Journal of Alexandria Univesity for Administrative Sciences – Vol. 58 – No. 5 – September 2021Journal of Alexandria University for Administrative Sciences Vol. 58, No. 5, September 2021The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge andTrust on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention:The Mediation Role of Attitude Towards Green1Brands Egypt CaseAhmed Ragab SayedDr. Niveen Mohamed El SaghierAssociate ProfessorTeaching t.eduDr. Heba Hassan SadekLecturer of Marketinghebahassan@aast.eduCollege of Management & Technology- Arab Academy for ScienceTechnology & Maritime TransportABSTRACTRecently, eco-friendly brands (EF) have received considerable attention from companies thatseek for the competitive advantage. Growing concerns from governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and the increase of consumer awareness are reasonswhy companies are going for environmentally friendly (green) products. despite theimportance of this issue, there is a lack of research in testing the impact of green brandknowledge & green brand trust on Egyptian consumers’ green purchasing intentions viaattitude towards green brands. So, in order to achieve this objective, three main researchquestions have been examined. This research was carried out in the Egyptian food &beverage market sector from the customer perspective, the data were collected only in Cairo,Alexandria, and Aswan, as non-probability convenience sampling technique was used. thecountry’s capital and two of its major cities and the city that attract investors in upper ofEgypt and named as the capital of the youth in the African continent, in addition thepopulation density in those cities is high, also, the number of malls and hypermarkets andthe density of frequent customers is more in those cities. These questionnaires were analyzedby using (SPSS) to test and analyze the research hypotheses. Findings showed that there’s asignificant positive indirect impact of green brand knowledge on consumers’ green1Received in 22 March 2021, accepted in 2 August 2021.
The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge and Trust on Consumers’ Purchasing Intentionpurchasing intention via attitude towards green brands. In addition, there’s a significantpositive direct impact of green brand trust on consumers’ green purchasing intention.Keywords: Green knowledge, Green trust, Attitude towards green brands, Green purchasingintention, Alexandria, Cairo, Aswan, Egyptian food and beverage market.1- IntroductionIn today’s competitive business environment, consumers are looking forthe well-known brands having quality which satisﬁes their needs. Inaddition, most people belief to protect the environment as they value it.As the international impact on environmental-related issues, such as theimpact of waste on the environment, has increased, internationalenvironmental protection agencies have formulated successiveregulations and launched environmental labels for use in most countriesglobally (Yang & Zhao, 2019). Environmental interest has becomeprevalent for many companies wishing to develop ecologicalopportunities (Chen & Chang, 2012). This new perspective hasstrengthened consumers’ needs & wants to get products that match withthis awareness & way of thinking (Curvelo et al., 2019). Thus, the trendof green marketing has increased in the form of past decades (Hashim etal., 2020). Many people believe that green marketing refers to thepromotion or advertising of products with environmental characteristicsonly, especially in its purchasing decision this kind of products. Green orenvironmental marketing also refers to environmental green productssuch as healthy food, recyclable products and environmentally friendlyproducts. Green marketing is the marketing of products which areconsidered not to be harmful for environment (Mohajan, 2012). Ingeneral, green marketing is a much broader concept that can be appliedto consumer or industrial goods and even services. Green marketing is aprocess based on environmental benefits by selling products andservices (Hashim et al., 2020). The success of Green brands becomesnecessary to keep our earth alive and help the sustainability of humanity.Environmental issues also push consumers to be more proactive andopen to green consumption. Especially for large companies from themain reasons for “being green”, consumers’ perceptions of greenproducts, improving community relations and cost-effectivemanagement (Ulun, 2018).
