International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May-2013ISSN 2229-5518701Cleaner Production of Vinyl ChlorideMonomer (VCM)Jemish Dattani, Darshan Devani, Omprakash SahuAbstract - Cleaner production eliminates pollution throughout the entire production process. It is a way of reducing pollution damage to both theenvironment and the human population by increasing the efficiency of resource use – decreasing pollution discharge by improving managementand technology. Cleaner production is implemented at the factory level. The factories get both economic and environmental benefits fromimplementing cleaner production. The implementation of cleaner production involves a combination of reorganization, improved technology in thefactories, power saving and decreasing consumption, improved management and competent resource use. The eventual goal of clean productionis to achieve a 'closed loop' operation in which all excess materials are recycled back into the process, which is utmost necessary in today’s world.Here we have included a case study of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) production using cleaner production (CP), which includes MaterialBalance, Energy Balance, Cost Estimation and Simulation.Index Terms- cleaner production, vinyl chloride monomer, eco efficiency—————————— ——————————1 INTRODUCTIONcbased on different techniques. These techniques areclassified into three main categories as which areshown in figure no.1 .IJSERleaner Production (CP) is the continuousapplication of an integrated preventiveenvironmental strategy to processes, products,and services to increase overall efficiency, andreduce risks to humans and the environment.Cleaner Production can be applied to the processesused in any industry, to products themselves and tovarious services provided in society . It is a broadterm that encompasses terms such as eco-efficiency,pollution prevention and green productivity. In essence,applying cleaner production protects the environment,the consumer and the worker while improving industrialefficiency, profitability and competitiveness. The Keyelement of the CP is to reach the precautionary,preventive, integrated and holistic approach withdemocratic control. The basic principle of CP is focuson the primary function of the economic activities forprocess input resources (raw material, energy, water,etc.) into usable outputs . However, all the inputs arenot transformed into the usable outputs. The portionthat does not get transformed into useful outputs comesout as waste. This transformation of waste depends onthe technology employed and efficiency of the process.However, with the growth of the economic activities, onone hand the withdrawal of resources from nature hasincreased, while on the other hand the discharge of thewastes into the environment as amplified. The currenttrends as well as the pace in the economic activity ofour country are resulting in the generation of wastes ata much higher pace than the assimilative capacity ofthe environment. This new & creative approach toenable the production process less waste intensive isF ig.1: Technique of Cleaner productionIn 1993, a CP demonstration project targeting SMEs wasinitiated by UNIDO, in cooperation with the IndianNational Productivity Council and other industryassociations. This desire project focused on differentsectors such as agro-based pulp and paper, textile dyingand printing, polymeric material and pesticidesformulation . From the all other product we choices thepolymeric Vinyl chloride for the cleaner production, Vinylchloride (CH 2 CHCl) is a haloginated alkane. It is thebuilding block for its polymer poly-vinyl chloride (PVC)and other co-polymers with acetate and vinyl chloride.Poly (vinyl chloride), PVC, is a common commodityplastic, and its production is the third largest, afterpolyethylene and polypropylene . It is cost-effective,highly versatile and is used in many constructionapplications as water, sewage and drainage pipes, and avariety of extruded profiles . Thousands of rigid, semiflexible and flexible (plasticized) materials and productsbased on PVC are widely used in practically all spheresIJSER 2013http://www.ijser.org
