Chapter 3 Current Status Of ASEAN Transport Sector

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Chapter3Current Status of ASEAN Transport SectorERIA Study TeamOctober 2010This chapter should be cited asERIA Study Team (2010), ‘Current Status of ASEAN Transport Sector’ in ASEANStrategic Transport Plan 2011-2015, Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat and ERIA,pp.3-1—3-95.

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015CHAPTER 33.1Final ReportCURRENT STATUS OF ASEAN TRANSPORT SECTORINTRODUCTIONThis chapter reviews the current status and performance of the transport sectors i.e. road rail,inland waterways, air and maritime transport in ASEAN Member States (AMSs). In addition,the chapter also discusses the current status of the soft component i.e. transport facilitationthat is vital for improving the performance, efficiency and effectiveness of the other threemajor transport sectors especially at intra-ASEAN level. The chapter discusses and comparesthe current scenario among the AMSs and highlights the major issues that need an attention toimprove the transport performance in AMSs. With the purpose of easy understating,comparisons and review of current status, the chapter is divided by sectors in 4 sections i.e.Land Transport, Air Transport, Maritime Transport and Transport Facilitation. Each sectionalso describes a brief introduction to specific sector.3.2LAND TRANSPORTEfficient land transport plays a vital role in fostering international trade with and withinASEAN region. The removal of barriers to trade in the land transport sector is thereforedoubly important. First, the land transport sector is in itself an important area of economicactivity, and further liberalization in transport will therefore make an important contributionin trade and services. Secondly, by enhancing efficiency and reducing the costs of trade ingoods, removal of barriers in the land transport sector will in turn lead to freer and more openmarkets in the trading of physical goods and movement of natural persons. To do this in waysthat protect the natural environment, promote growth, and meet the complex demands arisingfrom new safety requirements will require an unprecedented commitment of skills andresources, and new levels of cooperation.In addition to physical hardcore development, the soft component such as legal, regulatory,institutional, human resource, operational and technological developments will also play avital role in facilitating the efficient and effective transport system.The following sections will discuss the 3 major component of the land transport i.e. road, railand inland waterways in AMSs. These sections will discuss and compare the status ofmotorization, road and rail inventory, road safety, inland waterways route length, modal shareetc. among others in AMSs. The two major component of current ASEAN Transport ActionPlan (ATAP) i.e. ASEAN Highways and Singapore-Kunming Rail Link (SKRL) which arealso the priority projects under ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) blueprint are discussedin detail. During the discussion, the certain issues were also highlighted that will need aspecific attention to improve the overall land transport performance.3.2.1MOTORIZATIONEconomic growth is being accompanied by rapid traffic growth in AMSs. Since 2000, thegrowth of motorization has been rapid in the ASEAN region. Yet, in comparison with otherdeveloped nations in the world, vehicle ownership is still low in ASEAN countries.On analyzing the increase of automobiles in AMSs, since 2000, the number of automobilesincreased by more than double in ASEAN countries such as Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesiaand Viet Nam. This rapid increase without the corresponding expansion in infrastructure androad services resulted in traffic congestion, especially in the major cities of AMSs. (Table 32-1 & Figure 3-2-1)3-1

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportBruneiDarussalamCambodiaIndonesiaLao PDRMalaysiaMyanmarPhilippinesSingaporeThailandViet NamTable 3-2-1 Total Vehicle Registration (in 8922,92626,624YearSource: ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2008 and country websites/responseNA – Not AvailableTotal Vehicles in ASEAN Nations (2000-2008)No. of Vehicles resPhilippinesMyanmarMalaysiaLao PDRIndonesiaCambodiaBruneiDarussalamFigure 3-2-1 Increase in Total Registered Vehicles in AMSs (2000-2008)On comparing the number of vehicles per 1000 population in ASEAN nation then BruneiDarussalam, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia have comparatively the maximum number ofregistered vehicles per 1000 population. In 2005, Brunei Darussalam with 744 vehicles per1000 population has the highest vehicle density. Cambodia and Myanmar, meanwhile, havethe least number of vehicle densities among the AMSs. (Table 3-2-2)3-2

