EAZA Callitrichid BPG 2015

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EAZA ionEdited byEric Bairrão RuivoBeauval ZooMiranda F. StevensonBristol Zoo Gardens

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Editor and Callitrichid TAG ChairEric Bairrão RuivoZooParc de Beauval41110 Saint Aignan sur CherFranceTel. 33 254 757 [email protected] 3rd EditionMiranda StevensonBristol Zoo Gardens, Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA – United rsEric Bairrão Ruivo1ZooParc de Beauval – 41110 Saint Aignan – [email protected] M. Buchanan-Smith²University of Stirling – Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland – United [email protected] Byrne3Formerly Zoo d’Asson [email protected] Bryan Carroll4Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation & Bristol Zoo Gardens – Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA – United [email protected] Haelewyn Desmoulins5Parc Zoologique et Paysager du Reynou, Domaine due Reynou – 87110 Le Vigen – [email protected] Feltrer6Zoological Society of London – Regent’s Park NW1 4RY – United [email protected] Galbusera7Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp – Konigin Astridplein 26, B-2018 Antwerpen – [email protected]

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Tine Griede8Hogeschool van Hall Larenstein – Postbus 1528, 8901 BV Leeuwarden – The [email protected] Grothmann9(Formerly Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg)Serengeti-Park Hodenhagen GmbH - Am Safaripark 1 - 29693 Hodenhagen - [email protected] Jens10Apenheul Primate Park – PO Box 97 7300 AB Apeldoorn – The [email protected] Leus11CBSG Europe – Copenhagen Zoo & EAZA – p/a Annuntiatenstraat 6, 2170 Merksem – [email protected] & [email protected] Lindsay12Zoological Society of London – Regent’s Park NW1 4RY – United [email protected] Lopez Goya13Faunia Zoo – 28 Avenida Comunidades, 28032 Centro, Madrid – [email protected] Lorca14Zoo d’Asson – 6 Chemin du Brouquet, 64800 Asson – [email protected] Muir15Newquay Zoo – Trenance Park Newquay, Cornwall TR7 2LZ – United [email protected] Petit16Zoo de la Palmyre – 17570 Les Mathes – [email protected] B. Rylands17Conservation International – 2011 Crystal Drive, Arlington 22202, VA – United [email protected] Schwitzer18Bristol Conservation and Science Foundation – Bristol Zoo Gardens, Clifton, Bristol BS8 3HA – United [email protected]

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Tai Strike19Zoological Society of London – Regent’s Park NW1 4RY – United [email protected] Wormell20Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust – Les Augres Manor, Trinity, Jersey JE3 5BP, Channel Islands – [email protected] Yaxley21Animal Centre – Reaseheath College, Nantwich, Cheshire CW5 6DF – United is is the 3rd edition of the guidelines, published 2015. This involved changing the 2010 Husbandry Guidelinesto Best Practice Guidelines as per EAZA recommendations and some updating of content has also taken place.The authors would like to thank Dr Ken Gold and Dr Gabor Gosi for their contribution to the 1 st edition of thehusbandry guidelines.The authors would also like to thank Dr Eluned Price for reviewing the 2nd edition of the document. It has beenconsiderably strengthened as a result of her efforts.The Editors would like to thank Aude Desmoulins and Laure Pelletier for their help in the 2 nd edition of theseguidelines.Illustrations and distribution mapsAll drawings and distribution maps used in these guidelines were done by Stephen Nash who kindly gavepermission to use them in this publication. All copyrights of these drawings and maps belong to Stephen Nashand they cannot be used or reproduced without his authorisation.Contact: [email protected] and designMafalda SimõesMAF Design, 6, rue Constant Ragot, 41110 Saint Aignan sur Cher – [email protected]

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015DisclaimerCopyright 2015 by EAZA Executive Office, Amsterdam. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced in hard copy, machine-readable or other forms without advance written permission from theEuropean Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA). Members of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria(EAZA) may copy this information for their own use as needed. The information contained in these EAZA BestPractice Guidelines has been obtained from numerous sources believed to be reliable. EAZA and the EAZA [TAGname] TAG make a diligent effort to provide a complete and accurate representation of the data in its reports,publications, and services. However, EAZA does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of anyinformation. EAZA disclaims all liability for errors or omissions that may exist and shall not be liable for anyincidental, consequential, or other damages (whether resulting from negligence or otherwise) including,without limitation, exemplary damages or lost profits arising out of or in connection with the use of thispublication. Because the technical information provided in the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines can easily bemisread or misinterpreted unless properly analyzed, EAZA strongly recommends that users of this informationconsult with the editors in all matters related to data, analysis and interpretation.PublicationPublished by Beauval Zoo 20154