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May-2013ISSN 2229-5518of the world economy and will remain so for a very longtime. From volume estimates, the world production ofPVC grew from a few hundred million pounds to about 44billion pounds in 2000  as new uses and markets weredeveloped. However, it is known that PVC degrades atelevated temperatures, giving off hydrochloric acid (HCl)that in turn accelerates the degradation process.Depending on the number of conjugated double bondsformed, it becomes yellow, orange, red, brown and finallyblack . The splitting-off of HCl from the polymerbackbone affects the physical, chemical and themechanical properties of the polymer. Until the discoveryof thermal stabilizers, PVC was not an industrially veryuseful polymer, as it could not be processed to usefularticles without degradation at elevated temperatures.Quantum improvements in extrusion and injectionmoulding machinery and extrusion die design, togetherwith significant improvements in stabilizers and lubricanttechnology have all contributed to increased tonnageproduction and usage of PVC. The goal of this study is toproduce an environmentally friendly, safe, andeconomically profitable vinyl chloride production in plantand to achieve a 'closed loop' operation in which allexcess materials are recycled back into the process.expensive C2 hydrocarbon, but it cannot be converted tovinyl chloride with high selectivity.2.1 Chlorination followed by Thermal Cracking andVinylationIJSER2. MATERIAL AND METHODSVinyl chloride was first produced using the process ofdehydrating ethylene dichloride (EDC) with alcoholiccaustic potash. However, the first effective industrialprocess was based on the hydro-chlorination of acetylene.Until the late 1940s, this process was used almostexclusively. The normal method of producing acetylenewas from calcium carbide. “The high-energy requirementfor carbide production was a serious drawback to thecontinuing mass production of vinyl chloride by thismethod”. However, as ethylene became more plentiful inthe early 50’s, commercial processes were developed toproduce vinyl chloride from chlorine and ethylene via EDC,namely, the balanced ethylene route. Today the balancedethylene is responsible for well over 90% of the world’svinyl 6 chloride production. “This process has been refinedand the scale of operation has greatly increased, but nofundamentally new processes have achieved commercialviability”. Although this is true, it is still necessary toexamine the alternative processes and determine if theycan still be utilized. All current production plants for vinylchloride depend on the use of a C 2 hydrocarbon feedstocks, specifically, acetylene, ethylene, or ethane.Commercial operations using these compounds areconfined to gas-phase processes. “Manufacture fromacetylene is a relatively simple single-stage process, butthe cost of acetylene is high”. Ethane is by far the least7022.2 PROCESS DESCERIPTIONSFor the production of Vinyl chloride from ethylenedichloride, initially ethylene is allowed to react with gaseousEthylene dichloride (EDC)chorine to obtain EDC. Ethylene is reacted with Chlorinegas at temperature of 65 C in the pre s e nce of Fe Cl2, theresultant product is Ethylene dichloride (Reaction - 1). Thereaction is highly exothermic in nature. The conversion is100% and selectivity for this step is above 99% for thisreaction. To produce Vinyl chloride from EDC, thermalpyrolysis process is carried out at a temperature of 480550oC and 4 atmospheric pressure(Reaction-2). At thisoperating condition, thermal cracking of EDC is takingplace in tubular pyrolysis (cracking) furnace. AdditionallyVinylation (Reaction – 3) is carried out to utilize co –product HCl produce in thermal cracking reaction (Reaction– 2).In vinylation reaction, acetylene and HCl (produced inthermal pyrolysis reaction) are allowed to react attemperature 200oC and 1 atmospheric pressure. Thereaction of acetylene and hydrogen chloride is carried outin the vapor phase at 150–250oC over a mercuric chloridecatalyst. The acetylene route is usually coupled withethylene chlorination unit so that the hydrogen chloridederived from cracking dichloroethane can be consumed inthe reaction with acetylene. HCl being now a raw material,the entire environment in a plant producing vinyl chloridehas to be kept perfectly dry atmosphere. Since the tubularreactor containing carbon pellets impregnated with HgCl2is used, initially temperature used is 160oC which isincreased to 200 C progre s s ive ly de pe nd i ng on thedeactivation of catalyst due to carbon deposition. Properheating of raw material must be done to avoid deactivation.IJSER 2013http://www.ijser.org