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final 5172171169170172174182186185NANANANANASource: ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2008 and country websites/data.Viet nmarNAMalaysiaNALao 2005200620072008CambodiaYearBruneiDarussalamTable 3-2-2 Number of Vehicles per 1,000 3NANANA – Not AvailableOn comparing the distribution of registered vehicles, except for Brunei Darussalam andSingapore, the other AMSs are mainly dominated by two-wheelers. In 2007, of the totalnumber of vehicles, the two-wheelers in Viet Nam and Cambodia are 95% and 84%respectively. (Table 3-2-3 and Figure 3-2-2). Such situation causes adverse impacts in termsof deterioration of environment, traffic congestions, accidents, energy waste, etc. Hence, thereis a need for a modal shift to promote efficient, convenient and comfortable public transportespecially in major cities in AMSs.Table 3-2-3 Percentage Distribution of Registered Vehicles (2007)CountryBrunei DarussalamCambodiaIndonesiaLao PDRMalaysiaMyanmarPhilippines (2006)SingaporeThailandViet NamMotorized 2 or 3wheelers4847379476548176395Motor cars8391524561761145Source: WHO & UN-ESCAP websites3-3Others(Truck, Bus, Van etc.)13712198293522230

Percentage of VehiclesASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportPercentage Distribution of Registered Vehicle (2007)1009080706050403020100VietnamMotorized 2 or 3 alaysiaLao s (Truck, Bus, Van etc.)Figure 3-2-2 Percentage Distribution of Registered Vehicles (2007)3.2.2ROAD NETWORK INVENTORYThe road network and road length vary by country. Considering the total road length andpaved road length, Indonesia has the largest network with 396,362 km (2007) and largestpaved road length 221,905 km (2007) among the ASEAN member nations. Since 2000, VietNam made considerable progress and enhanced its road network length by more than ten (10)times, from 15,436 km in year 2000 to 160,089 km in 2007. Viet Nam also improved itspaved road network by about seven times from 11,206 km in 2000 to 76,241 km in 2007.Thailand, Myanmar and Lao PDR also made a substantial progress in enhancing their totalroad network and paved road network. (Table 3-2-4, Table 3-2-5, Figure 3-2-3 and Figure 32-4)2007NA2008NAViet yanmar3,560Malaysia2004Lao mbodiaYearBruneiDarussalamTable 3-2-4 Total Road Length (in ANANANA39,00011,494NASource: ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2008 and country websites/data.3-4NANANA – Not Available

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportRoad Length (Km)Total Road Length (Km) in ASEAN Nations arMalaysiaLao PDRIndonesiaCambodiaBruneiDarussalamFigure 3-2-3 Growth of Total Road Length (km) in AMSs (2000-2008)NANANA2,886NANANANANASource: ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2008 and country 3,1193,1493,1643,1883,2343,2623,2973,325Viet reLao odiaYearBruneiDarussalamTable 3-2-5 Paved Road Length (in 8NANA97,98876,241NANANANA53,610NANA – Not Available

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportPaved Road Network in ASEAN Nations (2000-2008)250,000Paved Road Length nesMyanmarMalaysiaLao PDRIndonesiaCambodiaBruneiDarussalamFigure 3-2-4 Growth of Paved Road Network in AMSs (2000-2008)However, based on comparison of the percentage of paved road networks, Singapore andThailand lead among the ASEAN countries, with approximately 100% paved network.Cambodia and Lao PDR have the lowest percentage with below 7% of paved road network.These nations have an exceptional task ahead and will require immense efforts and resourcesto match with the leading AMSs. (Table 3-2-6).NANANANA8.1%NANANANANASource: ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2008 and country 0.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%Viet 56.0%SingaporeLao odiaYearBruneiDarussalamTable 3-2-6 Percentage of Paved Road A39.0%NANANA99.9%47.6%NANANA – Not AvailableRoad density is another important parameter for comparison and analysis of the progress ofroad development. Singapore has the highest road density (road length) with 4,702 km roadlength per 1000 sq km of country area. It is followed by Brunei Darussalam, with a roaddensity of 646 km per 1000 sq km of area. The Philippines has the lowest road density with98.8 km road length per 1000 sq km of area. Viet Nam, Myanmar and Thailand madeconsiderable progress in improving their respective road densities. (Table 3-2-7)3-6

