September 2012 edition was reviewedby a number of experts: Jane Lucas, UNICEF consultant for the earlychildhood development (ECD) component, Arnold Timmer, Senior Adviser,Micronutrients UNICEF, for multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs); andNandita Sugandhi and Dr. Shaffiq Essajee, Clinton Health Access Initiative,and Tin Tin Sint, UNICEF, for IYCF in the context of HIV.Although each of these materials have been copyrighted and co-branded byUNICEF and URC/CHS, any part of this package may be printed, copied and/or adapted to meet local needs without express written permission. Requeststo reproduce the materials may be directed to: iycn@unicef.org. In addition1) the source of the original materials should be fully acknowledged, 2) theparts of the package that are printed, copied and/or adapted should bedistributed free or at cost (not for profit), and 3) credit must be given to bothUNICEF and URC/CHS.

Positive counselling skillsThis set of cards was developed for you to help counselmothers and other caregivers about infant and youngchild feeding (IYCF). Positive counselling skills areimportant for your success. Some basic counseling skillspresented below include Listening and Learning, as wellas Building Confidence and Giving Support.Listening and Learning skills Use helpful non-verbal communication: Keep your head level with the mother (or caregiver) Pay attention Reduce physical barriers Take time Touch appropriately Ask open questions Use responses and gestures that show interest Reflect back what the mother (or caregiver) says Avoid using “judging” wordsBuilding Confidence and Giving Support skills1. Accept what a mother (or caregiver) thinks and feels.Let the mother (or caregiver) talk through her or hisconcerns before correcting any wrong ideas or misinformation. This helps to establish confidence.2. Listen carefully to the mother’s (or caregiver’s)concerns.3. Recognize and praise what a mother (or caregiver)and child are doing correctly.4. Give practical help.5. Give a little, relevant information at a time.6. Use simple language that the mother or caregiverwill understand.7. Use appropriate Counselling Card(s) or Take-HomeBrochure(s).8. Make one or two suggestions, not commands If one or more feeding difficulty is present, orthe condition or health of the child or mother (orcaregiver) is poor, prioritize the difficulties. Answer the mother’s (or caregiver’s) questions if any.IYCF 3-Counselling:The following 3-Step Counseling will help you to counsel,with mothers (or caregiver) about infant and youngchild feeding. The 3-Steps are Assess, Analyze and Act.Step 1: Assess: ask, listen and observe Greet the mother (or caregiver), using friendlylanguage and gestures. Ask some initial questions that encourage her (orhim) to talk. Listen to what is being said and observe what isgoing on using your Listening and Learning, andBuilding Confidence and Giving Support skills. Assess the age appropriate feeding practice(s) andthe condition or health of the child and mother (orcaregiver).Step 2: Analyze: identify difficulty and if there ismore than one – prioritize the difficulties Decide if the feeding you observe is age-appropriateand if the condition or health of the child andmother (or caregiver) is good. If there are no apparent difficulties, praise themother (or caregiver) and focus on providinginformation needed for the next stage of the child’sdevelopment.Step 3: Act: discuss, suggest a small amount ofrelevant information, agree on doable action Depending on the factors analyzed above, selecta small amount of information to share with themother or caregiver that is most relevant to her or hissituation. Be sure to praise the mother or caregiver for whatshe or he is doing well. Present options for addressing the feeding difficultyor condition of health of the child or caregiver interms of small do-able actions. These actions shouldbe time-bound (within the next few days or weeks). Share key information with the mother or caregiver,using the appropriate Counselling Cards or Takehome Brochures and answering questions asneeded. Help the mother or caregiver select one optionthat she or he agrees to try, in order to address orovercome the difficulty or condition that has beenidentified. This is called reaching-an-agreement. Suggest where the mother or caregiver can findadditional support. Refer to the nearest health facilityif appropriate and/or encourage participation ineducational talks or IYCF Support Groups in thecommunity. Confirm that the mother or caregiver knows whereto find a community volunteer and/or other healthworker. Thank the mother or caregiver for her or his time. Agree on when you will meet again, if appropriate.