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May-2013ISSN 2229-5518Control of temperature is the most essential parameter toincrease the conversion level. Thus one mole each ofethylene, acetylene, and chlorine give two moles of vinylchloride with a minimum of by-products. Hard cracking ofhydrocarbons to a 1:1 molar mixture of ethylene andacetylene for use as feedstock for vinyl chloride productionis done. The crude stream from the tubular reactor containsthe main product, as well as unreacted amount ofacetylene and HCl, the unreacted amount is stripped off ina stripper and recycled to the reactor to reduce the rawmaterial requirements. Hence at the end more amount ofvinyl chloride is obtained, as a result the overall plantproduction capacity can thus be increased. The flowdiagram is shown in figure 2.703highly endothermic in nature. Energy required in terms ofheating 58 x 107 kJ / day. Since the conversion of theprocess is 63%, the product comes out of the reactor atthe end of reaction contains main product vinyl chloride500 TPD (8000 kgmoles / day), by – product HCl 292TPD (8000 kgmoles / day) and unreacted EDC 465.1TPD (4698.4 kgmoles / day). This product stream isallowed to cool and separate in separation unit. Energythat must be required in terms of cooling is 74.8 x 107 kJ/ day to cool the product stream. In this reaction,unreacted quantity of EDC 465.1 TPD (4698.4 kgmoles /day) is recycled with fresh EDC. Hence the raw materialrequirement can thus be reduced. By – product – HClgenerated is also fully utilized in this route. In vinylation,reaction is carried out by using acetylene as a rawmaterial with HCl produced in thermal pyrolysis reaction i.e. in second step. Acetylene 208 TPD (8000 kgmoles /day) and HCl 292 TPD (8000 kgmoles / day) is allowed topreheat initially before reaction to takes place. Heatrequired to preheat the raw material is 1.92 x 107 kJ /day. The vinylation is exothermic reaction, so as toremove the exothermic heat 79.49 x 107 kJ / day; energyis required in terms of cooling. The conversion of thisprocess is considered as 100%. The product leaving thereactor contains main product vinyl chloride 500 TPD(8000 kgmoles / day). The product stream is allowed tocool and impurities are separated in the separator. Hence19.57 x 107 kJ / day of energy is required in terms ofcooling to cool and separate the product. Hence, finally inthis route total 1000 TPD (16000 kgmoles / day) of vinylchloride is obtained. Here, HCl produced is fully utilized toreact with acetylene so that liquid waste generated iszero. Hence, raw material requirement reduces to halfand also energy requirement in terms of cooling andheating also reduces to half. Thus this is the mostfavorable route in terms of energy conservation andwaste minimization.3.2 Comparison of routes based on Material BalancePrinciples:Finally we can summarize the entire three routes incommon table by material balance principles for theproduction of 1000 TPD of vinyl chloride as under:IJSERFig.2: Production of VCM via Acetylene-HCl route3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION3.1 Production by route-III: The vinyl chloride isproduced by the unit processes namely chlorination,thermal pyrolysis and vinylation respectively. To produce1000 TPD (16000 kgmoles / day) of Vinyl chloride,process is initiated by chlorination using raw material asethylene and chlorine (equimolar) in a quantity 224 TPD(8000 kgmoles / day) and 568 TPD (8000 kgmoles / day)respectively. These raw materials for chlorination processare preheated and fed to the rector. During preheating,energy requirement is 0.106 x 107 kJ / day. Sincechlorination is highly exothermic in nature, the amount ofheat that must be removed from the reactor is 145 x 107kJ / day. As the conversion is 100% for chlorinationprocess, the product ethylene dichloride (EDC) come outof reactor is 792 TPD (8000 kgmoles / day). Here, energythat must be required in terms of cooling is 23.26 x 107kJ / day to cool the product. In second step, thermalpyrolysis is done with the raw material EDC. In this stage,fresh EDC 792 TPD (8000 kgmoles / day) fromchlorination process with recycled quantity 465.1 TPD(4698.4 kgmoles / day) is preheated and sent to thermalcracking. Energy required for preheating is 74.8 x 107 kJ/ day. Since the cracking reaction is thermodynamicallyTABLE 1:COMPARISON OF MATERIAL nitVCMHCl*EDCC 2 H4Cl 2C 2 96.91600016000------R-IKgmoles/ dayIJSER 2013http://www.ijser.org
