STATS IN BRIEF Salaries For Bachelor's Degree

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STATS IN BRIEFU.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONMARCH 2019NCES 2018–163College Majorsand Careers: JobRelatedness andCompensation of1992–93 and 2007–08Bachelor’s DegreeRecipients 4 YearsAfter GraduationAUTHORSPROJECT OFFICERHuade HuoJeremy RedfordAmerican Institutes for ResearchJohn RalphNational Center for Education StatisticsSalaries for bachelor’s degreerecipients can vary widely by collegemajor (Carnevale, Cheah, and Hanson2015; Carnevale, Cheah, and Strohl2013). A 2001 report by the NationalCenter for Education Statistics (NCES)investigated the relationship betweenthe undergraduate majors and earlyemployment outcomes of 1992–93college graduates, including satisfactionwith employment and salaries 4 yearsafter receiving their bachelor’s degrees.This report found that engineering andcomputer science majors experiencedhigher-than-average salaries 4 yearsafter receiving their bachelor’s degree,while education and humanities and artsmajors had lower-than-average salaries(Horn and Zahn 2001). Another NCESreport found that 25- to 29-year-oldswho held bachelor’s degrees in electricalengineering ( 74,790) and mechanicalengineering ( 71,860) had some of thehighest median annual earnings. Incomparison, similarly aged bachelor’sdegree recipients in social work andhuman services ( 36,200), fine arts( 36,270), and elementary education( 39,070) had some of the lowest medianannual earnings (McFarland et al. 2018).Statistics in Brief publications describe key findings from statisticaltables to provide useful information to a broad audience, includingmembers of the general public. They address simple and topical issuesand questions. They do not investigate more complex hypotheses,account for inter-relationships among variables, or support causalinferences. We encourage readers who are interested in more complexquestions and in-depth analysis to explore other NCES resources,including publications, online data tools, and public- and restricteduse datasets. See nces.ed.gov and references noted in the body of thisdocument for more information.This publication was prepared for NCESunder Contract No. ED-IES-12-D-0002 withAmerican Institutes for Research. Mentionof trade names, commercial products, ororganizations does not imply endorsementby the U.S. Government.

Relationships between college majorcollege by comparing three cohortsdistribution of college majorsand salary may depend upon howof college graduates (from 1992–93,changed between the classes ofrelated bachelor’s degree recipients’1999–2000, and 2007–08) (Staklis1992–93 and 2007–08. The last twojobs are to their majors. One studyand Skomsvold 2014). The reportquestions compare the percentagesfound that students majoring in fieldsfound that the unemployment rate ofof graduates in the two cohorts whosuch as engineering, computer science,2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipientswere employed in a job that wasand business management received(9 percent) was higher than that ofrelated to their major and then examinea higher wage penalty for working inthose who attained their degrees indifferences in inflation-adjusted mediana job unrelated to their major than1992–93 and 1999–2000 (5 percent inannual salaries by major 4 years afterdid students who majored in theseboth years). In addition, 1 year aftergraduation. The last two questionsfields and who worked in a job relatedbachelor’s degree completion, medianfocus on students who (1) wereto their major. Significant differencesannual salaries were lower for 2007–08first-time bachelor’s degree recipients,were also found for social scienceand 1992–93 college graduates who(2) did not obtain any additional degreeand education majors, but the wagemajored in fields such as computer4 years after completing their bachelor’spenalty was smaller than the penaltyand information science, the socialdegree, and (3) were employed (eitherfor engineering, computer science,sciences, and the humanities than forpart time or full time) in 1997 or 2012.and business management majors. For1999–2000 college graduates. For allexample, among males, engineeringthree cohorts, median salaries wereDATA AND METHODSmajors who held a position unrelatedhigher for college graduates whoseThe analyses presented in this briefto their college major had a 25 percentjobs were closely related to theirare based on data from the secondlower annual income than their peersmajors than for those whose jobs werefollow-up of two administrations of thewho held an engineering-relatednot related at all to their majors.Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinalposition, while social science majorswho held a position unrelated to theirmajor had a 4 percent lower annualincome. (Robst 2007).This Statistics in Brief builds on earlierreports to compare the labor marketoutcomes of 1992–93 and 2007–08bachelor’s degree recipients 4 yearsAdverse labor market conditions at theafter their graduation, by major. Thetime of college graduation also canpurpose of this brief is to describehave a large, negative, and persistentstudents’ bachelor’s degree majorseffect on salaries (Kahn 2010;between two cohorts and to look atOreopoulos, von Wachter, and Heiszthe relation between their majors and2012). A recent NCES report examinedtheir jobs and salaries 4 years afterthe relationship between collegecompleting their degree. This briefmajors and unemployment rates andaddresses three study questions.median annual salaries 1 year afterThe first question is whether theStudy (B&B), B&B:93/97 and B&B:08/12,conducted by NCES. These studiesprovide information on the educationand employment outcomes of thosewho received bachelor’s degreesfrom Title IV eligible postsecondaryinstitutions.1 B&B:93/97 was a 4-yearfollow-up of bachelor’s degreerecipients who completed their degreesbetween July 1, 1992, and June 30,1993, and who were first interviewed aspart of the 1992–93 administration ofthe National Postsecondary Student AidStudy (NPSAS). Similarly, B&B:08/121Title IV institutions are those eligible to participate in the federal financial aid programs included in Title IV of the Higher Education Act. These programs include Pell Grants, federal student loans, workstudy, and other federal aid.2