Journal of Alexandria Univesity for Administrative Sciences – Vol. 58 – No. 5 – September 2021Organizations are interested in producing green products and servicesby organizing green marketing campaigns to accordingly changecustomer behavior. In fact, companies seeking green marketing facemany challenges mainly from demand volatility, high cost andunfavorable consumer perception (Chen & Chai, 2010).On the other side, consumers have directed their concern aboutenvironmental issues through demand for environmentally friendlyproducts, also the "Go Green" movement has expanded worldwide dueto the intense awareness of living healthier (Norazah, 2013; Thøgersenet al., 2015). The green consumers demonstrate a great interest inproduct’s characteristic as chemical content and its recyclability(Leonidou et al., 2010).In addition, consumers who have positive past experience and someenvironmental brand knowledge with purchasing of green products havea high tendency to demonstrate strong intentions to purchase this greenproduct due to its green attributes (Lin & Chang, 2012; Norazah, 2013).Also, many consumers have limited knowledge about the reliability ofgreen products and skeptical the quality of green products (Suki, 2016).So, consumers tend to search for more information and gain green brandknowledge related to the ingredients contain in green product beforepurchasing these products (Laroche et al., 2001). Prior scholars notedthat extensive studies on green marketing had been conducted inWestern countries, while minimal research on green purchasingbehaviour and green branding had been pursued in developing countries(Suki, 2016). For that reason, the researcher is going to know in depththe Green branding knowledge & trust in Egypt.Previous results on consumer attitudes towards green brands areconflicting, for example, with some studies finding that consumersbelieve traditional products are of high quality compared toenvironmentally friendly products, but other studies show on thecontrary (Vernekar & Wadhwa, 2011), which considered one of theresearch problems to find out the impact of the attitude towards greenbrands from the Egyptian consumers’ perspective on their purchaseintention.
The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge and Trust on Consumers’ Purchasing IntentionAlthough green brand issues appear to be important issues in the world,unfortunately, previous studies have a gap of substantive researchmodels to investigate the effects of the green brand knowledge and greenbrand trust on the green purchasing intention (GPI) via the mediatingimpact of attitude towards green brands in the Egyptian food & beveragesector. These issues led the researcher to seek for more information andexamine the impact of both green brand knowledge & green brand truston the purchasing intention via the attitude towards green brands.Moreover, these factors will be examined in detail from the Egyptianconsumers’ perspective in one of the most important sectors the foodand beverage sector as it considered to be one of the oldest and vitalsectors in the economy, this study would like to help marketers todevelop a green marketing framework to understand consumers’ mind& increase green purchase intentions via the two drivers: green brandknowledge and green brand trust.2- Research ProblemPrevious results on consumer attitudes towards green products areconflicting, for example, with some studies finding that consumersbelieve traditional products are of high quality compared toenvironmentally friendly products, but other studies show on thecontrary (Vernekar & Wadhwa, 2011), which considered one of theresearch problems to find out the impact of the attitude towards greenbrands from the Egyptian consumers’ perspective on their purchaseintention.Although green brand issues appear to be important issues in the world,unfortunately, previous studies have a gap of substantive researchmodels to investigate the effects of the green brand knowledge and greenbrand trust on the green purchasing intention (GPI) via the mediatingimpact of attitude towards green brands in the Egyptian food & beveragesector. These issues led the researcher to seek for more information andexamine the impact of both green brand knowledge & green brand truston the purchasing intention via the attitude towards green brands.Moreover, these factors will be examined in detail from the Egyptianconsumers’ perspective in one of the most important sectors the foodand beverage sector as it considered to be one of the oldest and vital