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015EAZA Best Practice Guidlines for the CallitrichidaePreamble for the EAZA Best Practice GuidelinesRight from the very beginning it has been the concern of EAZA and the EEPs to encourage and promote thehighest possible standards for husbandry of zoo and aquarium animals. For this reason, quite early on, EAZAdeveloped the “Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria”. Thesestandards lay down general principles of animal keeping, to which the members of EAZA feel themselvescommitted. Above and beyond this, some countries have defined regulatory minimum standards for thekeeping of individual species regarding the size and furnishings of enclosures etc., which, according to theopinion of authors, should definitely be fulfilled before allowing such animals to be kept within the area of thejurisdiction of those countries. These minimum standards are intended to determine the borderline ofacceptable animal welfare. It is not permitted to fall short of these standards. How difficult it is to determinethe standards, however, can be seen in the fact that minimum standards vary from country to country.Above and beyond this, specialists of the EEPs and TAGs have undertaken the considerable task of laying downguidelines for keeping individual animal species. Whilst some aspects of husbandry reported in the guidelineswill define minimum standards, in general, these guidelines are not to be understood as minimumrequirements; they represent best practice. As such the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for keeping animalsintend rather to describe the desirable design of enclosures and prerequisites for animal keeping that are,according to the present state of knowledge, considered as being optimal for each species. They intend aboveall to indicate how enclosures should be designed and what conditions should be fulfilled for the optimal careof individual species.EAZA Callitrichid TAG members (2015)Chair:Eric Bairrão Ruivo, Beauval – [email protected]:Dominic Wormell, Jersey - [email protected] Stevenson, Bristol - [email protected] Co-ordinators:EEPsGoeldi’s monkey (Callimico goeldii):Susan O’Brien, Dublin - [email protected] marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi):Agustín López Goya, Faunia - [email protected]

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Golden-headed lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysomelas):Peter Galbusera, Antwerp - [email protected] lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus):Dominic Wormell, Jersey - [email protected] lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia):Nick Lindsay, Zoological Society of London - [email protected] tamarin (Saguinus bicolor):Dominic Wormell, Jersey - [email protected] Tamarin (Saguinus imperator):Sónia Matias, Lisbon - [email protected] tamarin (Saguinus oedipus):Miranda Stevenson, Bristol - [email protected] marmoset (Mico argentatus):Nic Dunn, Shaldon - [email protected]dlifetrust.org.ukRed-bellied tamarin (Saguinus labiatus):Red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas):Greg Clifton, Twycross - [email protected] marmoset (Callithrix penicillata):Franck Haelewyn, Reynou - [email protected] marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea):Andrew Hope, Belfast - [email protected] marmoset (Mico melanurus):Nic Dunn, Shaldon - [email protected] tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis):Luc Lorca, Asson - [email protected] non-managed Callitrichid speciesFranck Haelewyn, Reynou - [email protected] Stevenson, Bristol - [email protected]

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Anthony Rylands, Conservation International - [email protected] Griede, Van Hall Larenstein - [email protected] Bryan Carroll, Bristol - [email protected] Jens, Apeldoorn - [email protected] Schwitzer, Bristol - [email protected] managementKristin Leus, Copenhagen - [email protected] Petit, La Palmyre - [email protected] Galbusera, Antwerp - [email protected] to the EAZA Executive OfficeKatharina Herrmann - [email protected]