was a 4-year follow-up of bachelor’sto their undergraduate majors.3 InDifferences in job relatedness todegree recipients who completedboth 1997 and 2012, the responsesmajors and median annual salariestheir degrees between July 1, 2007,for relatedness of job to major wereare reported in two overall categoriesand June 30, 2008, and who were firstmeasured using three categories:of undergraduate major: science,interviewed as part of the 2007–08closely related, somewhat related, andtechnology, engineering, andadministration of NPSAS.not related at all.mathematics (STEM) fields andnon-STEM fields.5 STEM fields includeSome 11,190 and 17,110 individualsThe B&B:97 interview focused onwho were determined to be eligiblecollege graduates’ jobs in Aprilfor follow-up in 1997 and 2012,1997. If they had more than one job,respectively, comprised the B&B:93/97respondents were asked to identifyand B&B:08/12 cohorts. Thesetheir main employer (i.e., the employerbachelor’s degree recipients representfor whom they had worked theapproximately 1.2 million bachelor’smost number of hours). The B&B:12degree completers in 1992–93 andinterview focused only on respondents’1.6 million in 2007–08. This brief isprimary job, which was defined as theAll differences reported in the textbased on first-time bachelor’s degreerespondent’s current or most recentare statistically significant at thecomputer and information sciences,engineering and engineeringtechnology, and “Other STEM fields.”6Non-STEM fields include socialsciences, humanities, health care fields,business, education, “General studiesand other,”7 and “Other applied.”8recipients only who were employedjob that lasted more than 3 months; ifp .05 level to ensure that they are4 years after receiving their bachelor’smore than one job met this definition,larger than might be expected due todegree.the job with the highest numbersampling variation.9 No adjustmentsof hours per week was selected. Allwere made for multiple comparisons.estimates exclude respondents whoFor more information about p values,were not employed in 1997 or 2012.as well as about the data sources,2Information on job relatedness toundergraduate majors is based onstudent reports collected from the selfadministered B&B:93/97 and B&B:08/12Median annual salaries for bothquestionnaires. In B&B:93/97 andthe 1997 and 2012 collection wereB&B:08/12, bachelor’s degree recipientsadjusted for inflation (to reflect 2016were asked how closely related theirdollars) using the Bureau of Laborcurrent jobs or primary jobs wereStatistics Consumer Price Index.4variables selected in the collection ofthese data, measures, and methodsused in this brief, please see theMethodology and Technical Notesat the end of the report.2Because estimates are for first-time bachelor’s degree recipients only, the 11.3 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and 7.0 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had earneda prior bachelor’s degree or above, or who had not responded to a question about a prior bachelor’s degree, have been excluded from the report analyses.3In 1997, respondents who had a master’s degree or above were also asked how closely related their jobs were to their graduate field of study. In 2012, the survey question asked only about therelatedness of respondents’ primary job to their bachelor’s degree major. To ensure comparability, the estimates in study questions 2 and 3 exclude the 17.7 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’s degreerecipients and 25.9 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had obtained an additional degree 4 years after completing their bachelor’s degree or who had not responded to the questionabout a post-bachelor’s degree.4Consumer Price Index multipliers retrieved February 8, 2017, from http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpicalc.htm. The multipliers 1.49537 and 1.04535 were used to standardize salaries for 1997 and 2012,respectively.5These categories are consistent with other NCES reports using B&B data (for example, see Staklis and Skomsvold 2014).6“Other STEM fields” include biological and physical sciences, science technology, mathematics, and agricultural and natural sciences.7“General studies and other” fields include liberal arts and sciences; general studies and humanities; multi/interdisciplinary studies; basic skills; citizenship activities; health-related knowledge and skills;interpersonal and social skills; leisure and recreational activities; and personal awareness and self-improvement.8“Other applied” fields include personal and consumer services; manufacturing, construction, repair, and transportation; military technology and protective services; architecture; communications;public administration and human services; design and applied arts; law and legal studies; library sciences; and theology and religious vocations.9Apparent differences may not be statistically significant due to small sample sizes and large standard errors.3