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final 613.24,662.74,702.3NANANA197.6NANASource: ERIA Study Team (based on data from ASEAN Statistical Yearbook, 2008 and country data3.2.3Viet NamLao aYearBruneiDarussalamTable 3-2-7 Road Density (Road Length per 1000 sq km of total 7NANANA191.1483.3NANANA – Not AvailableASEAN HIGHWAY AND CROSS BORDER LINKAGESDuring the fifth ASEAN Transport Ministers’ meeting in Hanoi in September 1999, theMinisterial Understanding on the Development of the ASEAN Highway Network Project wassigned, which spelled out a plan of action to achieve the goal. Based on each member state’sroad conditions, ASEAN has identified the highway network, which consists of 23 designatedroutes, totalling approximately 38,400 km (Figure 3-2-5).It is noted that the ASEAN highway network also consist of a part of the Trans-AsianHighway network. In other words, the said network is composed of the Asian Highway thatpasses through AMSs (shown in red in Figure 3-2-5) and an additional network as shaded inyellow in Figure 3-2-5.The following time frame was developed and agreed for the accomplishment of ASEANHighway network:Stage - 1 (by 2000)-Network configuration and designation of national routes.Stage -2 (by 2004)-Installation of road signs at all designated national routes. Alldesignated routes to be upgraded to at least Class III standards.All missing links to be constructed and cross-border points willbe designated.Stage- 3 (by 2020)-All designated routes are to be upgraded to at least Class Istandards. For low traffic volume non-arterial routes, Class IIstandards would be acceptable.3-7

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportSource: ASEAN Logistics Network Map Study, JETRO, 2009Figure 3-2-5 ASEAN Highway Network (includes Asian Highway)It is interesting to note and analyze the respective physical (highway) linkages among AMSs.However, this mainly depends on the number of neighbouring borders and geographicallocation of each nation. For example, the Philippines, due to its geographical location and issurrounded by sea. Hence, it does not share its border and has no highway linkages with anyother ASEAN countries.Thailand has 13 highway linkages with four neighbouring States (Cambodia, Lao PDR,Malaysia and Myanmar), which is also the highest among ASEAN members states. This isfollowed by Lao PDR and Malaysia. (Refer Table 3-2-8, Figure 3-2-6 and Figure 3-2-7).3-8

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportIt is noted that despite sharing its border, Lao PDR and Myanmar do not have any directhighway linkages between them. The AH-2 and AH-3 passing through Thailand connectsboth the nations.Viet 2)Indonesia(1)Lao Lao PDRIndonesiaCambodiaBruneiDarussalamTable 3-2-8 ASEAN Highway Cross Border Links between the reThailand(2)(5)Viet Nam(1)(5)Total Numberof Linkages24211(2)(4)74136Total Country131341014LinkagesSource: ERIA Study TeamNote- The number in parenthesis indicates the number of physical highway link between the two nations.means that there is physical highway links between the two countries.Blank boxes means either non-existence (or not applicable) of physical links between the two nations.23-901

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportSource: ASEAN Logistics Network Map Study, JETRO, 2009Figure 3-2-6 Highway Network in AMSs (1 of 2)3-10

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportSource: ASEAN Logistics Network Map Study, JETRO, 2009Figure 3-2-7 Highway Network in AMSs (2 of 2)3-11

