Assefa et al. BMC Health Services 2019) 19:847RESEARCH ARTICLEOpen AccessCervical cancer screening service utilizationand associated factors among HIV positivewomen attending adult ART clinic in publichealth facilities, Hawassa town, Ethiopia: across-sectional studyAbiyu Ayalew Assefa1*, Feleke Hailemichael Astawesegn2 and Bethlehem Eshetu2AbstractBackground: In Ethiopia, cervical cancer is a public health concern, as it is the second most cause of cancer deathsamong reproductive age women and it affects the country’s most vulnerable groups like; rural, poor, and HIVpositive women. Despite the strong evidence that cervical cancer screening results in decreased mortality from thisdisease, its utilization remains low.Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2 to April 1/2019 to assess thelevel and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive women in Hawassa town.Quantitative data collection methods were used. Data were gathered using a structured and pretestedquestionnaire. Epi-Info version 7 and SPSS version 23 were used for data entry and analysis respectively. Statisticallysignificant association of variables was determined based on Adjusted Odds ratio with its 95% confidence intervaland p-value of 0.05.Results: Of the 342 women interviewed, 40.1% (95% CI: 35.00, 45.33%) of them were screened. Having a postprimary education (AOR 5.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 14.5), less than 500 cell/mm3 CD4 count (AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.9);duration since HIV diagnosis (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1, 8.5), partner support (AOR 4.7, 95% CI: 2.3, 9.4), havingknowledge about risk factors (AOR 2.9 (95% CI: 1.2, 6.9) and having favorable attitude towards cervical cancer andits screening (AOR 3.7 (95% CI: 1.8, 7.5) were associated with cervical cancer screening utilization.Conclusions: The study revealed utilization of cervical cancer screening service was low among HIV positivewomen. Educational status, duration of HIV diagnosis, partner support, knowledge status about risk factor, CD4count and attitude towards cervical cancer and its screening were associated with cervical cancer screeningutilization. Health care workers need to provide intensive counseling services for all ART care attendants to increaseutilization.Keywords: Cervical cancer, Cervical cancer screening, Ethiopia, HIV positive women* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of public health, Hawassa college of health science, P.O.Box: 84,Hawassa, EthiopiaFull list of author information is available at the end of the article The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link tothe Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication o/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847BackgroundCancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow outof control and when starts at the cervix, it is called cervical cancer(CC) . Seventy percent of all CC casesthroughout the world are caused by only two types ofhuman papillomavirus (HPV); HPV-16 and HPV-18 .Many studies revealed that women living with humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher prevalenceof HPV along with infection with multiple high-riskHPV types [3, 4].According to the World Health Organization (WHO),in areas where HIV is endemic, cervical cancer screening(CCS) results may be positive for precancerous lesionsin15–20% of the target population . A comparativestudy conducted to assess cervical cytology among HIVpositive and HIV negative women in a tertiary hospitalin north-central Nigeria shows that abnormal Papanicolou Smear (pap smear) results were higher in HIV positive women which is 76 (56.3%) compared with HIVnegative women of 17 (12.6%) . Similarly, a study conducted in south Ethiopia, 22% of women infected withHIV were positive for precancerous lesions . Globalcancer statistics indicate that CC ranks fourth for bothincidence (6.6%) and mortality (3.5%) among females in2018 . About 85% of new cases and 87% of all deathsof CC occur in the less developed regions .In Ethiopia, CC is a public health concern, as it is thesecond most cause of cancer deaths among women aged15 to 44 years next to breast cancer . As a major public health burden, it affects the country’s most vulnerablegroups like; rural, poor, and HIV-positive women .According to international agency for research on cancerinformation center on HPV and Cancer of Ethiopia,current estimates indicate that every year 7095 womenare diagnosed with CC and 4732 die from the disease. In Ethiopia, CC is the most common (31.8%) diagnosed cancer