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Karmaveer Kakasaheb Wagh Education Society’sK. K. WAGH COLLEGE OF AGRICULTRURE,Saraswatinagar Nagar, Panchavati, Nasik-422003Theory NotesCourse Title : BiochemistryCourse No. : SSAC-354Credit: 3 (2 1)B. Sc. (Agri.)Semesters: VDepartment of Soil Science andAgriculture Chemistry1Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Teaching ScheduleCourse Title : BiochemistryCourse No. : SSAC-354Credit: 3 (2 1)B. Sc. (Agri.)Semesters: VLect.WeightTopicNo.age1History, scope and importance of biochemistry42-3 Structure and organelles of plant cell and their role3Biomolecules - Definition, types, structure, properties and its42applicationsCarbohydrates - Definition, classification, structure, properties5-65and functions.Nucleotides and Nucleic acid - Definition, components and their7-85structureAmino acids, peptides and proteins - Definition, classification,9-106structure and propertiesPlant proteins and their quality, Essential amino acids and115limiting amino acidsLipids - Definition, classification, structure properties and their12-134significanceFatty acids- Definition, classification, structure and essential144fatty acidsBiochemical energetics : Definition, free energy concept of15-16 chemical reaction, Components of electron transport chain,3energy rich compounds17 MID TERM EXAMINATIONEnzymes- Definition, Classification, factor affecting enzyme18-195activity.Enzyme immobilization (inactivation) and its Industrial204application in agro- industries21 Vitamins and their coenzymes derivatives322-23- Metabolic energy and it's generation metabolism - glycolysis,424 Citric acid cycle, Pentose phosphate pathwaysPhosphorylation - Definition, cyclic and non-cyclic and substrate25-264level phosporylatin, oxidative phosphorylations.27 Fatty acid oxidation- -oxidation328-29 Biosynthesis- carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid4Metabolic regulation- integration of carbohydrate, lipid and304protein metabolismSecondary metabolites - glycosides, tannins, lignins, gums and31-32mucilage-Definition, classification, properties and their physiolo433-gical roles and application in food and pharmaceutical industries2Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Secondary metabolites -alkaloids, terpenoids - Definition,34-35classification, properties and their physiological roles and36application in food and pharmaceutical industries4PRACTICALSPract.No.1-2-3Name of practicalQualitative tests for carbohydrates, proteins and lipids4Extraction of oil by Soxhlet’s method512Estimation of protein by Lowry's methodEstimation of oil quality parameters (acid value, saponification valueand iodine value)Quantitative determination of reducing and total sugars by Benedict'smethodStudy of protein denaturation by heat, pH, precipitation of proteins withheavy metalsDetermination of Ascorbic acid from fruit juice13Estimation of chlorophyll from plant sample14Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography15Characterization of lipids by thin layer chromatography (TLC)16Determination of poly-phenols by Folin-Denis method17Study of amino acid models18Study of structural models of sugar- sucrose and starch6-78-910-11Reference Books:1. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by J.L. Jain2. Biotechnology by B.D., Singh3. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson & Cox4. Outlines of Biochemistry by Conn & Stumpf5. Textbook of biochemistry by A VSS, Ramarao6. An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry by D.T. Plummer7. Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry by Jairaman3Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

LESSON PLAN -1Topic : History and scope of plant biochemistry, important Biomolcculcs.The term Biochemistry was first introduced by German scientist /chemist CARL NEUBERG in 1903.Definition of BiochemistryBiochemistry may be defined as a science concerned with chemicalnature and chemical behaviour of the living matter.Biochemistry may be treated as a discipline in which biologicalphenomenon are analyzed in terms of chemistry. Hence termed as biologicalchemistry or Chemical Biology.HistoryIn terms of history biochemistry is a young science.Sr.PeriodNo.1 1742-1786Name ofscientistKarl r4Louis Pasteur56185418641877189471897Buckner81902Emil Fischer91903NeubergContributionIsolated citric acid, lactic acid, malicacidFather of biochemistry, developed theconcept of oxidation of organicmaterialsSynthesized the first organiccompound, urea frominorganic componentsProved that fermentation is caused bymicroorganismsProposed the term ‘Enzyme’Demonstrated the specificity ofenzymes and thelock and key relationship betweenenzyme andsubstrateDiscovered alcoholic fermentation incell-free yeastextractDemonstrated that proteins arepolypeptidesFirst used the term ‘biochemistry’KuhneEmil Fischer4Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