STUDY QUESTIONS1How did the distributionof college majorschange between theclasses of 1992–93 and2007–08?KEY FINDINGS The percentage of students who 2 Four years afterreceiving theirbachelor’s degrees, howdid the relatedness of2007–08 bachelor’s3Four years afterreceiving theirbachelor’s degrees,how did the medianannual salaries ofdegree recipients’2007–08 bachelor’sjobs to their collegedegree recipients differmajors differ from thatfrom those of 1992–93of 1992–93 bachelor’sbachelor’s degreedegree recipients?recipients?Four years after graduation, the From 1997 to 2012, the mediangraduated with a STEM degreepercentage of college graduatesannual salary of graduates 4 yearsdecreased from 20 to 16 percentwho reported that their jobsafter graduation decreased bybetween1992–93 and 2007–08were closely related to their 1,000 (in 2016 dollars) (figure 5).(figure 1).undergraduate major increasedfrom 64 percent in 1997 toThe percentage of students who71 percent in 2012 for educationgraduated with a non-STEMdegree increased from 80 to84 percent between 1992–93and 2007–08.majors (figure 3). Differences in median annualsalary by college major from1997 to 2012 included anincrease overall for STEM majorsFor graduates who majored( 7,800), as well as specificallyin computer and informationfor engineering and engineeringsciences, engineering andtechnology majors ( 5,100).engineering technology, healthMeanwhile, there was a decreasecare fields, business, and “Otherfor social science ( 5,300) andapplied” majors, the percentagehumanities ( 4,900) majors.who reported that their jobswere closely related to theirundergraduate majors decreased.4

1How did the distribution of college majors change betweenthe classes of 1992–93 and 2007–08?Overall, the percentage of studentswho graduated with a STEM degreedecreased from 20 to 16 percentbetween 1992–93 and 2007–08FIGURE 1.Percentage distribution of major field of study of 1992–93 and 2007–08 first-timebachelor’s degree recipients: 1992–93 and 2007–08Major field of study(figure 1). While the percentageof students who graduated with a20STEMcomputer and information sciences162Computer andinformation sciencesmajor increased from 2 to 3 percent,the percentage of students who36Engineering andengineering technologygraduated with a major in “OtherSTEM fields” (outside of engineering611Other STEM fields1and engineering technology)7decreased from 11 to 7 percent.80Non-STEM84In contrast, the percentage ofundergraduate students who earned1316Social sciencesa non-STEM degree increased from10Humanities80 to 84 percent between 1992–93and 2007–08. About 24 percent of126Health care fieldsundergraduate students were majoringin business in 1992–93 and 23 percent724Businesswere majoring in business in 2007–08.Between these two years, there were2313Education8increases in the percentages of college2General studiesand other2graduates who earned a degree in the3social sciences (from 13 to 16 percent)12 percent). However, there was a150decrease in the percentage of students20406080100Percentwho earned a degree in education(from 13 to 8 percent).13Other applied3and in the humanities (from 10 to1992–932007–08“Other STEM fields” include biological and physical sciences, science technology, mathematics, and agricultural and natural sciences.“General studies and other” includes liberal arts and sciences; general studies and humanities; multi/interdisciplinary studies; basic skills; citizenshipactivities; health-related knowledge and skills; interpersonal and social skills; leisure and recreational activities; and personal awareness and selfimprovement.3“Other applied” includes personal and consumer services; manufacturing, construction, repair, and transportation; military technology and protectiveservices; architecture; communications; public administration and human services; design and applied arts; law and legal studies; library sciences; andtheology and religious vocations.NOTE: STEM majors include science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Estimates are for first-time bachelor’s degree recipients only and excludethe 11.3 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and 7.0 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had earned a prior bachelor’sdegree or above or had not responded to a question about a prior bachelor’s degree. B&B:93/97 data are weighted by WTF000, and B&B:08/12 data areweighted by WTD000. Estimates include students enrolled in Title IV eligible postsecondary institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, andPuerto Rico.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993/97 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/97) and2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12).125