among all cancer cases and having increasing fashion . Due to the fact that there is lack ofinformation about CC and prevention services, majorityof CC (over 80%) in Sub-Saharan Africa are detected inlate stage which is associated with low survival ratesafter surgery or radiotherapy .Ethiopia, being a developing country, has adoptedcheaper but effective techniques for screening of CCcalled Visual Inspection with Acetate (VIA). PathfinderInternational Ethiopia has implemented single visit approach of VIA screening and cryotherapy of precancerouslesions for HIV positive women under the project name of“Addis Tesfa “CC prevention project from October/2009– September/2014 . Well organized programs to detectand treat precancerous abnormalities at the early stages ofcancer prevent up to 80% of CC in developed countries. However, in low- and middle-income countries approximately 5% of eligible women undergo cytology-basedPage 2 of 11screening in a 5 year period which is an obstacle to prevent the occurrence of CC .Federal ministry of health targeted to achieve at least80 % coverage of the appropriate target populations withscreening and treatment for pre-invasive cervical-cancercases by 2020 . However, a Community-basedCross-sectional survey of nine regions and two city administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa) of Ethiopiashows extremely low rate of cervical screening (2.9%) and only 10% of patients have come to the oncologycenter in early stage I and II . Despite having startedcervical cancer screening (CCS) service the evidence ofutilization among HIV positive women is not known inthe study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess theutilization of CCS and associated factors among HIVpositive women in public health facilities, Hawassa town.MethodsStudy design and settingAn institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2 to April 1/ 2019 in Hawassa town.Hawassa town is located 275 Km to the south of AddisAbaba (the capital city of Ethiopia) on the shoreline ofLake Hawassa. Only, three public health facilities (Adaregeneral hospital, millennium health center, and hawassareferral hospital) provide both CCS and antiretroviraltherapy (ART) services in the town.Source populationAll HIV positive women attending adult ART Clinics atPublic health facilities with CCS service in Hawassatown.Study populationThe study populations were selected HIV positive womenattending adult ART clinic in public health facilities withCCS service during the study period.Sample size determinationThe sample size was calculated using two populationproportions by taking more frequently observed associated factors for the utilization of CCS, like age, positiveperception and diagnosed for HIV [17, 18]. Epi info StatCalc functions were used to compute the sample size;accordingly, it became 271, 257 and 350, respectively.Finally, the larger sample size (350) was selected.Sampling procedureFrom all public health facilities, all facilities that provideboth CCS and ART service (Hawassa University Specialized Comprehensive Hospital, Millenium Health Centerand Adare General Hospital) were included. The number of study participants to be included in each facilitywas determined in proportion with the total number of
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847women who came to the ART services, using estimatedpatient flow of 6 months before the data collection.Using a systematic random sampling technique, everysecond woman on the list of their order of arrival for follow up care was selected and formed the participants ofthe study.Data collectionA structured interviewer-administered questionnaire wasused to collect relevant information from each study respondent. The questionnaire was prepared by reviewingdifferent related literature [17–20] with modification inline with the objectives of this particular study and wasprepared in English and then translated to Amharic andlocal language (Sidaamu Afoo).The questionnaire was pre-tested on 5% of the totalsample size in nearby hospital (Yirgalem hospital). Datacollectors and principal investigators were involved during the pretest. Based on the pretest, appropriate modifications were made before the actual data collection.The final questionnaire had six parts: social demographic and economic factors, Knowledge (risk factors,symptoms, preventive method, ways of screening methodsof CC and importance of CCS), medical and reproductivehealth characteristics, attitude towards CC and screening,screening practice questions and health service-relatedquestions. Five data collectors and one BSc nurse fromHawassa comprehensive