1019131119261933193719401950195019531953Michaelis andMentenSumnerDeveloped kinetic theory of enzymeactionFirst crystallized an enzyme, ureaseand proved it tobe a proteinDemonstrated crucial intermediates inthe chemicalpathway of glycolysis and fermentationDiscovered citric acid cycleRole of ATP in biological systemsProposed the α-helix structure forkeratinsDiscovered the base composition ofDNADetermined the complete amino acidsequence ofinsulinProposed the double-helical model forDNAstructureConfirmed the Watson-Crick model ofsemiconservative replication of DNAProposed the operon hypothesis andpostulated thefunction of messenger RNAGolden rice- rich in β-caroteneSuggested the name proteinsEmbdenMeyerhof andParnasKrebsLipmannPauling andCoreyChargaffSanger andThompson1953Watson andCrick1958Meselson andStahl1961Jacob &Monod19991838Ingo potrykusBerzelius1822-1895Louis Pasteur1852-1919Emil Fischer19061912F. G. HopkinsFunk19541926Watson andCrickJ.B. Sumner1935Rose1929HaworthIdentified organisms responsible forfermentation.Studied structure of carbohydrates,Amino acids and fats.Concept of deficiency diseasesIsolated and characterized the curativeagent for scurvy (Vitamin – C), rickets(Vit. – D), Beriberi (Vit – B1)Helical model of nucleic acidFirst crystallized enzyme urease,Father of modern enzymologyDiscovery of the first essential aminoacid threonine.Formulation of sugars as pyranoseform OR Furanose form5Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Scope of plant biochemistryBiochemistry deals with study of1.The nature of the chemical constituents of the living matter and thechemical substances produced by living things.2.The functions and transformations of their chemical entities inbiological systems.3.The chemical and energetic changes associated with thetransformation in the course of the activity of living matter.Scope and importance of biochemistry in Agriculture1)2)3)4)5)6)7)8)9)To evaluate nutritive value of cereals, pulses, poultry and cattle feeds.Development and exploitation of better genotypes.Removal and inactivation of toxic or anti nutritional factors present infood grains in general and grain legumes in particular by breeding andchemical treatments. e.g. BOAA in Lakh dal, Trypsin inhibitors ofsoybean, Aflatoxins of groundnut.Food preservation and processing technology and post harvest physiologyof fruit crops and vegetables and their nutritional quality.Biochemistry of disease and pest resistance.Biochemistry of drought resistance. Proline and hydroxyproline impartsdrought resistance to Jowar.Formulation of balanced diet.Use of nonconventional sources of protein foods viz., single cell proteins,fish protein concentrates, mushrooms and leaf proteins.Developments in the field of intermediately metabolism i.e. synthesis anddegradation of constituents of living tissues.6Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Topic:3Structures and functions of important cellOrganelles, importance of waterDefinition of cellA cell may be defined as “Structural and functional unit of all livingorganisms”. Two types of cells - 1) Eukaryotic cells 2) Prokaryotic cells.Schematic diagram of a typical plant cell.Important plant cell-organelles and their functions1) Cell Wall - It Provides support, prevent cells from swelling and rupture orshrinkage, gives definite shape to cell.2) Nucleus - Store of genetic information, which issue appropriate signal atproper time during different stages.3) Mitochondria - Power house of energy, contain m-tRNA and DNA andprotein synthesizing machinery, synthesis of ATP required for anabolism.4) Chloroplast - The sites of photosynthetic phosphorylation. The stroma isthe site of the carbon photosynthetic enzymes involved in CO2 fixation,ribosomes, nucleic acid-synthesizing enzymes, and fatty acid synthesizingenzymes.5) Ribosomes - Site of protein biosynthesis.6) Golgi apparatus - Participate in the early stage of cell wall synthesis inhigher plants. Site of secretions of proteins and polysaccharides and couplingof these two components to form glycoproteins. Intense phospholipid7Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