2Four years after receiving their bachelor’s degrees, how did therelatedness of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients’ jobs to theircollege majors differ from that of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients?In both 1997 and 2012, employedbachelor’s degree recipients wereasked whether their current jobs wereclosely, somewhat, or not at all relatedFIGURE 2.Percentage of first-time bachelor’s degree recipients, by job relatedness to theirundergraduate majors: 1997 and 2012to their undergraduate major.10 In 1997,Percentabout 52 percent of bachelor’s degree100recipients stated that their jobs wereclosely related to their undergraduatemajor, some 23 percent responded804452that their jobs were somewhat related,and around 25 percent reportedworking jobs not related at all to their60Closely relatedSomewhat relatedundergraduate majors. In 2012, only44 percent of respondents reported403423that their jobs were closely relatedNot related at allto their undergraduate major, about34 percent reported that their jobs2025were somewhat related, and 22 percentreported that their jobs were notrelated at all (figure 2). The first section01997their jobs were closely related to theirmajor field of study, while the secondsections focus on bachelor’s degreerecipients who indicated that their jobs2012Yearof findings focuses on bachelor’sdegree recipients who reported that22NOTE: Excludes the 11.3 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and 7.0 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had earned aprior bachelor’s degree or above or had not responded to the question about a pre-bachelor’s degree. Excludes the 17.7 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’sdegree recipients and 25.9 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had obtained an additional degree 4 years after completing theirbachelor’s degree or had not responded to the question about a post-bachelor’s degree. Estimates exclude respondents who were not employed in1997 or 2012. B&B:93/97 data are weighted by WTF000, and B&B:08/12 data are weighted by WTD000. Detail may not sum to totals because ofrounding. Estimates include students enrolled in Title IV eligible postsecondary institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993/97 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/97)and 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12).were not related at all to their majorfield of study. Within each section,the findings explore differences in jobrelatedness to undergraduate majorbetween 1997 and 2012.10Data for bachelor’s degree recipients who indicated that their jobs were somewhat related to their major field of study are included in table 2.6