specialized hospital supervisedthe data collection process. Data were collected using faceto face exit interviews during government working hoursat selected health facilities.Variable definitionsUtilization of CCSHIV positive women who were screened for premalignant cervical lesions at least once within 5 years of datacollection period .Knowledgeknowledge about risk of CC was considered good if a respondent mentioned at least 3 from listed 6 known riskfactors, otherwise indicated as having poor knowledgeabout the risk of CC. Knowledge about symptoms of CCwas considered good if a respondent mentioned at least3 from listed 6 known symptoms, otherwise indicated ashaving poor knowledge about symptoms of CC. Knowledge about ways of screening of CC was consideredgood if a respondent mentioned at least 1 of the knowntechnique otherwise indicated as having poor knowledgeabout ways of screening of CC. Knowledge about prevention methods of CC was considered good if a respondent mentioned at least 3 from listed 6 knownprevention methods, otherwise indicated as having poorknowledge about prevention methods of CC.Page 3 of 11Knowledge about the benefit of CCS was consideredgood if a respondent mentioned at least 2 from listed 4known benefits, otherwise indicated as having poorknowledge about the benefit of CCS .Attitude: Attitude towards CC and its screening wasmeasured using different attitude questions and womananswered equal to and above the mean value was considered having favorable attitude and woman answeredbelow the mean value was considered having unfavorable attitude .Data management and data analysisData were entered into Epi-info version 7 and imported toStatistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23for analysis. The dependent variable was the utilization ofscreening for CC and assigned 1 when a respondent reported to have ever been screened and 0 when otherwise.The data analysis ranged from the basic description to theidentification of factors that are associated with CCSutilization. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associatedwith CCS service utilization. Crude and Adjusted Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were computed to determine the level of significance. In the bivariate analysis,variables that had a significant association with the outcome variable at less than 0.2 p-values were consideredfor multivariable analysis . Finally, a statistically significant association of variables was determined based on theAdjusted Odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval anda p-value of 0.05 [17, 19]. The Multivariable model wastested for goodness of fit with the Hosmer Lemeshow testand it is non-significant. The results were presented usingtables, graphs, and charts.ResultsSocio-demographic characteristics of respondentsA total of 342 (97.7%) mothers were included in thisstudy. The mean age ( / standard deviation) of the respondents was 33.4 years ( / 8.7 years). One hundredseventy-four (50.9%) of the respondents had two andabove children. Most of the respondents149 (43.6%) hadacquired post-primary level education. Majority of therespondents (88%) were urban dwellers and 119 (34.8%)of respondents were self-employed. Most of the respondents 185 (54.1%) reported having less than 1000Ethiopian birr of average monthly income. Regardingmarital status; more than half 242 (70.8%) of respondents were ever married (Table 1).Knowledge about cervical cancer and its screeningamong respondentsOne hundred twenty-nine (37.7%) respondents statedhaving sexually transmitted infections increases the riskof one developing CC. But some of the respondents
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847Page 4 of 11Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of HIV positivewomen attending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities,Hawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019VariableScreened for cervical cancerTotalYesNo 2421365725–2924729630–3414203435–39393675 40394180Urban124177301Rural132841AgeResidence of respondentsParityseventeen (63.5%) respondents mentioned early detection as the benefit of CCS while very few numbers of respondents 4(1.2%) cited decreasing chance of abortion(Table 2). When we see the overall knowledge status ofrespondents, seventy-eight 78 (22.8%) women mentionedthree or more risk factors of CC correctly whereas only57 (16.7%) knew three or more prevention methods ofCC (Fig. 1).Attitude of respondents towards cervical cancer and itsscreeningAbove half of respondents, 182(53.2%) strongly disagreewith the chance of getting the disease. The respondentswere