Journal of Alexandria Univesity for Administrative Sciences – Vol. 58 – No. 5 – September 2021sectors in the economy, this study would like to help marketers todevelop a green marketing framework to understand consumers’ mind& increase green purchase intentions via the two drivers: green brandknowledge and green brand trust.3- Research QuestionsAs in light of the researcher's effort and his knowledge, the researcher istesting the impact of these variables in Egyptian food & beverage sector,but there are few types of research discussed those variables. Thus, thisstudy is going to examine and answer questions on how green brandknowledge and green brand trust affect consumers’ green purchasingintentions, especially from a consumer perspective.RQ1: Can green brand knowledge of the green brands has significantpositive impact on Egyptian consumers’ purchasing intention viaattitude towards green brands?RQ2: Is green brand trust has significant positive impact on the Egyptianconsumers’ green purchasing intention through attitude towardsgreen brands?RQ3: Do positive/ negative attitudes towards green brands lead toincrease or decrease Egyptian consumers’ purchasing intention?4- Research objectives4-1 The impact of the green brand knowledge with its two dimensions(green brand awareness, green brand image) on the Egyptianconsumers’ green purchase intention directly, and indirectly viaattitude towards green brands.4-2 The impact of the green brand trust directly on the Egyptianconsumers’ green purchase intention and indirectly via attitudetowards green brands.4-3 The direct impact of attitude towards green brands on the Egyptianconsumers’ green purchase intention.5- Research ImportanceThe research importance divided into two sections the academic & thepractical importance. Which will be discussed as follows:
The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge and Trust on Consumers’ Purchasing Intention5-1 Academic ImportanceFirstly, this research is academically important in many different ways.As, the term “Green” become synonymous with addressingenvironmental elements or issues (Yang & Zhao, 2019). Green productshave become more popular in the market (Huang et al., 2014). Thus, thisresearch helps to understand the impact of the green brand knowledge& the green trust on the attitude towards these green brands & its effecton the consumers purchasing intention.Secondly, the importance of the research academically for the futureresearchers is to know in depth the importance, ability & the impact ofthe green brand knowledge in changing the attitude towards greenbrands & its effect on the purchasing intention based on Egyptianconsumers’ perspective in food & beverage market sector. Also, lookingat the importance of green brand trust, the current research tried tostudy the impact of green trust on consumers' attitudes in the context ofeco-friendly green products and analyzed the subsequent effect onpurchasing intention.Thirdly, this research can have a significant impact on readers in relationto the consumer's role in the green marketing of consumer goodsresearch and the protection of the earth from depletion resources.There’re internal factors in green purchasing studies as in general,consumer environmental knowledge, attitude, and the intention wereanalyzed most often to capture the catalysts that influence greenpurchasing behavior (Ramayah et al., 2010; Almossaw, 2014; Wang et al.,2014; Newton et al., 2015; Moser, 2016; Paul et al., 2016).5-2 Practical ImportanceThe importance of this research will help companies in their differentfields of presenting and applying products or services to go green & useeco-friendly ways in their manufacturing, marketing, even in the R&Ddepartment. As it becomes one of the competitive advantages, to gainmore market share and stay in the market. Besides, pushing companiesto reduce the consumers’ skepticism through their claims of makinggreen & eco-friendly products (greenwashing) while they are not, as itmay cause profits but in a long run, they’ll lose the customers trust &
Journal of Alexandria Univesity for Administrative Sciences – Vol. 58 – No. 5 – September 2021they’ll be erased from the market. Enhancing the understanding of thecurrent state of green consumption, as well as the effects of greenknowledge and attitude towards green brands, is critical to promotemass consumption or green purchasing intentions among those fromlow-income households particularly.In addition, this study would like to help marketers to understandconsumers’ mind through developing green marketing framework to &to increase green purchase intentions via the two drivers: green brandknowledge and green trust. Marketers play a vital role as they shouldcommunicate about the need & beneﬁts for green products to theconsumers (Singhal & Malik, 2018). The researcher also wants to helpthe companies & marketers specifically to develop plans & strategies toknow how much consumers knowledge and trust in green brands in theEgyptian market (Green brand knowledge) particularly in the food andbeverage sector. And if they’ve any