Job closely related to majorComparisons between 1997 and 2012Overall, there was an 8-percentagepoint decline from 1997 to 2012 inFIGURE 3.Percentage of first-time bachelor’s degree recipients who reported that their jobswere closely related to their undergraduate majors, by major field of study: 1997and 2012the percentage of bachelor’s degreeMajor field of studyrecipients who reported that their52Totaljobs were closely related to theirmajor. Specifically, about 52 percent of4456STEM1992–93 graduates reported in 1997that their jobs were closely related to4974Computer andinformation sciencestheir undergraduate majors, compared5960Engineering andengineering technologyto 44 percent of 2007–08 graduates in492012 (figure 3).47Other STEM fields143STEM majors followed a similarpattern. From 1997 to 2012, the total51Non-STEMpercentage of STEM graduates whoreported that their jobs were closely4329Social sciences24related to their major field of studydecreased from 56 to 49 percent.28Humanities26There were also specific decreases forcomputer and information sciencemajors (from 74 to 59 percent)technology majors (from 60 to647134General studiesand other2As was the case with STEM majors,the total percentage of non-STEM2753Other applied3majors who reported that theirjobs were closely related to their44020406080100Percentundergraduate major field of study1997decreased from 1997 to 2012 (frommajors (from 64 to 71 percent).5543Education49 percent).percentage increased for education73Businessand engineering and engineering51 to 43 percent). However, this85Health care fields2012“Other STEM fields” include biological and physical sciences, science technology, mathematics, and agricultural and natural sciences.“General studies and other” includes liberal arts and sciences; general studies and humanities; multi/interdisciplinary studies; basic skills;citizenship activities; health-related knowledge and skills; interpersonal and social skills; leisure and recreational activities; and personalawareness and self-improvement.3“Other applied” includes personal and consumer services; manufacturing, construction, repair, and transportation; military technology andprotective services; architecture; communications; public administration and human services; design and applied arts; law and legal studies;library sciences; and theology and religious vocations.NOTE: STEM majors include science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Estimates are for first-time bachelor’s degree recipients only.Excludes the 11.3 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and 7.0 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had earneda prior bachelor’s degree or above or had not responded to the question about a pre-bachelor’s degree. Excludes the 17.7 percent of 1992–93bachelor’s degree recipients and 25.9 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had obtained an additional degree 4 years aftercompleting their bachelor’s degree or had not responded to the question about a post-bachelor’s degree. Estimates exclude respondents whowere not employed in 1997 or 2012. B&B:93/97 data are weighted by WTF000, and B&B:08/12 data are weighted by WTD000. Detail may notsum to totals because of rounding. Estimates include students enrolled in Title IV eligible postsecondary institutions in the 50 states, the Districtof Columbia, and Puerto Rico.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993/97 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study(B&B:93/97) and 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12).127

Job not related at all to majorComparisons between 1997 and 2012Overall, the percentage of graduateswho reported that their jobs were notrelated at all to their undergraduatemajors decreased from the 25 percentreported by 1992–93 graduates in 1997to the 22 percent reported by 2007–08graduates in 2012. There were alsodifferences by major. For STEM majors,the percentage of college graduateswho reported that their jobs were notFIGURE 4.Percentage of first-time bachelor’s degree recipients who reported that their jobswere not related at all to their undergraduate major, by major field of study: 1997and 2012Major field of study25Total2221STEM168!11Computer andinformation sciences12Engineering andengineering technology15related at all to their undergraduatemajors decreased between 199732Other STEM fields122and 2012 both overall (from 21 to16 percent) as well as in “Other STEM25Non-STEM23fields” (from 32 to 22 percent). For nonSTEM majors, the percentage decreased45Social sciences36for social science majors (from 45 to36 percent), humanities majors (from49 to 38 percent), and education majors(from 20 to 12 percent) (figure 4).49Humanities388Health care fields915Business1620Education1236General studiesand other23126Other applied326020406080100Percent19972012! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.1“Other STEM fields” include biological and physical sciences, science technology, mathematics, and agricultural and natural sciences.2“General studies and other” includes liberal arts and sciences; general studies and humanities; multi/interdisciplinary studies; basic skills;citizenship activities; health-related knowledge and skills; interpersonal and social skills; leisure and recreational activities; and personalawareness and self-improvement.3“Other applied” includes personal and consumer services; manufacturing, construction, repair, and transportation; military technology andprotective services; architecture; communications; public administration and human services; design and applied arts; law and legal studies;library sciences; and theology and religious vocations.NOTE: STEM majors include science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Estimates are for first-time bachelor’s degree recipients only.Excludes the 11.3 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and 7.0 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had earneda prior bachelor’s degree or above or had not responded to the question about a pre-bachelor’s degree. Excludes the 17.7 percent of 1992–93bachelor’s degree recipients and 25.9 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had obtained an additional degree 4 years aftercompleting their bachelor’s degree or had not responded to the question about a post-bachelor’s degree. Estimates exclude respondents whowere not employed in 1997 or 2012. B&B:93/97 data are weighted by WTF000, and B&B:08/12 data are weighted by WTD000. Detail may notsum to totals because of rounding. Estimates include students enrolled in Title IV eligible postsecondary institutions in the 50 states, the Districtof Columbia, and Puerto Rico.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993/97 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study(B&B:93/97) and 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12).8

