6.012 Microelectronic Devices And Circuits - UVa

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MIT, Spring 20056.012Microelectronic Devices and CircuitsCharles G. SodiniPeter Hagelstein, Judy HoytShawn Kuo, Min Park, Colin Weltin-Wu

Lecture 1 – 6.012 overviewFebruary 1, 2005 Contents:– Overview of 6.012 Reading Assignment:– Howe and Sodini, Ch. 1

Overview of 6.012 Introductory subject to microelectronic devices and circuits Microelectronics is the cornerstone of:– Computer revolution– Communications revolution– Consumer Electronics revolution

Microelectronics:cornerstone of computing revolutionIn last 30 years, computer performance per dollar has improvedmore than a million fold!

Microelectronics: cornerstone ofcommunications revolutionIn last 20 years, communication bandwidth through a singleoptical fiber has increased by ten-thousand fold.

Microelectronics: cornerstone ofconsumer electronics revolutionLow power electronics enabling a variety of portable devices

Si digital microelectronics todayTake the cover off amicroprocessor. What doyou see? A thick web of interconnects,many levels deep.High density of very smalltransistors.Intel’s Pentium IV

InterconnectsToday, as many as 7 levelsof interconnect using Cu.

Transistor size scalingsize of human blood cellRabies virus atsame scale2-orders of magnitude reduction in transistor size in 30 years.

Evolution of transistor densityMoore’s Law: doubling oftransistor density every 1.5years4-orders of magnitudeimprovement in 30 years.2x/1.5yearIntel processors

Benefits of increasing transistorintegrationExponentialimprovements in: systemperformance cost-per-function, power-per-function, and system reliability.Experimental SOI microprocessor from IBM

Clock speed4-orders of magnitudeimprovement in 30years.

Transistor cost3-order ofmagnitude reductionin 30 years.

Cost per function4-order ofmagnitudereduction in 30years.

Keys to success of digital microelectronics:I. Silicon Cheap and abundant Amazing mechanical, chemical and electronic properties Probably, the material best known to humankind

Keys to success of digital microelectronics:II. MOSFETMetal-Oxide-SemiconductorField-Effect TransistorGood gain, isolation, and speedMOSFET switch

Modern MOSFET structure

Keys to success of digital microelectronics:III. MOSFET scalingMOSFET performanceimproves as size isdecreased: Shorter switching timeLower power consumption

Keys to success of digital microelectronics:IV. CMOSCMOS: Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor “Complementary” switch activates with V 0.Logic without DC power consumption.

Keys to success of digital microelectronics:V. Microfabrication technology Tight integration of dissimilardevices with good isolation Fabrication of extremely smallstructures, precisely andreproducibly High-volume manufacturing ofcomplex systems with high yield.1 Gbit DRAM from IBM

Keys to success of digital microelectronics:VI. Circuit engineering Simple device models that:– are based on physics– allow analog and digital circuit design– permit assessment of impact of device variations on circuit performance Circuit design techniques that:– are tolerant to logic level fluctuations, noise and crosstalk– are insensitive to manufacturing variations– require little power consumption

Content of 6.012 Deals with microelectronic devices– Semiconductor physics– Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET)– Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) Deals with microelectronic circuits– Digital circuits (mainly CMOS)– Analog circuits (BJT and MOS) The interaction of devices and circuits

Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Charles G. Sodini Peter Hagelstein, Judy Hoyt Shawn Kuo, Min Park, Colin Weltin-Wu. Lecture 1 - 6.012 overview February 1, 2005 . - Digital circuits (mainly CMOS) - Analog circuits (BJT and MOS) The interaction of devices and circuits. Title: Microsoft PowerPoint - SP05.Lecture1.ppt

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