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportAs stated earlier, ASEAN highway also constitutes a part of Trans-Asian Highway. Onstrictly reviewing only the Asian highway component in ASEAN countries, it reveals that in2008, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar, the Philippines and Viet Nam did not have ‘Primary’standard roads. In Lao PDR and Cambodia, even the Class-I standard roads do not exist and ismainly dominated by Class-III standard roads. These nations had a massive task ahead toimprove the quality of highway roads. (Table 3-2-9 and Figure 3-2-8).Based on the analysis of the progress made since 2004, Indonesia, Malaysia Myanmar, thePhilippines and Thailand were able to increase the lengths of their Class-I standard roads.However, still significant percentages of Class-III, or below standard roads, exist in Myanmar,Cambodia, Lao PDR and the Philippines.Table 3-2-9 Inventory of Asian Highway (km) in AMSs (2004-2008)PrimaryNationsClass-IClass-IIBelow Class-III 19196515500348934Lao 5422Viet Nam000408338344191520182,150104850251190137Total 4590282123782036Source: Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2008, UNESCAP and UN-ESCAP websiteStatus of ASIAN Highways in 20083500Km3000Primary2500Class I2000Class IIClass III1500Below III1000Other5000Viet NamThailandSingaporePhilippinesMyanmarMalaysiaLao PDRIndonesiaCambodiaFigure 3-2-8 Status of Asian Highways in 2008 in AMSsOn further reviewing in detail the Asian Highway network, it is quite interesting to note thecontinuation of certain Highway links across the sea/river and their connectivity by ‘FerryLinks’. For example, AH2 and AH25 in Indonesia are in the separate island in Indonesia andare connected by means of ‘Ferry Link’. On reviewing such ferry links as mentioned underAsian Highway Network in context of ASEAN regions then there are seven (7) ferry links in3 AMSs as shown in Table 3-2-10 and Figure 3-2-9 that connects the Asian Highway network.3-12

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportTable 3-2-10 Ferry Links in the AMSs in Asian HighwaysCountryCambodiaIndonesiaAH-1Mekong River Ferry Crossing-Neak LoeungLength of FerryLinks(km)1.5 kmAH-11Rapeangkreal (Border of Lao PDR) - Stung Treng0.7 kmAH-2Gilimanuk Terminal -Banyuwangi Terminal8 kmAH-25Bakauheni Ferry Terminal -Merak Ferry Terminal26 kmAH-26Matnog Terminal - Allen Terminal25 oc Terminal - Cebu TerminalAH-26Liloan Ferry Terminal -San Francisco Madilao PortSource: UN-ESCAP website and country data65 km61.05 kmSource: UNESCAP websiteFigure 3-2-9 Ferry Links in Asian Highways in ASEAN RegionPrior to discussing and comparing the progress that has been achieved in the implementationof the ASEAN Highways, it is important to understand the standards that has been adoptedfor the classification of ASEAN highways in four categories i.e. Primary, Class I, Class II,and Class III. The highways that does not match to the standards adopted for the lowestcategory i.e. Class III are considered under “Below Class III” category. The Table 3-2-11provides the details of standards as adopted for ASEAN Highways.3-13