3Four years after receiving their bachelor’s degrees, how did themedian annual salaries of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipientsdiffer from those of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients?Overall median annual salarycomparisonsIn 1997, the median annual salary (in2016 dollars) 4 years after graduationwas 46,400 for bachelor’s degreerecipients who reported that theirjobs were closely related to theirundergraduate majors, about 44,900for those who responded their jobstheir jobs were closely related towere somewhat related, and 38,900their undergraduate majors, aboutfor those who reported working jobs 44,400 for those who respondednot at all related to their undergraduatetheir jobs were somewhat related,majors. In 2012, the median annualand 34,200 for those who reportedsalary (in 2016 dollars) 4 years afterworking jobs not at all related to theirgraduation was 48,300 for bachelor’sundergraduate majors.degree recipients who reported that9

Comparisons between 1997 and 2012While the total median annual salary4 years after graduation decreasedFIGURE 5.Median annual salary 4 years after graduation (in 2016 dollars) among 1992–93 and2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients, by major field of study: 1997 and 2012from 44,900 in 1997 to 43,900 in2012 (in 2016 dollars), the medianMajor field of studysalary increased for STEM majors 44,900Totalboth overall (from 53,800 to 61,700)as well as for engineering and 43,900 53,800STEM 61,700engineering technology majors(from 62,800 to 67,900) (figure 5).11Computer andinformation sciencesIn contrast, for non-STEM majors, theEngineering andengineering technologymedian annual salary decreased forsocial sciences majors (from 41,900 to 59,800 65,900 62,800 67,900 40,400Other STEM fields1 41,600 36,600) and humanities majors (from 37,800 to 32,900). 43,400Non-STEM 41,800 41,900Social sciences 36,600 37,800Humanities 32,900 52,300Health care fields 51,300 50,200Business 52,300 35,900Education 37,600 41,900General studiesand other2 40,800 41,900Other applied3 39,500020,00040,00060,00080,000Median annual salary (in 2016 dollars)1997“Other STEM fields” include biological and physical sciences, science technology, mathematics, and agricultural and natural sciences.“General studies and other” includes liberal arts and sciences; general studies and humanities; multi/interdisciplinary studies; basic skills;citizenship activities; health-related knowledge and skills; interpersonal and social skills; leisure and recreational activities; and personalawareness and self-improvement.3“Other applied” includes personal and consumer services; manufacturing, construction, repair, and transportation; military technology andprotective services; architecture; communications; public administration and human services; design and applied arts; law and legal studies;library sciences; and theology and religious vocations.NOTE: STEM majors include science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Estimates are for first-time bachelor’s degree recipients only.Excludes the 11.3 percent of 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and 7.0 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had earneda prior bachelor’s degree or above or had not responded to the question about a pre-bachelor’s degree. Excludes the 17.7 percent of 1992–93bachelor’s degree recipients and 25.9 percent of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who had obtained an additional degree 4 years aftercompleting their bachelor’s degree or had not responded to the question about a post-bachelor’s degree. Estimates exclude respondents whowere not employed in 1997 or 2012. B&B:93/97 data are weighted by WTF000, and B&B:08/12 data are weighted by WTD000. The medianannual salary is adjusted for inflation using the following Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index multipliers: 1.49537 for 1997 and1.04535 for 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2017, from http://www.bls.gov/cpi/cpicalc.htm. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.Estimates include students enrolled in Title IV eligible postsecondary institutions in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993/97 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study(B&B:93/97) and 2008/12 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12).12Median annual salaries 4 years after gradu

degree completers in 1992-93 and 1.6 million in 2007-08. This brief is based on first-time bachelor's degree recipients only. 2 2 Because estimates are for first-time bachelor's degree recipients only, the 11.3 percent of 1992-93 bachelor's degree recipients and 7.0 percent of 2007-08 bachelor's degree recipients who had earned

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