Table of contentsCounselling Card 1. Nutrition for pregnant and breastfeeding womenCounselling Card 2. Pregnant woman / delivery in facilityCounselling Card 3. During the first 6 months, your baby needs ONLY breast milkCounselling Card 4. Importance of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 monthsCounselling Card 5. Breastfeed on demand, both day and night (8 to 12 times) to build up your breast milk supplyCounselling Card 6. Breastfeeding PositionsCounselling Card 7. Good AttachmentCounselling Card 8. Feeding a low birth weight babyCounselling Card 9. How to hand express breast milk and cup feedCounselling Card 10. When you are separated from your babyCounselling Card 11. Feeding the Sick Baby under 6 months of ageCounselling Card 12. Good hygiene (cleanliness) practices prevent diseaseCounselling Card 13. Start complementary feeding when baby reaches 6 monthsCounselling Card 14. Complementary feeding from 6 up to 9 monthsCounselling Card 15. Complementary feeding from 9 up to 12 monthsCounselling Card 16. Complementary feeding from 12 up to 24 monthsCounselling Card 17. Food VarietyCounselling Card 18. How to add Micronutrient Powder (MNP) to Complementary FoodsCounselling Card 19. Feeding the Sick Child older than 6 months of ageCounselling Card 20. Optimal family planning promotes improved health and survival for both mother and childCounselling Card 21. Regular growth monitoring and promotionCounselling Card 22. When to bring your child to the health facilityCounselling Card 23a. Exclusively Breastfeed and Take ARVsCounselling Card 23b. Exclusively breastfeed even when there are no ARVsSpecial Circumstance CardsCard 1: Avoid all BreastfeedingCard 2: Conditions needed to avoid all breastfeedingCard 3: Non-breastfed child from 6 up to 24 months

Card 1

Card 2

Breast milk only for the first 6 monthsCard 3

During the first 6 monthsCard 4

Card 5

Card 6

Card 7

Card 8

Card 9

Card 10

Sick baby less than 6 monthsCard 11

Card 12

Start feeding at 6 monthsCard 13

From 6 up to 9 monthsCard 14

From 9 up to 12 monthsCard 15

From 12 up to 24 monthsCard 16

Card 17

How to add Micronutrient Powder (MNP) toComplementary FoodsCard 18

Sick baby more than 6 monthsCard 19

LAMMale & Female CondomInjectablesOral ContraceptivesNorplantTubal LigationVasectomyIUD(Exclusive breastfeeding)(Depro-Provera )Card 20Abstinence(Avoiding intercourse)

Card 21

Refusal to FeedVomitingDiarrhoeaConvulsionsCard 22Respiratory infectionFeverMalnutrition

Exclusively Breastfeed up to 6 monthsand Take ARVs (for mother and/or baby)Only Breast Milk up to 6 monthsCard 23aDo not give any other liquids (even water) or foods to breastfeeding babies before 6 months

Exclusively Breastfeed up to 6 monthseven when there are no ARVsOnly Breast MilkUse expressed breast milk whenaway from babyCard 23bDo not give any other liquids (even water) or foods to breastfeeding babies before 6 months

Avoid All BreastfeedingOnly Infant FormulaSpecial Circumstance Card 1

Conditions Needed To Avoid All BreastfeedingSpecialCard24 Circumstance Card 2

Non-Breastfed Child from 6 Up to 24 Months6 up to 9monthsEach day addSpecial Circumstance Card 39 up to 12monthsEach day add12 up to 24monthsEach day add

Counselling Card 4. Importance of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months Counselling Card 5. Breastfeed on demand, both day and night (8 to 12 times) to build up your breast milk supply Counselling Card 6. Breastfeeding Positions Counselling Card 7. Good Attachment Counselling Card 8. Feeding a low birth weight baby Counselling Card 9.

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