biosynthesis observed in these organelles.Importance of water:i) Serves as a medium in which substances undergo fundamental changes.ii) Provides hydrogen for the reduction of CO2 in photosynthesis.iii) Water is necessary reactant for the hydrolytic splitting of carbohydrates,fats and proteins.iv) Water is solvent and dispersion medium for all protoplasmic constituents.v) Acts as a transporting medium for all the cell Absorption, secretion and excretion would not be possible without water.8Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Topic: 4Biomolecules - Definition,types, structure, properties and itsapplicationsDefinition of Biomolecule: An organic compound normally present as anessential component of living organism.IMPORTANT BIOMOLECULESCharacteristics of Biomolecules: 1) Most of them are organic compounds.2) They have specific shapes and dimensions3) Functional group determines their chemical properties.4) Many of them arc asymmetric5) Macromolecules are large molecules and are constructed from smallbuilding block molecules.6) Building block molecules have simple structure.7) Biomolecules first gorse by chemical evolution.Important Biomolecules of lifei) Water - Being the universal solvent and major constituents (60%) of anyliving body without which life is impossible. It acts as a media for thephysiological and biochemical reactions in the body itself. Maintain thebody in the required turgid condition.2) Carbohydrates - It is very important for source of energy for any physicalbody function3) Proteins - These are very important from body maintenance point of view,helps in tissue, cell formation.4) Lipids: These are very important from energy source as well as humannutrition point of view.5) Nucleic acids - Nucleic acids are very important as DNA carries thehereditary information and RNA helps in protein formation for the body.6) Enzymes - Enzymes are simple or combined proteins acting as specificcatalysts and activate the various biochemical and metabolic processeswithin the body.Table - Fundamental Biological molecules (Biomolecules)Sr.Small moleculesAtomic constituentsDerived macro-molecules1.Amino acidC, H, O, N (S)Proteins2SugarsC, H,OStarch, glycogen3.Fatty acidsPurines andpyrimidineNucleotideC, H, OFats, oilsC, H, O, NNucleic acidsC, H, O, N, PNucleic acids (DNA and RNA)4.5.9Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Topic : 5-6Carbohydrates - Definition, functions, classifications, structure andProperties of Monosaccharide and Disaccharides.Definition of carbohydrates:Carbohydrates are defined as polyhydroxy aldehydes or polyhydroxyketones and the substances which yield these derivatives on hydrolysis.Functions of Carbohydratesi) Supply energyii) Stored energy for future useiii) Structural constituentsiv) Proteins sparing actionv) Necessary for oxidation of protein and fatvi) Necessary for synthesis of non essential amino acids.vii) Conserve water and electrolyteviii) Beneficial effect on microflora.Classification of carbohydratesCarbohydrates are classified in to three major classes on the basis ofcomplexity and behaviour on hydrolysis1) Monosaccharides2) Oligosaccharides3) PolysaccharidesMonosaccharides :- Simple sugars and cannot be hydrolysed into smallerunits. Depending upon no. of carbon in a unit, monosaccharides are subdividedinto a dioses to decoses. More common subclasses of monosaccharides are:Based on the functional group, they are classified as aldoses and ketoses1) depending on whether they have aldehyde or ketone as ihydroxy acetoneTetroseErythroseErythrosePentoseRibose, Xylose,ArabinoseRibulose, toseHeptuloseAldoses - Aldotrioses – e.g. Glycerose, Aldotertroses – e.g. Erythrose,Aldopentoses – e.g. Ribose Aldohexoscs – e.g. glucose, galatoseAldoheptose – glucoheptose.Ketoses - Ketotrioses – e.g Dihydroxyacetone ketotetroses – e.g erythrulose,ketopentoses - e.g Ribulose, Ketohexoses, e.g. Fructose, Ketoheptose e.g.Scdoheptulose.Explain structure of triose tetrose, pentose and hexoses only10Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

AldosesD-GlyceraldehydeD- nose11D-GalactoseCompiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