asked whether having CCS results in one being infertile or not. Forty-seven (13.7%) of the respondentsstrongly agreed for the positive effect of CCS for infertility; 72(21.1%) were not sure whether CCS could result ininfertility, but 194(56.7%) of the respondents disagreedstrongly to this question. Some of the respondents,110(32.2%) disagreed strongly with the notion that itwas important for women to have CCS even if they donot make sexual act while 101(29.5%) agreed strongly(Table 3). From a total of 342 respondents, 161 (47.1%)have a favorable attitude towards CCS. 255113168 28292174No formal education105161Primary28104132Post primary9950149Never Married3763100Medical and reproductive characteristics of respondentsEver married100142242According to medical records, documentation meanbaseline Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4 count) of therespondents was 422 cells/mm3 (SD 281.3). Just135(39.5%) of women were in WHO clinical stage I.The majority of women, 261(76.3%) claimed that theyhad no history of multiple sexual partners and twenty-two(6.4%) of them had family history of CC. Our study demonstrated that a majority of respondents 207 (60.5%) hadgot recommendation for CCS by health professional. Mostwomen 211(61.7%) had not gain partner or husband support to check their gynecological health (Table 4).Educational levelMarital StatusOccupational StatusUnemployed41519Civil servant402161Private employ183957Self employed4765112House wife173855Daily labor92231257@OthersAverage monthly income (Ethiopian birr) 1000531321851001–2000393776 2001453681@ Commercial sex worker , Student  and Farmer 87(25.4%) didn’t know the risk factors of CC. Our finding also revealed that 140 (40.6%) respondents mentioned that pelvic pain is signs and symptoms of CCwhilst almost one-third of respondents 130 (38.0%)didn’t know the signs and symptoms of CC. Nearly halfof respondents 161(47.1%) mentioned CCS followed byrespondents who cited consistent condom use 114(33.3%) as prevention methods of CC and a considerablenumber of respondents 88(25.7%) didn’t know any prevention methods of CC. The majority of respondents,292(85.4%) didn’t know CCS technique. Two hundredUtilization of cervical cancer screening among HIVpositive womenIn this study, 137 (40.1%) [95% CI: 35.00, 45.33%] of therespondents were found screened within the past 5 yearswhilst, 205 (59.94%) [95% CI: 54.67, 65.00%] of them didnot (Fig. 2). Out of 205 who did not screen, seventy-five(36.6%) reported that lack of knowledge about CC andits screening is the major reason for not undertakingCCS. Other reasons were lack of symptoms, fear of testresult, having thought of CCS is painful, and not knowing the place where CCS is performed, etc. (Fig. 3).Factors associated with CCS utilization among adult HIVpositive women attending ART clinicDuring bivariable Logistic regression from 18 variables,13 of them met the criterion to be included into
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847Page 5 of 11Table 2 Knowledge items responses of HIV positive women attending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities, Hawassa town,Ethiopia, 2019Knowledge itemsRisk factorsSign and symptoms of cervical cancerPrevention methodsBenefit of screeningFrequencyPercentageUnsafe sexual practice13238.6Sexually transmitted infections12937.7Having multiple sexual partner9728.4Smoking7020.5Early sexual activity4914.3Prolonged use of oral contraceptive113.2Do not know8725.4Pelvic pain14040.9foul smelling vaginal discharges13639.8post coital bleeding7421.6Lengthy menstruation4613.5pain during sex247.0Inter menstrual bleeding113.2Do not know13038.0Cervical cancer screening16147.1Consistent condom use11433.3Treatment of STIs6218.1Reduce sexual partner5917.3Late marriage319.1Vaccination123.5Do not know8825.7Early detection21763.5Early treatment8926.0Early diagnosis6218.1Decreasing chances of an abortion41.2Do not know2513.2Fig. 1 Specific knowledge status of HIV positive woman attending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities of Hawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019. Ca:Cervical cancer; CCS: Cervical cancer screening