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportTable 3-2-11 ASEAN Highway StandardsPrimary(4 or more lanes)(control access)Highway ClassificationClass I( 4 or more lanes)Class II(2 lanes)Class III(2 lanes)Terrain classificationLRMLRMLRMLRMDesign speed 050704060Right of wayWidth(m)(50-70) ((40-60))(50-70) ((40-60))(40-60) ((30-40))30-403.753.503.503.00 [3.25]Lane3.0ShoulderMin. horizontal curve radius(m)3902.51202303.02202.51202.5802.02001101.5 [2.0]50110751.0[1.5]50Type of teAsphalt/cementconcreteDouble bituminoustreatmentMax. super elevation (%)(7) ((6))(8) ((6))(10) ((6))(10) ((6))4Max. vertical grade (%)5656767867Min. vertical clearance (m)4.50 [5.00]4.50 [5.00]4.504.50Structure loading (minimum)HS20-44HS20-44HS20-44HS20-448Note:1. Abbreviation: L Level Terrain M Mountainous Terrain R Rolling Terrain2.( ) Rural (( )) Urban3. [ ] Desirable Values4. The right of way width, lane width, shoulder width and max. superelevation rate in urban or metropolitan area can be varied if necessary to conformwith the member countries design standards.Source : b.htmOn comparing the ASEAN Highway status between 2004 and 2008 as shown in Table 3-2-12,it reveals that some of the AMSs are still struggling to meet the targets set for ASEANhighways. As per ASEAN Highway targets, by the year 2004, all designated routes need to beupgraded to at least Class III standards and all missing links need to be constructed. As perTable 3-2-12, in 2008, below Class-III standard roads still exists in Indonesia, Lao PDR,Malaysia, Myanmar and Viet Nam. A large percentage of the total road networks in Myanmarstill fall below Class-III category. In 2008, missing links also exist in Indonesia and Myanmar.Table 3-2-12 Comparison of the ASEAN Highways Status between 2004 & 2008 in AMSsCountryTotal Length (km)Primary (km)Class I (km)Class II (km)Class III (km)Below Class III(km)Missing Links .0437.52518.03947.44469.04075.41362.01362.0-26Lao 2.816.0---Viet 227Source: The 2004 data is from ASEAN Highway Fact Book and the complied data for 2008 received from the Department of Highways,Thailand.‘–‘ means not applicableIt is to be noted that to facilitate transportation of goods in transit and to further integrate theregion’s economies, the priority routes such as ‘Transit Transport Routes (TTR)’ wereidentified in ASEAN highway network and are discussed in detail in the next section.However, as TTR routes are vital for regional and economic integration, the upgrading ofTTR routes will always be the priority. On analyzing in detail the status of ASEAN Highways3-14

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final Reportin 2008 as shown in Table 3-2-13, there are still certain sections in TTR that are below ClassIII standard. In TTR and other ASEAN Highways, the below Class-III standard roads stillexist in Indonesia (AH-150, AH-151, AH-25), Lao PDR (AH12, AH15, AH-131, AH-132),Malaysia (AH-150), Myanmar (AH-1, AH-2, AH-3, AH-111, AH-112, AH-123) and VietNam (AH-13, AH-132). In Viet Nam, recently, the below Class III section on AH14 has beenupgraded. To enhance trade and tourism, it is vital to upgrade these sections with a priority onthe sections along the TTR.Table 3-2-13 The ASEAN Highways Route Status in 2008 in AMSsBrunei DarussalamCountryRouteNo.AH150CambodiaAH 1AH 11AH123AH 2IndonesiaAH 25AH150AH151AH152ItinerarySg. Tujuh - KualaLurah,Puni(BruneiDarussalam CheckPoint)Labu(BruneiDarussalam CheckPoint)Poi Pet - Sisophon- Phnom Penh BavetSihanoukvillePhnom Penh Kampong Cham Stung Treng TrapeangkrealCham Yeam - KohKong PhumDaung Bridge - SreAmbel - ChamkarLuongMerak - Jakarta SemarangKartasuraSurabayaDenpasarBanda Aceh Medan - PekanbaruJambiPalembangLampungBakauheni - kong)PontianaTebingtinggiPadang - Bangko Lubuk Linggau Terbanggi BesarJakarta - Bogor m)Primary(km)Class I(km)Class II(km)Class III(km)BelowClass h(TTR) inkm168.0- km573.0--573.0---574 km762.8--762.8---764 km151---151---1687.1-353.81333.3---1299 km2783.3-33.71535.21188.4--2523 km3073.0--359.01530.01184.0-321 0---3-15

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015CountryRouteNo.AH 3AH 11Lao PDRAH 12AH 13AH 15AH 16AH131AH132AH 2*MalaysiaAH18*Final ReportClass III(km)BelowClass h(TTR) inkm227.6---251 km--832.0--861 km---410.3293.0-682 km189.0---189.0---132.8---34.898.0-136 kmSavannakhetSeno - Densavanh241.1---241.1--240 6.0--821.0795.026.0----980 km756.6-41.0715.6----ItineraryBoten - Nateuy HouayxayVientiane - BanLao - Thakhek Seno - Phia Fai VeunkhamNateuyOudomxaiLouang- Phrabang-VientianeNam Ngeun OudomxaiTaichangThakhek - BanLao - Keoneau-Phia Fai - Ban HetBukit Kayu Hitam- Kuala Lumpur SenaiUtaraSecond LinkageRantau Panjang Kuantan - JohorBharuTotalLength(km)Primary(km)Class I(km)Class II(km)227.6--832.0-703.3AH140Sungai Petani Gerek - Kota Bharu330.0---330.0---AH141Port Klang - KualaLumpur - Kuantan272.3265.37.0-----AH142Gambang - YongPeng200.0---200.0---AH143*Senai UtaraJohor Bharu19.0--19.0----AH150Serian - Kuching,Tebedu - Serian Sg. Tujuh, KualaLurah - Runi, Labu- Kota Kinabalu Serudong1994.6--1095.6859.040.0-1262 km-3-16