intentions to purchase those kinds ofproducts.6- Literature ReviewGreen marketing is defined by the activities of companies that care aboutthe environment or green problems by providing supported to createconsumer and community satisfaction (Chen & Chai, 2010). Since theconsumers is more willing to purchase green products with sufﬁcienttrustworthy information, companies should provide reliable & detailedinformation for their consumers in order to minimize the customers’skepticism (Chen & Chang, 2012). This plays an important role intransforming the purchasing intention of users to actual purchase greenproducts. The public is obviously concerned in environmental pollution,which is produced by industries and manufacturers of different types ofproducts.It is difficult for marketers trying to convince their customers topurchase their products without providing enough reliable informationabout it to their customers. The majority of consumers are not wellaware of the benefits of green products that contribute to their purchases(Nagaraju & Thejaswini, 2016). Consumers who have someenvironmental concerns are positively influenced by their purchasing
The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge and Trust on Consumers’ Purchasing Intentiondecision of green products and brand awareness, Hence the role ofmarketers is providing information relating to the green products.In the green marketing context, more & more companies dedicate suchgreat efforts to adopting green marketing strategies to satisfy customers’needs & demands, also to gain competitive advantage (Jialing et al.,2017). Despite the launch of many environmental conservationcampaigns, somehow green is a new concept for many citizens and theirperception of environmentally friendly products is low (Rezai et al.,2013). To trigger & maintain consumers' behavior & attitude, the greenmarketing process should involve all marketing activities. (Chen andChang, 2012). The “Green” term become synonymous with addressingenvironmental elements or issues (Chen, 2010). Environmental activistsand researchers who are engaged in green products purchase believethat purchasing green eco- friendly products have a significant effect onimproving the quality of environment (Abdul-Muhmin 2007). So, greenproducts have become more popular in the market (Huang et al., 2014),and in turn, more consumers are willing to purchase environmentallyfriendly products (Huang et al., 2014). Green as a term refers to theactions that influence minimize on the environment, such as recycling orenvironmental purchase (Wolfe & Shanklin, 2001). More attention hasbeen paid to green products market (Kumar et al., 2017; Moser, 2016).The formation of “the green consumers” or “the green market” segmentis because of the increasingly aware of the consumers to theconsequences of their consumption act (Curvelo et al., 2019). GreenCustomers are referred to the individuals who spend their money topurchase green products and have a high level of knowledge andenvironmental awareness (Suki, 2016). Green consumers are theconsumers whom aware of and care about environmental issues(Soonthonsmai, 2007). These green consumers usually activelyencourage the preservation of the planet, organize petitions and boycottmanufacturers and retailers who have violated and caused harm to theenvironment (Chen and Chai, 2010).There’s a research highlighted the definition of the green product as aproduct that would not contaminate the land or consume naturalresources and could be preserved or recycled (Chen and Chai, 2010).
Journal of Alexandria Univesity for Administrative Sciences – Vol. 58 – No. 5 – September 2021Green product also can be known as it contains environmentally contentor packaging that reduce the impact on the environment (Chen and Chai,2010). Minimal research has been conducted on understanding theefficacy and impact of green brand knowledge & green brand trust onconsumers’ green purchase intention via attitude towards green brands.Some scholar claimed that it is necessary to explore further how thegreen brand factors impact attitude and green purchase behaviors (Chen,2010; Rios et al., 2006).6-1 Green Brand KnowledgeAs, Consumer knowledge and trust is a prerequisite for creating a marketfor credible goods, such as "green" products. In general, knowledgereflects the characteristic that affects all stages of the decision-makingprocess, which may form either positive or negative attitudes towards aparticular behavior (Mei et al., 2012). Keller (1993) defines brandknowledge as “a brand node in memory to which a variety of associationsare linked”. Brand knowledge contains remarkable types known asbrand awareness and brand image (Keller, 1993). Brand knowledge is aunique combination of brand awareness and brand image.The buyers’ ability to recall