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847Page 6 of 11Table 3 Responses of attitude questions towards cervical cancer and its screening among HIV positive women attending adult ARTclinic in Public Health Facilities, Hawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019ItemsStrongly disagree (%)Disagree (%)Not sure (%)Agree (%)Strongly agree (%)Do you believe chance of getting the s CCS undertaken only when there is symptom?206(60.2)13(3.8)30(8.8)22(6.4)71(20.8)Does it important undertaking CCS even if you doesnot make sexual act?110(32.2)21(6.1)89(26)21(6.1)101(29.5)Is cervical cancer is more serious than other disease?47(13.7)10(2.9)30(8.8)20(5.8)235(68.7)Do you believe cervical cancer screening is painful?139(40.6)24(7)74(21.6)34(9.9)71(20.8)Do you believe cervical cancer screening may cause )Table 4 Medical and reproductive characteristics of HIV positivewoman attending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities,Hawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019VariablesFrequencyScreened for cervical cancerYesNoDiagnosed for HIV (year) 516440124 HO clinical stage3CD4 count (cell/mm ) 500227116111 5001152194Duration of enrollment 4147361165–91095651 10864538Multiple sexual partnerNo26199162Yes813843multivariable logistic regression by yielding a p-value of 0.2. These are partner support, WHO clinical stage, attitude towards CC and its screening, CD4 count, averagemonthly income, duration since HIV diagnosis, educational status, knowledge about risk factors, knowledgeabout prevention of CC, knowledge about benefit ofscreening, parity, having multiple sexual partner and ageof respondent. After multivariable analysis was conducted, six variables (partner support, attitude towardsCC and its screening, CD4 count, duration since HIVdiagnosis, educational status, and knowledge about riskfactors) remained significant with a p-value of less than0.05.Educational status has a significant association withCCS utilization. The odd of being screened among respondents having post-primary education were 5.1 times(AOR 5.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 14.5) higher as compared to respondents who have no formal education.The odds of CC screening service utilization amongrespondents whose HIV diagnosis was made 5 years ormore ( 5 years) back were four times (AOR 4.2, 95%CI: 2.1, 8.5) compared to whose HIV diagnosis was madeless than 5 years ( 5 years). Women who had less than500 cell/mm3 CD4 count were three times (AOR 2.7,95% CI: 1.2, 5.9) more likely to be screened compared towomen who had greater than or equal to 500 cells/mm3CD4 count.Family history of cervical cancerNo320120200Yes22175Age at first sexual act 201344985 2020888120Yes1318150No21156155Partner supportRecommendation by provider for cervical cancer screeningYes20787120No1355085Fig. 2 Cervical cancer screening utilization among HIV positivewomen attending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities ofHawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847Page 7 of 11Fig. 3 Reason for not-screened among HIV positive women attending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities of Hawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019.Other: culture, lack of time , feeling not susceptible, no reason The odds of getting screened for CC among HIV positive women having partner support were 4.7 times(AOR 4.7, 95% CI: 2.3, 9.4) higher than those who hadno partner support. Women who have favorable attitudes toward CC and its screening were 3.7 times morelikely to utilize CCS service (AOR 3.7 (95% CI: 1.8,7.5). Keeping all other factors constant, the chance ofCCS were three times higher for those respondents having good knowledge about risk factors of CC (AOR 2.9(95% CI: 1.2, 6.9) than their counterparts (Table 5).DiscussionIn our study, we have found that 40.1% (95% CI: 35.00,45.33%) of HIV positive women utilize CCS, which issignificantly higher compared with the study done inMorocco (9%) , Gondar (10%)  and Addis Ababa(11.5%) . It is also higher compared with studies conducted in Uganda  and Gondar  having screeningprevalence of 30.3 and 23.5%, respectively. This mightbe due to the improved expansion and access of screening centers especially after the start of VIA in manyhealth facilities, the enhanced nation-wide advocacy,media concern, community sensitization and awarenesscreation through expansion of urban health extensionprogram about the CCS that has been put into effect inrecent years (time difference).However, this finding is lower than the study findings inCanada  58%, England  85.7%, Catalonia  50.6%,and Kenya  46%. The possible reason for this variationcould be due to differences in socio-demographic and economic status of the study respondents as well as the countries’ promotional policy variations. Another reason fordecreased screening utilization may be due to uneven distribution of screening services centers. For example; thereis universal access to health care in Canada, including theavailability of primary care and specialist physicians, whichdiffers from other health care