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015CountryRouteNo.AH 1AH 2MyanmarAH 3AH 14AH111AH112SingaporePhilippinesAH123AH26**AH 2*AH143*AH 1ThailandAH 2AH 3AH 12AH 13AH 15ItineraryTamu - MandalayMeiktilaYangon - Bago Payagyi - Thaton MyawadiMeiktila - Loilem Kyaing Tong TachilekMongla - KyaingTongMuse - Thibaw MandalayThibaw - LoilemThatonMawlamyineThanbuzayat - Ye Dawei - Lehnya Khamaukgyi,Lehnya - KhongLoyDaweiMaesameepassLaoagCityManila - Daet Surigao - GeneralSantos - Malabang- Zamboanga CityWoodlandsCheckpoint - PanIsland Express Upp Bukit TimahRd - West CoastHighwayTuas Checkpoint Clementi Road WestCoastHighwayMae Sot - Tak Nakhon Sawan Bangkok - HinKong - Kabinburi AranyaprathetTachilek - Mae Sai- Chiang Rai - TakBangkok - Pranburi- Hat Yai - ChangLonChiang Khong Chiang RaiNongkhaiUdonthaniKhonkaenNakhonRatchasima - HinKongHuaiKonPhitsanulokNakhon SawanUdonthaniNakhon PhanomFinal ReportClass III(km)BelowClass h(TTR) inkm-1206.0379.0-1665 km10.0-349.0448.0-807 km---93.0--93 km453.0-67.0-386.0--453 ----141.0-3,266.2771.0196.088.362,990.8--3073 9.5---702 km1913.6110.41800.92.2---1923 km121.2-11.450.659.2--115 km571.3-571.3----533 th(km)Primary(km)Class I(km)Class II(km)1656.0-80.0807.0-93.03-17

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan nal ReportPrimary(km)Class I(km)Class II(km)Class III(km)BelowClass h(TTR) inkmTak - Phitsanulok LomSak703.4324.4322.756.4713 kmKhonkaenMukdahanHat Yai - SungaiAH 18311.1311.1KolokNakhonRatchasimaAH 19364.178.9285.2491 kmKabinburiChonburiBangkokAHKhlong Loy am121Aranyaprathet - SaKaeoMyanmar Border anburi - HatLekHuu Nghi Quan HanoiVot(South of Vinh) West Vung AngPort - Dong Ha AH 11803.032.388.51323.6358.6296 kmDa Nang - West ofHoi An - QuangNgai - Nha Trang Bien Hoa - Ho ChiMinh City - MocBaiTay Trang - DienBien - Tuan Giao AH 13499.58.2279.3215.5Son La - Hoa Binh- Ha NoiLao Cai - DoanAH 14427.5156.130.8115.6183.0***Hung - Hanoi - HaiPhongCau Treo - VotAH 1599.314.085.3123 km(South of Vinh)Lao Bao - DongAH 1684.084.083 kmHaWest of Hoi An Thanh My - KonTum - Play Cu Ban Me Thuot AH 17958.5162.1737.459.075 kmChon Thanh - AnSuong - Bien Hoa Vung TauAHMu Da - West of137.099.038.0131Vung Ang PortBo Y - Dak To AH198.210.020.0160.0Kon Tum - Quang132NgaiSource: The 2004 data is from ASEAN Highway Fact Book and the complied data for 2008 received from the Department of Highways,Thailand.Final route numbering between Malaysia and Singapore is subject to consultation between both countries. **No Inventory data for 211.50km.Note: AH1, AH2, AH3, AH11, AH12, AH13, AH14, AH15, AH16, AH18, AH19 and AH25 are also a part of Trans Asian Highways.‘ - ‘ means ‘Not Applicable’ (no road length reported in that Class category)*** Recently, this section has been upgraded.Viet NamAH 163-18