and recognize that the brand is green(environmentally- friendly) is known as green brand awareness (Tseng,2013). The possibility that the brand name will come to mind and withwhom it does so are linked to the brand name awareness (Keller, 1993).The brand image has symbolic meanings associated with the specificfeatures of the brand in addition, it can be defined as the consumer'smental image of the brand in its mind associated with the display(Punyatoya, 2015). Chen (2010) defines the green brand's image as awhole set of brand impressions, concepts and concerns in customermemory that are linked to sustainability and environmentally friendlyconcerns. Suki (2016) mentioned in his research that green purchasebehavior can be influenced negatively by the lack of reliable information.Consumers with a high level of environmental knowledge have a muchbetter pro-environmental attitude and have a stronger intent topurchase green products for consumption (Suki, 2016). While otherprevious studies as Wolsink (2007), could not determine any linksbetween environmental knowledge and green purchase intention. While
The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge and Trust on Consumers’ Purchasing Intentionsome other studies suggest that green knowledge is not necessarily thedirect prerequisite variable of the intention of green purchasing (Wanget al., 2019). Even there’re some studies show that there is no significantrelation between green knowledge and the green purchasing intention,other studies showed that environmental knowledge has a negativeeffect on pro-environmental attitude (Wang et al., 2019). Numerousstudies have reported that environmental knowledge positively impactsconsumers’ intention and actual purchase of green products (Suki,2016). Some previous studies suggest that green knowledge is often seenas a direct pre-change of green purchasing intentions (Wang et al., 2019).Accordingly, this posits that:H1: there’s a significant positive impact of green brand knowledge (GBK)on attitude toward green brands (AGB).H2: there’s a significant positive direct impact of green brand knowledge(GBK) on consumers’ green purchase intention (GPI).H3: there’s a significant positive indirect impact of green brand knowledge(GBK) on consumers’ green purchase intention (GPI) via attitudetoward green brands (AGB).6-2 Green Brand TrustTrust is an expectation, which is held by one party as a word, promise oreven a statement in which the other party can rely on, and trust is causedby three beliefs, which are charity, ability & integrity (Chen and Chang,2012). Also, trust plays an important role in consumer behavior, so theability of brands to create a sense of trust affects the intention topurchase (Emre and Paul, 2016). Trust is defined as the brand's honestyin its promises and claims to be able to deliver on its promises. In fact,trust can enhance purchasing behavior and also reduce customerperception of risk (Yang and Zhao, 2019). The brand relationshipvariable as “brand trust,” plays an important role in affecting buyingbehavior for long-term brand success (Esch et al., 2006). Consumer’sgreen trust in the environmental claims for brands has an impact onpurchasing decisions (Emre and Paul, 2016). Chen and Chang (2012)argue that in the environmental era the consumers’ purchasing behaviorinfluenced by their green trust. Customer purchasing intentions
Journal of Alexandria Univesity for Administrative Sciences – Vol. 58 – No. 5 – September 2021positively affected by customer trust as indicated by (Lu et al., 2010).Previous research shows that customer trust would positively inﬂuencecustomer purchase intentions (Chen & Chang, 2012). Consumer behaviorhas many determinants, the main determinant for a long-term consumerbehavior is consumer trust (Lee et al., 2011). Hence, consumers’ trustaffects consumer purchasing intentions (Harris & Goode, 2010).Therefore, this study proposes the following hypothesis:H4: there is significant positive impact of green brand trust on consumers’attitude toward green brands (AGB).H5: there’s a significant positive direct impact of green brand trust (GBT)on consumers’ green purchase intention (GPI).H6: there’s a significant positive indirect impact of green brand trust (GBT)on consumers’ green purchase intention (GPI) via attitude towardgreen brands (AGB).6-3 Attitude towards Green BrandsAttitude can be defined as a personal subjective evaluation of a productor brand (Bodur et al., 2000). The attitude towards the green brand isattached to both consumers' full evaluation of the brand & hispreferences, which embodies his likes & dislikes (Suki, 2016). Theconsumer’s attitudes towards environmentally sustainable (green)products are essentially positive, as consumer environmental concern ison the rise (Cheah & Phau, 2011). Attitudes are the