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May-2013ISSN 2229-5518UnitVCMHCl*EDCC 2 H4Cl 2C 2 H2HCl*O2TPD10005842514.3448568--58464704842.5 x 107TOTAL ENERGY REQUIRED (kJ / 00/ day107ThermalUnitVCMHCl*EDCC 2 H4Cl 2C 2 p: 3VinylationIII0.1065Chlorinationx145 x 10723.27 x 107168.4 x 10774.8 x 10758 x 10774.8 x 107207.6 x 1071.92 x 10779.49 x 10719.57 x 107100.98 x 107Step: 2R- -TOTAL ENERGY REQUIRED (kJ / day)476.98 x 107/ dayAs could be seen from above table, Route – II and Route– III can be considered as environmentally friendly route.Since by – product – HCl comes out at the end ofpyrolysis reaction is being fully utilized in these abovementioned routes. Raw material requirement ascompared to other conventional route also reduces tohalf. Chlorine quantity requirements in route - II arereduced to half; as a result intensity of pollutant-Cl2 ingaseous effluent stream also gets reduced considerably.Quantity of CO2 emission in atmosphere gets reduced tohalf quantity – equivalent carbon credits are obtained.Thus, Route-III is more environmentally friendly incomparison to Route-II.It can be seen from above table that among three routesfor the production of 1000 TPD of vinyl chloride, theenergy requirement in Route – III is the lowest than theconventional route i. e. Route – I. Route – II requires 10%additional energy than the conventional route though it isconsidered as environmentally friendly route as theemission of pollutant (Cl2) quantity reduces to half andthe liquid effluent (HCl) is also fully utilized by this route. Ifcomparison can be made between Route – I and Route –II, then energy requirement in step – 1 of Route – II isapproximately half to that of step – 1 of Route – I, butoxychlorination step in Route – II needs more energy.Hence, Route – II almost needs more energy (10%) thanRoute – I. Finally, if one can analyses and compare theentire three routes, Route – III is more energy efficient aswell as eco – friendly route. More energy conservationcompared to other two routes can be obtained in thisRoute – III and also the by – product – HCl generated isfully utilized by this route. The requirement of energy isalso reduced by 66%. Hence more carbon credits can beearned. So, Route – III can be considered as the moreenvironmentally route than Route – II.4 CONCULSIONThis route is more environmental friendly than the otherroutes in terms of waste minimization and energyconservation. Vinylation reaction (step – 3) is carried outto utilize the by – product – HCl generated in pyrolysisreaction, as a result the quantity of liquid waste generatedin this route is zero. The most important conclusion forthis route can be drawn by material and energy balancecalculation, when compared with other routes. Toproduce 1,000 TPD of vinyl chloride, 224 TPD ofethylene and 568 TPD of chlorine is required inchlorination (step – 1) to produce EDC. In thermalpyrolysis (step – 2), 1257.1 TPD of EDC is fed to reactorto produce vinyl chloride, 292 TPD of HCl as a by –product and some unreacted amount of EDC which isrecycled to the reactor, so that requirement of fresh rawmaterial EDC is reduced. To utilize by – product HClgenerated in thermal pyrolysis, this by – product becomesIJSER3.3 Comparison of routes based on Energy BalancePrinciples: The Energy requirement for entire threeroutes can be summarized with respect to energybalance in a common table as under:TABLE 2:COMPARISONS OF ENERGY BALANCEHeatRoutetobePreheatingabsorbed/(kJ / day)removedSeparationTOTAL(kJ / day)(kJ / day)(kJ / day)Step:1Chlorination0.213 x 107291 x 10746.54 x 107337.75 x 107149.6 x 107116 x 107149.6 x 107415.2 x 107R- IStep: 2ThermalPyrolysis752.95 x 107TOTAL ENERGY REQUIRED (kJ / day)Step:1Chlorination0.106 x 107145 x 10723.27 x 107168.4 x 107149.6 x 107116 x 107149.6 x 107415.2 x 1076.51 x 107191 x 10761.39 x 107258.9 x 107Step: 2R – IIThermalPyrolysisStep: 3OxychlorinationIJSER 2013http://www.ijser.org
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 5, May-2013ISSN 2229-5518the feed stock for vinylation reaction and is allowed toreact with 208 TPD of acetylene to produce vinyl chloride.Thus total 1,000 TPD of vinyl chloride is er routesproduced. So, in this route also quantity of liquid effluentgenerated is practically zero, also intensity of pollutant –Cl2 gets reduced to half compared to ot. Here, in thisroute, as compared with other two routes, raw materialrequirement also gets reduced to half, although plantcapacity for the production of vinyl chloride remains thesame. The total energy requirement for this entire routefor vinyl chloride production is 476.98 x 107 kJ / day.Compared with the energy requirement in other tworoutes, the energy requirement in this route gets reducedalmost to 50%. Thus, from the environmental point ofview, this route has provided the best platform forimplementation of Cleaner Production Principles. Thisroute is thus, a more environmentally friendly route interms of waste minimization, reduction in raw materialrequirements and energy conservation than other routes.Hence, in this industrial case study for production of vinylchloride Cleaner Production Principles can beimplemented successfully.