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015SUMMARYThis document reflects our current knowledge of the keeping of Callitrichids in captive environments.It provides Best Practice Information on the successful captive management of these small primates with afocus on integrating and supporting field conservation work in host countries.Section 1., Biology and Field Data, reflects our current knowledge of species in the naturalenvironment using the most recent taxonomic information. This section refers to the Regional Collection Planfor Callitrichids, which adopts the One Plan Approach. The philosophy behind this is that ex situ conservationcan be used more effectively as a conservation tool if it is part of an integrated approach to speciesconservation (IUCN, 2014). The potential need for a conservation role of an EAZA ex situ population hastherefore been decided in consultation with in situ specialists. Several TAG members and species coordinatorsare involved in range-state species conservation planning processes that evaluate and incorporate ex situactivities as part of the overall conservation strategy. This is an important role of the TAG.Section 2., Management in Zoos, covers housing and exhibition, nutrition, food presentation andenrichment, social structure and behaviour. Callitrichids need to be kept in family groups, however their socialstructure results in eventual evictions of group members. Therefore those keeping the animals need to ensurethat they have sufficient enclosures to accommodate evicted animals in appropriate conditions. TheGuidelines includes comprehensive sections on managing evictions and holding surplus animals.There is also useful information on the formation of non-breeding mixed or single-sex groups. Thesection on breeding includes an updated (2015) section on breeding control with a useful summary table foreasy reference. Control of breeding is an essential component of successful managed programmes and thissection provides comprehensive information to assist zoo veterinarians to decide on the most appropriatemethod for their animals. Managed programmes also rely on the movement of animals between zoos andadvice on capture, handling and transport is provided.It is essential that callitrichids are provided with complex environments and there is detailed practicalinformation on environmental enrichment. One method of enriching enclosures is the use of plants andinformation on suitable species is provided.A comprehensive veterinary section provides information on current knowledge on all aspects ofmedical care.Some species present more challenges for successful management than others and there is a sectioncovering these special issues. Our knowledge can only increase through appropriate research and the finalsection covers ongoing and recommended research topics.The document also contains a comprehensive reference section and two appendices.Finally this document is for Callitrichids and their holders. It is essential that all keepers of thesewonderful primates frequently refer to the Guidelines and contact TAG members with any concerns or queries .8

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Table of ContentsAcknowledgements and CopyrightsPreamble for the EAZA Best Practice GuidelinesTAG members listSummaryIntroductionTAG statement on the keeping of Callitrichids by private individuals3558SECTION 1 Biology and Field ysiology181.4Longevity19Field data1.5Conservation status/Distribution/Ecology191.6Diet and feeding behaviour191.6.1Feeding ecology191.6.2Foraging es accounts Genus Callibella28 Genus Callimico29 Genus Callithrix30 Genus Cebuella35 Genus Leontopithecus37 Genus Mico41 Genus Saguinus55SECTION 2: Management in Zoos2.173Housing and exhibition of the Callitrichidae732.1.173Enclosure size9

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 20152.1.2Door and tunnel design742.1.3Construction materials752.1.4Barriers752.1.5Orientation and location of enclosures762.1.6Cleaning and substrates772.1.7Furniture772.1.8Lighting and photoperiod782.1.9Temperature and humidity792.1.10 Free-range enclosures2.22.3Feeding2.2.1Basic diet: food components and feeding regime802.2.2Nutrient requirements812.2.3Diet recommendations862.2.4Method of feeding: eliciting natural foraging behaviour902.2.5Other considerations922.2.6Example diets from experienced institutions93Social structure and behaviour2.3.1Group structure1102.3.2General behavioural repertoire and communication1112.3.3Group in captivity1122.3.4Mixed-species exhibits1142.3.4.1 Methods of introduction1162.3.4.2 Mixed species tables1162.3.5Housing surplus animals and managing evictions1182.3.5.1TAG Statement1182.3.5.2Managing evictions and holding surplus animals1192.3.62.479Formation of non-breeding mixed or single-sex groups121Breeding2.4.1Twinning1242.4.2Reproductive strategies1242.4.3Reproductive suppression1252.4.4Infant care patterns among the Callitrichidae12510

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 20152.4.5Implications for captive management1262.4.6Hand-rearing1272.4.6.1The need to hand rear1272.4.6.2Physical condition of the infant1282.4.6.3Feeding regime1282.4.6.4Monitoring progress1292.4.6.5Reintroduction1292.4.7Population and breeding control1302.4.7.1Introduction1302.4.7.2Current options for population control1312.4.7.2.1 Family groups1312.4.7.2.2 Unisex group1322.4.7.2.3 Chemical contraception1322.4.7.2.4 Immunocontraception1342.4.7.2.5 Intra-uterine devices (IUD)1352.4.7.2.6 Termination of early pregnancy by regular prostaglandin injection 1382.52.4.7.2.7 Surgical methods of contraception1382.4.7.2.8 Euthanasia1392.4.7.3Summary1392.4.7.4Summary table of contraceptive methods for Callitrichidae1422.4.7.5APPENDIX Possible arguments for and against euthanasia148Environmental enrichment1502.5.1Introduction1502.5.2What is enrichment1502.5.3What is the aim of enrichment?1502.5.4Why is enrichment important?1512.5.5What if we don’t enrich?1522.5.6Caution1522.5.7Callitrichid ecology and foraging behaviour: implications for enrichment1522.5.8An enriched environment1532.5.9Artificial devices1552.5.10 Other forms of enrichment15711