most consistentexplanatory factor in predicting consumers' willingness to greenproducts purchasing (Chyong et al., 2006), which means that price is notthe main factor in preventing consumers from buying green products ifthey are environmentally friendly. The attitude of the consumers ishighly positive towards green branding (Singhal & Malik, 2018). Theattitude towards the brand is defined as the general evaluative judgmentof the brand's consumers based on his trademark beliefs (Punyatoya,2015). Also attitude defined as a positive or negative evaluation of anobject, work, issue or person (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1977).In the context of a green product, the attitude can be defined as a form ofadmiration or hatred, pleasure or displeasure, comfort or discomfort asa form of positive or negative full evaluation of the individual towards
The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge and Trust on Consumers’ Purchasing Intentiongreen environmentally oriented product (Ginsberg & Bloom, 2004).Former researchers noted that the consumers' environmental attitudereflect on their purchasing intentions (Suki, 2016), So Norazaha Suki(2016) made some research efforts which found that the consumers'who have a positive attitude toward a specific brand tend to have astrong purchasing intention towards this brand. Yadav and Pathak(2016) confirmed that attitude toward green products of the consumerssignificantly impacts his or her green purchase intention. There’s aresearch that developed and tested a model of green behavior amongChinese consumers in which the researcher suggested that the trend ofman-nature had a direct impact on attitudes toward green purchases, inwhich this in turn would affect the green purchasing intention(Ainsworth et al., 2016). There’re many previous studies, as some greenmarketing studies also show that a positive attitude toward greenproducts influences purchase intention (Huang et al., 2014).Therefore, the following hypothesis is devised:H7: Attitude towards green brands has a significant positive effect ongreen purchasing intention.6-4 Green Purchase IntentionThe purchase intention is mainly a situation that can make a person feelhappy about things or attitudes or some ideas that are usually followedby someone's feelings and the tendency to look for objects. Rangkuti &Sulistyawati (2014) stated that the emergence of the intention to buy aproduct was based on consumers' belief in the product that wasaccompanied by the ability to purchase the product. Suki (2016) statedthat there is an intention among the consumers to purchase greenproducts that causes less harmful impacts to the society and theenvironment. “Green purchase intentions” refers to Netemeyer et al.(2005) and Morrison (1979) to deﬁne it as “the likelihood that aconsumer would buy a particular product resulting from his or herenvironmental needs”. From the previous Literature study and theprevious studies, the researcher presents the proposed model dependingon the hypotheses is as shown:
Journal of Alexandria Univesity for Administrative Sciences – Vol. 58 – No. 5 – September 2021Fig 1: The relationship between the variables as in literature review7- MethodologyThe aim of this study is to test the impact of both independent variables(green brand knowledge & green trust) on the green purchasingintention as a dependent variable via consumers’ attitude towards thegreen brands (mediating variable). The researchers were not able toobtain the sampling frame therefore, they used the conveniencetechnique which is considered one of the non-probability samplingtechnique. The population of the study consisted of only Egyptianconsumers of products in the food & beverage sector in most frequentmalls & supermarkets with especial focus on the food and beveragesectors products. According to the statistical tables used to determinethe sample size, the appropriate sample size when the researchcommunity is more than 500,000 is (384) sample (Krejcie & Morgan,1970), and the sample has been increased by 16 individuals due to theavoidance of non-response or the absence of some survey lists forstatistical analysis, to the final sample size is 400 individuals. Data havebeen collected in the quantitative phase via electronic questionnairessurvey, which was developed and distributed among Egyptian customersto test the research hypotheses, which were developed from literaturereviews, the results of the questionnaire provided data that wereanalyzed quantitatively by using SPSS to test the correlation & regressionbetween those variables and to achieve research objectives of the study.In addition to determine the impact of the green brand knowledge, greentrust on the green purchasing intention in the Egyptian food & beveragesector on the green purchasing intention.