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportOn analyzing the traffic volume and number of lanes, it was observed that volume of traffic islarge on highways such as that linking Singapore and Bangkok, Thailand, in the northernislands of the Philippines and in the Java region of Indonesia. On comparing the trafficvolume with the number of existing lanes, it is interesting to note that except the highway thatlinks Singapore and Bangkok, others mainly consist of two-lane roads only. To enhance thetrade activities among AMSs, it is vital to improve the road infrastructure and quality of roadsof the other highways. (Figure 3-2-10 and Figure 3-2-11).Source: ASEAN Logistics Network Map Study, JETRO, 2009Figure 3-2-10 Number of Lanes in Asian Highways3-19

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-2015Final ReportSource : ASEAN Logistics Network Map Study, JETRO, 2009Figure 3-2-11 Traffic Volume on Asian Highways3-20

ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan 2011-20153.2.4Final ReportTRANSIT TRANSPORT ROUTES (TTR)To facilitate transportation of goods in transit, support the implementation of the ASEANFree Trade Area (AFTA), and further integrate the region’s economies, priority routesclassified as ‘Transit Transport Routes (TTR)’ were identified. The 35 sections on variousASEAN Highways across AMSs were designated as TTR. The details of the routes are shownin Table 3-2-14, Figure 3-2-12 and Figure 3-2-13.Table 3-2-14 Details of Designated CambodiaAH-11AH-2IndonesiaAH-150AH-25AH-3Lao PDRPoi Pet (Cambodia/Thailand Border) - Sisophon

the current scenario among the AMSs and highlights the major issues that need an attention to improve the transport performance in AMSs. With the purpose of easy understating, comparisons and review of current status, the chapter is divided by sectors in 4 sections i.e. Land Transport, Air Transport, Maritime Transport and Transport Facilitation.

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Status Change Status Change Type. Indicates the type of status change (Start or End) for mid-pay period accession and separations. Status Change Day. Indicates the day in the two-week pay period when the status starts or ends. Status Oath of Office. Identifies an em

Chapter 25 Electric Potential Chapter 1 Measurement Chapter 26 Capacitance Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line Chapter 27 Current and Resistance Chapter 3 Vectors Chapter 28 Circuits Chapter 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions Chapter 29 Magnetic Fields Chapter 5 Force and Motion-I Chapter 30 Magnetic Fields

THE SKILLFUL HUNTSMAN chapter 01 HUNTSMAN chapter 02 TRAVELS chapter 03 TRANSPORTS chapter 04 FOREST chapter 05 AIR GUN chapter 06 GIANTS chapter 07 CASTLE chapter 08 GUARD DOG chapter 09 PRINCESS chapter 10 KING chapter 11 CAPTAIN chapter 12 COOK HUT contact information dedication This bo

Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 . Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 . THE ENDING OF TIME CHAPTER 1 1ST APRIL 1980 CONVERSATION WITH PROF. . it is a constant battle. DB: Yes. Can we go into that: why is it a constant battle? It is not a b

Contents Dedication Allegiances Maps Prologue Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11

Chapter 4 Inter-VLAN Routing 97 Chapter 5 STP Concepts 137 Chapter 6 EtherChannel 175 Chapter 7 DHCPv4 199 Chapter 8 SLAAC and DHCPv6 223 Chapter 9 FHRP Concepts 261 Chapter 10 LAN Security Concepts 275 Chapter 11 Switch Security Configuration 313 Chapter 12 WLAN Concepts 347 Chapter 13 WLAN Configuration 397 Chapter 14 Routing Concepts 445