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:Authors acknowledge to department of chemicalengineering KIT Jamnagar and Ministry of TechnicalEducation Gujarat (India) for their support.ReferencePuranik, S.A.; “Capacity Building for Students AndAcademicians In Environment Related Issues WithSpecial Emphasis On Cleaner Production”, 2ndInternational Conference on Cleaner Production (Deptt.Of Forests & En.) February 6-8, 2012.Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre, “CleanerProduction Manual”, p: 5 – 14, 65 – 78, 117 – 125(2010).Gujarat Cleaner Production Centre, “Draft of CleanerProduction Manual”, www.gcpcgujarat.org, ”PollutionPrevention and Abatement Handbook World Bank Group,July 1998.Yoshioka T, Kameda T, Leshige M, Okuwaki A ;Dechlorination behaviour of flexible poly(vinyl chloride) inNaOH/EG solution. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 93: 1822-1825(2008).Van Es DS, Steenwijk J, Frissen GE, van der Kolk HC,van Haveren J, Geus JW, Jenneskens LW (2008). Thecompatibility of (natural) polyols with heavy metal- andzinc- free poly(vinyl chloride): Their effect on rheologyand implications for plate-out. Polym. Degrad. Stab., ww.plastics.com/articlelive/articles/5/1/ p. 3(2006).IJSERIJSER 2013http://www.ijser.org705
vinyl chloride is obtained, as a result the overall plant production capacity can thus be increased. The flow diagram is shown in figure 2. Fig.2: Production of VCM via Acetylene-HCl route . 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION . 3.1 Production by route-III: The vinyl chloride is produced by the unit processes namely chlorination,
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REPEATED EXPOSURE. MAY BE IRRITATING TO EYES. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE CONTAINS VINYL CHLORIDE. VINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT. THIS PRODUCT CONTAINS VINYL CHLORIDE MONOMER (VCM) AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 10 PPM OR LESS ( 0.001%). PHYSICAL HAZARDS: Use methods to minimize generation of dust. PVC dust is capable of propagating a secondary dust .
Vinyl Chloride 15/02/99 8 6.3. Emissions The main route by which vinyl chloride enters the environment during manufacturing, processing and usage is the atmosphere. Emissions into air from the use of vinyl chloride can be estimated based on current national regulations and the BAT recommendations as 448 t/y for the S.PVC production in Europe.
vinyl chloride (3 to 24 ppm), up to 71% (with a mean value of 42%) of the given dose may be absorbed. Vinyl chloride absorption appears to depend on its metabolism, which is a dose-dependent, saturable process. Due to saturation of the enzyme systems responsible for the metabolism of vinyl chloride (cytochrome P-450 and alcohol dehydrogenase .
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1 mg/kg and that the vinyl chloride content in food products should be below 10 µg/kg. More recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) set a maximum residue level of 300 ng/L (0.3 ppb) vinyl chloride in drinking water. As vinyl chloride is gaseous at ambient conditions, the analytical technique of choice is gas chromatography (GC).
Solubility of n-butane in vinyl chloride monomer. soo C; 0:600 C. Temperature dependence of Henry's Law constant for n-butane in vinyl chloride monomer. Temperature dependence of apparent solubility constant for n-butane in PVC. Ratio of GC detector response areas for n-butane versus conversion of VCM at 600 C. e:experimental data; :model .
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Vinyl chloride (VCM) is one of the most important commodity materials, being the main raw material in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and is mainly produced through the thermal cracking of . 5.3 Simulation results using the geometry in Li et al.  and assigning a conversion of 55%.34 .
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