KetosesD- ErythruloseIsomerisma) Stereoisomerism: Most of the monosaccharides contain the same number ofatoms and the same kinds of groups, yet they are definitely distinct substance.For example, the formula C6H12O6 represents 16 different simple sugars, allpossessing the structure CH2OH. CHOH CHOH CHO. This is due to differentarrangement of the constituent groups of the molecule in space. Thisphenomenon is called as stereoisomerism and these sugars are called asstereoisomers. For example; Glucose, mannose & galactose are stereoisomers.When there are several asymmetric carbon atoms in a chain molecule and the12Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

end groups are not identical, the number of stereoisomer’s possible is equal to2n where n is the number of asymmetric carbon atoms. Thus there are 16stereoisomers possible corresponding to the formula CH2OH. CHOH CHOHCHOH CHOH CHO, which contains four asymmetric carbon atoms (2n).Monosaccharide belong to D or L series depending on the position of OHgroup on the penultimate carbon atom. If OH is towards right side of thepenultimate carbon atom it is called as D sugar and if OH is towards left side ofthe penultimate carbon atom it is called as L sugar. Glyceraldehyde, thesimplest sugar is used as a reference compound for representing D & L formsof sugars. The structures of D and L glyceraldehydes are shown in the figure.D & L forms of sugars which are non super imposable mirror images of eachother are called enantiomers. Eg: D& L Threose molecules as shown in figureD-ThreoseL-ThreoseIn nature, D-sugars are more widely distributed than L-sugars.The stereoisomers which are not mirror images of each other are calleddiastereomersEg: 1) D-Erythrose & D- Threose 2) D- Glucose, D- Mannose & D Galactoseas shown in figure13Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

mong the diastereoisomers, those which differ in configuration at asingle carbon atom are called epimers. Mannose is an epimer of glucose at 2ndcarbon atom whereas galactose is an epimer of glucose at 4th carbon atomwhereas galactose & glucose bear no epimeric relationship. The structuralformulae of these sugars are shown above.Structural isomerism: Some compounds have same molecular formula butdifferent structural formulae. For example Glucose, galactose & mannose havesame molecular formula but different structures and hence they are calledstructural isomers.C )Functional isomerism: Glucose and fructose have same molecular formulabut glucose is an aldose while fructose is a ketose. This kind of isomerism iscalled Functional isomerism.d) Optical isomerism: Carbohydrates exhibit another kind of isomerism calledoptical isomerism. It is shown by the compounds having an asymmetric carbon.They have same molecular and structural formulae but differ in their behaviortowards plane polarized light. An optical isomer rotating the plane of polarizedlight toward right is called dextrorotatory ‘d’ ( ) while one rotating the plane ofpolarized light toward left is called levorotatory ‘l’ (-).Ring Structures: The aldehyde or ketone group of a monosaccharide can reactwith a hydroxyl group to form a covalent bond. Formally, the reaction betweenan aldehyde and the hydroxyl group of a sugar (an alcohol) creates ahemiacetal structure whereas a ketone reacts with hydroxyl group of a sugar(alcohol) to form a hemiketal structure14Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