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 20152.62.72.5.11 Things to avoid157Capture, handling and transport1582.6.1General principles1582.6.2Methods of .6.5Safety165Veterinary considerations for health and welfare1662.7.1Introduction1662.7.2Routine observation1662.7.3Clinical .7.6Post-mortem n1692.7.9Preventive measures1702.7.10 Vaccination1702.7.11 Zoonoses1702.7.12 Common disorders (brief description, treatment and prophylaxis)1712.7.12.1 Digestive system1712.7.12.2 Respiratory system1732.7.12.3 Urinary system1742.7.12.4 Reproductive system1742.7.12.5 Locomotor system1742.1.12.6 Nervous system1752.1.12.7 Skin and mucous membranes1762.1.12.8 Cardiovascular system1772.1.12.9 General body condition1772.1.12.10 Metabolic disease1672.7.13 Appendix2.8178Specific Problems18512

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 20152.92.8.1Note1852.8.2Pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor)1862.8.2.1 Introduction1862.8.2.1 Wasting syndrome1862.8.2.2.1 Behavioural signs of wasting1862.8.2.2.2 Physical signs of wasting1862.8.2.2.3 Monitoring1872.8.2.2.4 Treatment of wasting syndrome1882.8.2.3 Avoiding stress1782.8.2.4 Dietary requirements and access to UV light189Recommended (and planned) ex situ research1912.9.1Veterinary medicine1912.9.2Genetics1922.9.3Hormonal studies1922.9.4Behavioural research/enrichment1922.9.5Nutrition193SECTION 3: References194SECTION 4: Appendices2301.2.Enriched environments for callitrichidsCallitrichid plant interaction13

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015IntroductionWelcome to this, the third edition of the EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for the Callitrichidae. The firstedition of the Husbandry Guidelines was published in 2002 and the second in 2010. This third edition has beentransposed from Husbandry to Best Practice Guidelines, including some updating of content.Since the first edition there has been a considerable revision of Section 1, Biology and Field Data. Thisresults from both changes in taxonomy and discovery and identification of new species. This is a continuousprocess, and full details of the literature supporting the most recent changes can be found in the RegionalCollection Plan (RCP) for the Callitrichidae, edition 3 (Wormell et al, 2014). The TAG recommendations in thespecies accounts have also been updated from the RCP. Information has been added to Section 2 whichreflects advances in our knowledge and understanding of the complex needs of Callitrichidae.The EAZA Regional Collection Plan (Wormell et al, 2014) highlights the need for good husbandry andpopulation management in order to maintain self-sustaining populations in captivity. The RCP documentadopts the One Plan Approach. The philosophy behind this (Stevenson and Leus, 2014; Traylor-Holzer et al2013 and Wormell et al, 2014) is that ex situ conservation can be used more effectively as a conservation tool ifit is part of an integrated approach to species conservation (IUCN, 2014). The potential need for a conservationrole of an EAZA ex situ population was therefore decided in consultation with in situ specialists. The TAG isvery fortunate in having Anthony Rylands from the IUCN Primate Specialist Group (PSG) as one of its membersand the plan incorporates the latest information from the field and also on callitrichid taxonomy. Several TAGmembers and species coordinators are involved in range-state species conservation planning processes thatevaluate and incorporate ex situ activities as part of the overall conservation strategy.Some species require considerable management due to small population sizes and difficulties inestablishing multiple-generation breeding. Furthermore our experience over the years tells us that we needconstantly to seek advances in the care, wellbeing and welfare of the animals in our breeding programmes.The Best Practice Guidelines have contributions from experts in husbandry, taxonomy, social behaviour,nutrition and animal health and reflect what we see as best practice for our animals. We hope that it is helpfulnot only for EAZA zoos but also for zoos in other regions. In particular we hope that they are useful for zoos inLatin America in the countries that are fortunate enough to have wild callitrichids. Most primate species aredeclining in numbers, as their habitat diminishes, and zoos have an increasingly important part to play inhelping species in the wild.Some species are vital for conservation programmes and the TAG is actively involved in several projectsin range states including:Saguinus bicolor, pied tamarin. This Endangered species is under threat owing to deforestation andurbanisation and the captive population has an important role as an ‘insurance population’. It is also a speciesthat is not easy to maintain in captivity and considerable effort has been taken to give suitable guidance, whichis available from Dominic Wormell, who is also involved in conservation of the species in Brazil.Callithrix aurita, buffy tufted-ear marmoset. The species is Vulnerable, there are none in EAZA collections butthe TAG is becoming involved in supporting field survey work in Brazil to determine the extent of hybridizationwith C.jacchus and C.penicillata. There are some in captivity in Brazil and, if at some time in the future theBrazilian Government asks for participation in a programme the species would be managed as an EEP. TAGmembers and the PSG are involved with this evaluation and national action planning.14