models . Similarly, Kenyahas a more robust CCS program; as a result, there is increased awareness about CC and its screening .According to the reports of our study, the main reasoncited for not undergoing CCS was lack of knowledgefollowed by the absence of symptoms. A similar reasonwas also reported from the study done in India  andGondar  which reported a lack of knowledge and nosymptoms were among reasons for refusing CCS respectively. Furthermore, absence of symptoms was citedby woman for not undergoing CCS service utilization ina study conducted in Morocco .The findings of our study suggest that educationallevel has a positive effect on the utilization of CCS service. That is, women who had post-primary level of education are more likely to use CCS services than thosewith no formal education levels. The same finding wasobserved in studies done in, India , Nigeria ,Ghana , Gondar  and Addis Ababa , in whichlevel of education can predict CCS. Similarly, a studyconducted in Italy  reported lack of Pap-smear inthe last year was significantly associated with lower educational level. This is not surprising as we expect thosewomen who are educated to have an understanding ofthe cause, risk factors, prevention mechanism and treatment of the disease and as such can demand screeningservices. Also, better-educated women have a higher efficiency in the production of health and education as wellas impart self-efficacy, confidence, motivation and socialinclusion, in search for health interventions. Additionally, education is also believed to facilitate the assimilation of health education given to women in healthinstitutions on common acute and chronic illnesses.We found that the chance of CCS was about nearlyfive times higher for those respondents who have partner support compared to respondents who have no partner support. Previous studies done in England ,Tanzania  and Kenya , also have linked partner
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847Page 8 of 11Table 5 Multi-variable analysis of selected variables with utilization of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive womenattending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities, Hawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019VariablesScreened for cervical cancerCOR (95% CI)AOR(95% CI)YesNo 2421361125–2924720.6 (0.3, 1.2)0.6 (0.2, 1.7)30–3414201.2 (0.5, 2.9)1.6 (0.4, 6.2)35–3939361.9 (0.9, 3.8)1.7 (0.5, 5.6) 4039411.6 (0.8, 3.3)0.9 (0.3, 2.9)No formal education105111Primary281041.4 (0.6,3.0)1.3 (0.46, 3.7)Post primary995010.1 (4.7, 21.6)5.1 (1.8, 14.5)* 25511311 282921.8 (1.2, 2.8)1.5 (0.7, 3.3) 100053132111001–200039372.7 (1.5, 4.6)1.5 (0.7, 3.4) 200145363.1 (1.8, 5.4)1.6 (0.7, 3.9)One3210311Two34492.2 (1.2, 4.0)1.3 (0.6, 3.1)Three42265.2 (2.8, 9.8)1.5 (0.6, 4.1)Four29273.5 (1.8, 6.7)2.1 (0.8, 5.9) 5001161114.7 (2.7, 8.0)2.7 (1.2, 5.9)* 500219411Age in yearsEducational statusParityAverage monthly income (ETB)WHO clinical stage3CD4 count (cell/mm )Time since diagnosis of HIV (yrs.) 54012411 597813.7 (2.3, 5.9)4.2 (2.1, 8.5)*Yes38431.5 (0.9, 2.4)1.6 (0.7, 3.5)No9916211Yes81504.5 (2.8, 7.2)4.7 (2.3, 9.4)*No5615511Good51186.8 (3.8, 12.0)2.9 (1.2, 6.9)*Poor8618711Good42155.6 (3.0, 10.6)2.6 (0.9, 7.4)Poor951901134222.7 (1.5, 4.9)1.7 (0.7, 4.2)Multiple sexual partnerPartner supportKnowledge about risk factors of CaKnowledge about prevention methodKnowledge about benefit of screeningGood
Assefa et al. BMC Health Services Research(2019) 19:847Page 9 of 11Table 5 Multi-variable analysis of selected variables with utilization of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive womenattending adult ART clinic in Public Health Facilities, Hawassa town, Ethiopia, 2019 (Continued)VariablesPoorScreened for cervical cancerYesNo103183COR (95% CI)AOR(95% CI)11Attitude toward Ca and its screeningFavorable101606.8 (4.2, 11.0)3.7 (1.8, 7.5)*Unfavorable3614511*P-value: 0.05, ETB Ethiopian birr, COR Crude odd ratio, AOR Adjusted odd ratio, CI Confidence Interval, 1: Reference categorysupport with increased CCS service utilization. Thiscould be explained by the fact that the active involvement of male partners makes them more aware of thesignificance of maternal health care services and supporttheir partners. However, this finding contradicts thefindings of a study conducted in India which revealedthat their husband did not allow them to utilize CCSservice . This might be due to the difference in thestudy site. For example, 54.8% of respondents were fromrural setting in the study done in India but 88% respondents of this study were from urban setting which indirectly indicating the awareness