For tetroses and larger sugars, the reaction can take place within thesame molecule so that the straight chain form of the sugar cyclizes. Thefollowing figure shows the cyclization of D-glucose to form a six-carbon ring.A new asymmetric center is formed during cyclization of an aldehyde atC- 1. Thus two isomers of glucose exists as α – D-Glucose in which OH groupat C- 1 lies below the plane of the ring and β-D-Glucose in which the OHgroup at C-1 lies above the plane of ring. The C-1 carbon is called anomericcarbon atom and the alpha and beta forms are called anomers. In aqueoussolution the alpha and beta forms are rapidly inter convertible via the openchain structure to give an equilibrium mixture and this is termed asmutarotation. Because of the structural similarity to the ring compound calledpyran, the six membered ring structures of hexoses are called pyranoses.15Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Five membered sugars such as D-ribose and D-deoxyribose and sixcarbon ketose sugars such as D-fructose, form rings called furanoses as theirStructures are similar to the furan ring. Again the furanoses can exists both inalpha and beta forms except here the nomenclature refers to the hydroxyl groupattached to C-2 which is the anomeric carbon atom.The pyranose ring of a six-carbon aldose sugar can exist in either a boat or achair configuration. The substituents attached to the ring carbons that extendparallel to the symmetry axis are said to be axial (a) whilst those that extendoutward from this axis are said to be equatorial (b) . In the boat form, there isconsiderable steric hindrance between the various groups attached to the carbonatoms of the ring and therefore this form is less favorable energetically. Hencethe chair form predominates, as shown for β-D-glucose where all the axialpositions are occupied by hydrogen atoms.16Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Oligosaccharides: The monosaccharide’s condense with each other throughglycosidic linkage to form oligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides are furtherclassified depending upon the number of monosaccharide units present.Disaccharides: The hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of oneMonosaccharide can react with the hydroxyl group of a secondmonosaccharide to form a disaccharide. The covalent bond formed is called aglycosidic bond.Eg: a) Lactose: It is a disaccharide formed between the anorexic carbon C-1 ofβ-D-galactose and C-4 of α- D-glucose. Since the anomeric carbon of galactosemolecule is involved in the bond and is in the beta-configuration, this is calledβ (1 4) bond which can be abbreviated as β1 4.b) Maltose: It is a disaccharide formed between the C-1 and C-4 positions oftwo α- D glucose units. However, here the configuration of the anomericcarbon atom involved is the alpha form and hence the bond is called an α (1 4)bond or abbreviated as α1 4. For lactose and maltose, one of the anomericcarbons has been used to form the bond, leaving the second anomeric carbonfree. Thus both lactose and maltose have a reducing end. Hence they are calledas reducing disaccharides.c) Sucrose: It is a disaccharide formed by glycosidic bond formation betweenthe anomeric C-1 of α- D - glucose and the anomeric C-2 of β-D fructose sothat sucrose lacks a free reducing group. Thus sucrose is a non reducing17Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

disaccharide. It is formed by condensation of Glucose & fructose.Trisaccharides: Three monosaccharide units condense with each other to formtrisaccharides. Eg: Raffinose is formed by condensation of Galactose , Glucose& Fructose.Polysaccharides: Many monosaccharide units condense to formpolysaccharides through glysosidic linkage.Polysaccharide classification:They are classified depending on the function, nature of branching andrepeating unit.1. Functional classification:a. Structural polysaccharide: Polysaccharides belonging to this class help inmaintaining the cell structure. Eg: Cellulose, chitin, Hemicellulose, pectin.b. Storage polysaccharide: Polysaccharides belonging to this class help instoring carbohydrate material in the cell.Eg: Starch, glycogen, inulin.2. Nature of branching:a. Linear: Polysaccharides belonging to this class have a linear glycosidicbonding only. Eg: Cellulose, chitin, amyloseb. Branched: Polysaccharides belonging to this class have a branchedglycosidic bonding. Eg: Starch, amylopectin, glycogen.3. Repeating Unit:18Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