The Effect of Green Brand Knowledge and Trust on Consumers’ Purchasing IntentionThe study refers to former researches to develop questionnaire items tobe suitable for the green products & Egyptian market. Thequestionnaires were distributed to consumers according to the nonprobability convenience sampling technique. The measurement of thequestionnaire items in this study is by means of “ﬁve-point Likert scalefrom 1 to 5” rating from strongly disagree to strongly agree. In order toobtain reliable information from the respondents, established andvalidated scales were selected for data collection. The researcher sentand distributed electronic Google form questionnaires through onlinesocial media platforms to the customers from Cairo, Giza, Alexandria andAswan cities. The questionnaires were written in both languages, Arabicand English. In order to make it easy for the consumers to answer thequestions frankly & easily without any interfering from the researcher.The questionnaires consist of 5 parts. The researcher developed scalesfor the green brand knowledge which have 12 items with its factors:green brand image (4 items) and green brand awareness (8 items) fromKeller (1993), green trust from Chen (2010) with (5 items), attitudetowards green brands from Patrick et al. (2005) which consists of:cognitive and emotional elements (4 items each), and finally the greenpurchasing intention from
purchasing intention via attitude towards green brands. In addition, there's a significant positive direct impact of green brand trust on consumers' green purchasing intention. Keywords: Green knowledge, Green trust, Attitude towards green brands, Green purchasing intention, Alexandria, Cairo, Aswan, Egyptian food and beverage market.
May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)
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Strategic Brand Management Exeter MBA and MSc –Day 2 Brand Strategy Jack Buckner Aaker’s Brand Identity System BRAND IMAGE How the brand is now perceived BRAND IDENTITY How strategists want the brand to be perceived BRAND POSITION The part of the brand identity and value pro
brand equity, brand image, brand personality and brand extension. 2. Brand Extension. Brand extension is a marketing strategy in which new products are introduced in relation to a successful brand. Various experts have defined brand extensions differently . though, these definitions look quite similar. Kotler and Armstrong (2002) defined brand
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Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.
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Glossary of Social Security Terms (Vietnamese) Term. Thuật ngữ. Giải thích. Application for a Social Security Card. Đơn xin cấp Thẻ Social Security. Mẫu đơn quý vị cần điền để xin số Social Security hoặc thẻ thay thế. Baptismal Certificate. Giấy chứng nhận rửa tội
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Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality, environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create a positive impact through word ofmouth. Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment off ood outlets .
STRATEGIC BRAND MANAGEMENT Strategic brand management process is important for creating and sustaining brand equity. Developing a strategy that successfully sustains or improves brand awareness, strengthens brand associations, emphasizes brand quality and utilization, is a part of brand management. The brand str
The brand meaning evolution model The brand resonance pyramid model Brand knowledge is defined in terms of two components: brand awareness and brand image o Brand awareness relates to brand recall and recognition performance by consumers o Brand image refers to the set of associations linked to
Brand awareness consists of brand recognition and brand recall. Brand recognition is the consumers’ ability to confirm prior exposure to the brand when given the brand directly as a cue. Brand recall relates to consumers’ ability to retrieve the brand when given the product category, the needs fulfilled by the category, or some other type
Brand Asset Valuator Definitions Brand Asset Valuator (BAV) Developed by Y&R, a system that processed consumer research to develop term definitions. Brand Differentiation** How distinctive the brand was perceived to be. Brand Esteem** How highly regarded the brand was. Brand Knowledge** How well known the brand
brand which can be vocalized" (Kotler 1991, p. 442), though other components of the brand identities (e.g., brand logo or symbol) are considered also. Brand Awareness The first dimension distinguishing brand knowledge is brand awareness. It is related to the strength of the brand node or trace in memory, as reflected by con-
brand strategy, 85 goes to branding, 79 goes to brand concepts and 67 goes to brand attitude, 38 goes to brand equity and 27 goes to brand communication. "Brand Strategies" and "Branding" are the topics mostly investigated. So it could be stated that "Brand Management" issue comes first in literature.
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