level of their partnermight be a contributing factor.Again our study demonstrated that women’s havingCD4 count less than 500 cell/mm3 were 2.7 times morelikely to be screened for CC than those who had morethan or equal to 500 cell/mm3. This finding is in agreement with the study done in Gondar  that CD4count of / 200 cell/mm3 was significantly associatedwith cervical screening. The possible explanation couldbe women with lower CD4 count might have decreasedimmunity which intern leads to the development ofopportunistic infections which increases the development of signs & symptoms of disease and visiting ofhealth facility. This frequent health facility attendancecan be viewed as an opportunity to provide health education and screening service for CC. Evidence showedthat immune-suppression and low CD4 counts causedby HIV infection predisposes women living with HIV infection at an increased risk for CC and the developmentof squamous intraepithelial lesions [36, 37]. Additionally,different scholars have shown that the health-seeking behavior of individuals is better during symptomatic illnessthan if there is no symptom . But a study in Northern Italy  is not similar to our study; it shows HIVpositive women with CD4 count of 200 cell/mm3 weremore likely to have no history of Pap-smear in the yearbefore the questionnaire. This can be due to access toscreening at an early stage of illness without delay unlikedeveloping countries like Ethiopia, many investigationswill be offered for patients when they are seriously ill.From this study, it
Conclusions: The study revealed utilization of cervical cancer screening service was low among HIV positive women. Educational status, duration of HIV diagnosis, partner support, knowledge status about risk factor, CD4 count and attitude towards cervical cancer and its screening were associated with cervical cancer screening utilization.
– and prevents over 7 in 10 diagnoses. However, like any screening test, cervical screening is not perfect and there are some risks. Benefits of cervical screening Cervical screening aims to identify whether you are at higher risk of developing cervical cell changes or cervical cancer. This mean
Breast Cancer Screening in Normal and High-risk Populations 186 43. Ovarian Cancer Screening in Normal and High-risk Populations 190 44. Osteoporosis Screening 194 SECTION 8 Gynaecological Cancer 201 45. Cervical Cancer 201 46. Endometrial Cancer 206 47. Ovarian Cancer 212 48. Vulvar Cancer
screening may stop for those women without history of CIN2 or higher grade lesion, even if there is no history of adequate screening. Again, screening should not resume for any reason. For those women with a history of CIN, AIS or cancer, Pap smear screening via cervical cytology only should continue for 25 years regardless of whether the cervix is
University of Limpopo (Medunsa Campus), South Africa Telephone: 27 012 5213093 E-mail: Muhammad_Hoque@embanet.com C M Ibekwe, MBBS, MPH1, M E Hoque MSc2, B Ntuli-Ngcobo, MSW, MPH3, M E Hoque, MSc4 Title: Perceived barriers of cervical cancer screening among women attending Ma-halapye district hospital, Botswana Background: Cervical cancer is a serious cause of mortality and morbidity among .
that ANSM can achieve an accuracy of 93.33% with a false negative rate of zero in classifying cancer and healthy cervical tissues using nucleus texture features. This provides evidence that nucleus-level analysis is valuable in cervical histology image analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION Quantitative analysis in cervical cancer using pathological
As the Chair and Co-Chair of the Kansas Cancer Partnership (KCP), we are pleased to provide . you with the 2017-2021 Kansas Cancer Prevention and Control Plan. This plan is the result of . Breast Biopsies Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer. Post-Diagnosis & Quality of Life throughout the Cancer Journey.
3 ThinPrep LBC cervical cytology sample collection and preparation 9 4 Request forms Electronic requesting 10 5 Sending the sample to the laboratory 12 6 Reporting cervical screening results 12 7 Patient management protocols 7.1 Independent sector cervical screening samples 7.2 Inappropriate & Out of Programme [ samples
The following summary highlights the basic effective counseling skills useful for positive interactions with patients; 1. Listening – The act of listening is further delineated into the following two components; a. Attending - Orienting oneself physically to the patient to indicate one is aware of the patient, and, in fact, that the client has your full, undivided attention and that you care .