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Saguinus leucopus, silvery-brown tamarin. The species is Endangered, there are none in EAZA collections but anumber in captivity in Colombia. The EAZA Callitrichid TAG currently supports in situ and ex situ conservationand conservation education of the ex situ population in Colombia.Saguinus oedipus, cotton-top tamarin. This species is Critically Endangered and there are many in EAZAcollections. The management level is an EEP and the TAG actively supports Proyecto Titi in Colombia.Leontopithecus, the lion tamarins. The TAG has been involved in the global progamme for many years. Theoverall conservation programme for the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) is a model for the “oneplan approach” and the ex situ needs are clearly stipulated in the national action plan in Brazil.We hope that you will refer frequently to this document and find it useful. If you have experiences thatyou feel would be useful to include, or any points or queries you wish to raise, please let us know so that wecan modify and improve future editions of the guidelines. Feel free to contact us.Eric Bairrão Ruivo - Chair Callitrichid TAGDominic Wormell – Vice-Chair Callitrichid TAGMiranda Stevenson – Vice-Chair Callitrichid TAGTAG statement on keeping Callitrichids by private individualsIn many European countries, certain primate species may be kept legally by private individuals.The EAZA Callitrichidae Taxon Advisory Group believes that all captive marmosets, tamarins and Goeldi’smonkey (Callitrichidae) should receive the same high standards of husbandry, whatever the nature of theinstitution or individual holding them, to ensure that the welfare of these primates is safeguarded and notcompromised. The EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae provides guidance on correct husbandryprotocols. Due to their particular dietary, housing and social needs, these primate species are not suitablehouse pets.All efforts should be made by the responsible authorities to ensure that Callitrichidae husbandry and welfarestandards apply equally to all holders.15