a. Homopolysaccharide: Polysaccharides belonging to this class contain thesame basic repeating monosaccharide unit. Eg:Starch, glycogen, chitin, inulin.b. Heteropolysaccharides: Polysaccharides belonging to this class containmore than one basic repeating unit. Eg: Hemicellulose, pectin.Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units joined together.Depending on the polysaccharide, the chains may be linear or branched. Inplants, the storage form of glucose is the polysaccharide called as starch whereas in animals excess glucose is stored as a large branched polysaccharide calledglycogen. These polysaccharides serve as nutritional reserves and whenrequired they are broken down and the monosaccharide products aremetabolized to yield energy. In contrast, cellulose is present in cell walls andbehaves as a structural polysaccharide.Starch: Starch exists in plants as insoluble starch granules in the cytoplasm.Each starch molecule contains a mixture of two polysaccharide forms, amylaseand amylopectin. Amylose is unbranched polymer of glucose residues joined inα 1,4 linkages. Amylopectin is the branched form in which most of the glucoseresidues are joined in α 1,4 linkages but additional α 1,6 bonds occur at every25-30 residues creating the branch points.Glycogen: Glycogen molecule consists of glucose units which are linked inlong chains by α1 4 bonds. For every 10 units or so, the chain is branched bythe formation of α 1,6 glycosidic bond. The glycogen chain terminates in a nonreducing end with a free 4’-OH group. Since the enzyme that degradesglycogen catalyzes the removal of glycosyl units from non reducing end ofglycogen chain, the numerous branches, each with a non reducing end, greatlyincrease the accessibility of the polysachharide to degradation. The α1, 6branches are removed by debranching enzyme.19Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Dextran is a glucose polymer where the glucose residues are mainly linked bythe 1, 6 bonds. A few branches also occur which is formed by α1, 2, α1, 3 or α1,4 bonds depending on the bacterial or yeast species that is the source ofdextran.Cellulose: Cellulose is an unbranched polysaccharide of glucose units linkedby β 1, 4 bonds. The glucose residues in cellulose are arranged as straightfibrils. In plant cell walls, the cellulose fibrils are embedded in a matrix ofother polysaccharides. In wood, the matrix also contains lignin, a complexpolymer of phenolic residues. Mammals including humans, lack enzymescapable of digesting the β1,4 linkages of cellulose and so cannot digest plantcell walls.20Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

Conjugated polysaccharides: Besides occurring in free state, thecarbohydrates occur in nature in conjugation with other biomolecules likelipids and proteins to form glycolipids and glycoproteins.Mucopolysaccharides are glycoproteins characterized by the presence of aminosugars like glucosamine, galactosamine.Eg: Hyaluronic acid & Heparin.Industrial uses:Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are used in number ofindustries as listed below:Monosaccharides1. Glucose and fructose are used as energy source2. Liquid glucose is widely used in the confectionary, bakery, and jampreparation, canning and leather industries.3. Glucose can be fermented to biofuel ethanol.4. Liquid dextrose is used in fermentation industries, for the manufacture ofdextrose monohydrates, fructose and sorbitol syrups.5. Sorbitol syrup is widely used in tooth paste, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics andtobacco industries.6. Fructose is used as sweetener in beverages, sport drinks and also usedas a flavoring agent.7. Fructose is used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industryOligosaccharides1. Sucrose is used in confectionery industry and in desserts.2. Sucrose is used in preservation of foods.3. Sucrose is used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.4. Maltose is used in baby food industry.Polysaccharides1. Food industry: Starch plays a leading role in determining the texture ofmany foods and texture is of vital concern to both the consumers andthe manufacturers. Starch finds numerous uses in the baking industryfor the production of cakes, cookies, in ice-cream preparations etc2. Paper industry: In Paper industry, a large quantity of starch isconsumed as a surface-sizing agent, as a binder, as a paper coatingagent etc. Starch is used in the manufacture of various adhesives orglues for book-binding, wall paper adhesives, gummed paper, envelopadhesives, school glues and bottle labeling3. Textile industry: In textile industry, starch is used in sizing tostrengthen the warp yarn, in finishing and changing the appearance offabric after it is bleached, dyed or printed. Starch is used as acomponent in finishing agent to glaze and polish sizing thread. Clothingstarch or laundry starch is a liquid that is prepared by mixing avegetable starch in water.4. Pharmaceutical industry: Starch is used as an excipient, a binder inmedications to aid the formation of tablets 5. Printing industry : In the printingindustry, food grade starch is used in the manufacture of anti-set-off spray21Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

powder used to separate printed sheets of paper to avoid wet ink being set off.6. Plastic industry: Starch is used to produce various bioplastics,Synthetic polymers that are shown in figureerties of Monosaccharides1) Mutarotation2) Glycoside formation3) Reducing power4) Reduction5) Oxidation with mild and strong oxidizing agent6) Methylation / Esterification7) Dehydration8) Form osazone with phenylhydrazine.2.Olignsaccharide:- Definition - Oligosaccharides are polymers ofmonosaccharides containing two to ten residues accumulate in vacuole whilepolysaccharides in plastids, they are classified asa) Disaccharides - yield two monosaccharides on hydrolysis.i) Reducing disaccharides - e.g. Maltose (Glucose glucose ),Lactose (galactose glucose), Other examples are Isomaltose, cellobiose.ii) Non reducing disaccharides - Sucrose (glucose Fructose)b) Trisaccharides - e.g. Raffinose - (Glucose Fructose galactose)found in cotton seed and sugar beet. .c) Tetrasaccharides - yield 4 monosaccharides on hydrolysis e.g. stachyose(glucose Fructose galactose galactose) (only tetrasaccharide known toexist in plant).Explain structure of sucrose, Lactose, Maltose only.3. Polysaccharides :Definition of PolysaccharidesPolysaccharides are polymeric anhydrides of monosaccharides. The long chainpolymers are either straight chain or branched. They are also called glycanes.Classification of Polysaccharides1) On the basis of functiona) Storage e.g. Starch, glycogenb) Structural - e.g.Cellulose, Pectins.a)i)ii)A)B)C)D)2) On the basis of compositiona) Homopolysaccharidesb) Heteropolysaccharides.Homopolysaccharides - on hydrolysis gives single monosaccharide unitsPentosan - contains pentoses (C5 H8 O4).Hexosans - Contains hexoses (C6 H10 O5) subdivided in toGlucosans - Polymer or glucose e.g. starch, glycogenFructosans - Polymer or fructose e.g. inulinGalactans - polymer of galactose e.g. GalactanMannans - Polymer of mannose e.g. Mananas.b) Heteropolysaccharide - e.g. Hyaluronic acid, Chondroitin sulphates.22Compiled by P.V. Shinde Dept of SSAC K.K.Wagh Agril. College,Nashik

A) Gum - Consist of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and glucoronic acid.B) Agar - The sulphuric acid esters of galactans consists of galactose,galactouronic acid.C) Pectins - Fundamental unit is pectic acid, consist of arabinosc,galactose,galactouronic acid.Functions of Polysaccharides1) They serve as structural components of the cells2) They serve as stored form of energy3) They serve as nutrient.Structure and Properties of starch:- Consist of two components-Amylosesand Amylopectin. Amylose is a long chain polysaccharides containing - Dglucose molecules linked by 1- 4 glycosidic linkages, produce blue colour withiodine. Amylopectin is a branched chain polysaccharides consisting -Dglucose molecules linked by 1-4-glycosidic linkage and branches by 1-6,linkage produce purplish colour with iodine and forms a gel with hot water.Cellulose :- It is structural polysaccharide found in cell walls of plants, madeup of long chains of -D-Glucose molecules linked by 1-4 linkages, nobran

1. Fundamentals of Biochemistry by J.L. Jain 2. Biotechnology by B.D., Singh 3. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, Nelson & Cox 4. Outlines of Biochemistry by Conn & Stumpf 5. Textbook of biochemistry by A VSS, Ramarao 6. An Introduction to Practical Biochemistry by D.T. Plummer 7. Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry by Jairaman

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Stage(s) of Study Articulation Programmes Pathway Degree awards FHEQ Award Level Built Environment BSc (Hons) Architectural Technology 6 BSc (Hons) Building Surveying 6 BEng (Hons) Civil Engineering 6 BSc (Hons) Construction Management 6 BSc (Hons) Quantity Surveying 6 BSc (Hons) Real Estate 6 Engineering MEng/BEng (Hons) Automotive Engineering 7

University Course Code(s) N/A at the moment QAA . will allow progression into BSc (Hons) accredited degree programmes listed below. BSc (Hons) – Architectural Technology BSc (Hons) – Building Surveying BSc (Hons) – Construction Management BSc (Hons) – Quantity Surveying . Module Code Module title Core/ Option/ Elective (C/O/E) .

in Prep Course Lesson Book A of ALFRED'S BASIC PIANO LIBRARY. It gives the teacher considerable flexibility and is intended in no way to restrict the lesson procedures. FORM OF GUIDE The Guide is presented basically in outline form. The relative importance of each activity is reflected in the words used to introduce each portion of the outline, such as EMPHASIZE, SUGGESTION, IMPORTANT .