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015SECTION 1 – BIOLOGY AND FIELD DATAAuthors:Eric Bairrão Ruivo1, J. Bryan Carroll4, Aude Desmoulins5 and Anthony B. Rylands17 (except section 1.6)Section 1.6 (Diet and Feeding behaviour): Christoph Schwitzer18, Kristin Leus11, Luc Lorca14 and Melissa Yaxley21BIOLOGY1.1TaxonomyThe taxonomy of the marmosets and tamarins has changed considerably since that proposed byHershkovitz (1977, 1979, 1982). Hershkovitz recognized two families: Callimiconidae (Callimico) andCallitrichidae (Cebuella, Callithrix, Saguinus and Leontopithecus), distinguishing them from the remainingplatyrrhine genera, which were lumped into the Cebidae. It was the morphological studies of Rosenberger(1980, 1981; see also Rosenberger et al., 1990) that initiated a major change in thinking regarding the highertaxonomy of this group. His thesis involved placing the marmosets, tamarins and Callimico in a subfamily(Callitrichinae) in a redefined Cebidae, which otherwise included squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchinmonkeys (Cebus), the two comprising the Cebinae. This arrangement and slight variations of it weresubsequently amply reinforced and justified by numerous genetic studies (for example, Schneider et al., 1993,1996; Harada et al., 1995; Nagamachi et al., 1996, 1999; Schneider and Rosenberger, 1996). Establishedplatyrrhine classifications today all accept the affinity of Cebus, Saimiri and the marmosets, tamarins andcallimico. Some place them in separate families (Rylands et al., 2000) and others as two subfamilies of theCebidae (Groves, 1993, 2001, 2005). In this document we place Goeldi’s monkey and all the marmosets,tamarins, and lion tamarins in the Family Callitrichidae.Cronin and Sarich (1978), Seuánez et al. (1989), Pastorini et al. (1998), Chaves et al. (1999), Canavez etal. (1999a, 1999b) and Neusser et al. (2001) have all demonstrated that Callithrix (sensu Groves, 2001) andCallimico are more closely related to each other than Callithrix is to Saguinus or Leontopithecus (for review seePastorini et al., 1998). Placing Callimico in a separate family or subfamily is not valid due to this finding, unlessSaguinus and Leontopithecus are also separated out at the family or subfamily level; see Groves, 2004).The taxonomy at the level of genera, species and subspecies has also changed since Hershkovitz’ssynthesis of 1977; he recognized 46 taxa in five genera—Callimico, Cebuella, Callithrix, Saguinus andLeontopithecus. Eleven new taxa have been described, one of the saddleback tamarin subspecies recognizedby Hershkovitz (1977) has been discounted as a synonym (acrensis Carvalho, 1957) (see Peres et al., 1996); wenow recognize the validity of three marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii Coimbra-Filho, 1985, Mico emiliae [Thomas,1920] and Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris Lönnberg, 1940) which Hershkovitz did not; and many of the taxaconsidered to be subspecies by Hershkovitz (1977) are now considered to be species.Perhaps the most profound divergence from Hershkovitz’s arrangement arises from the conclusion ofboth morphological and genetic studies that the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella) is more closely related to theAmazonian marmosets than the Amazonian marmosets are to the Atlantic forest marmosets (Tagliaro et al.,1997, 2001; Chaves et al. 1999). To avoid paraphyly, therefore, there are only two options concerning thegeneric separation of the marmosets (see Groves, 2004): 1) All belong to one genus (Callithrix), a classificationadopted by Groves (2001, 2005); or 2) all are placed into distinct genera, with a generic separation of the16

EAZA Best Practice Guidelines for Callitrichidae – 3rd Edition – 2015Amazonian marmosets (the Argentata Group of Hershkovitz) on the one hand, and the eastern Brazilian (nonAmazonian) forms (the Jacchus Group of Hershkovitz) on the other, as distinct genera. Mico Lesson, 1840, isthe name available for the Amazonian Argentata Group marmosets. This second classification, with theAmazonian marmosets being attributed to the genus Mico is followed by Rylands et al. (2000, 2008, 2009;Rylands and Mittermeier, 2008).Table 1.1.1. Species and subspecies of callitrichids described since 1983.Callibella humilis (Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeierand Fonseca, 1998)In the latest taxonomy Callibella is defenestrated and reverts toMico. It has been previously known as Mico humilis and Callithrixhumilis.Black-crowned dwarf marmosetCallithrix kuhlii (Coimbra-Filho, 1985)Wied's black-tufted-ear marmosetMico nigriceps (Ferrari and Lopes, 1992)Black-headed marmosetMico mauesi (Mittermeier, Ayres and Schwarz, 1992)Maués marmosetMico marcai (Alperin, 1993)Marca’s marmosetMico saterei (Sousa e Silva Jr and Noronha, 1998)Sateré marmosetMico manicorensis (Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeierand Rylands, 2000)Mico manicorensis is now considered a junior synonym of Micomarcai.Manicoré marmosetMico acariensis (Van Roosmalen, Van Roosmalen, Mittermeierand Rylands, 2000)Rio Acarí marmosetMico rondoni (Ferrari, Sena, Schneider and Silva Jr., 2010)Rondon’s marmosetSaguinus fuscicollis mura (Röhe, Silva Jr., Sampaio and Rylands,2009)Now Leontocebus fusicollis muraGrey-fronted saddle-back tamarinLeontopithecus caissara (Lorini and Persson, 1990)Black-faced lion tamarinWe emphasize that the differences between the taxonomies of Groves (2001, 2005) and Rylands et al.(2000, 2008, 2009; Rylands and Mittermeier, 2008) are largely limited to their placement in the familyCallitrichidae (Rylands et al.) or the subfamily Callitrichinae (Groves), and to the separation of marmosets intodistinct genera (Rylands et al.) as opposed to combining them into one genus but distinguis

This is the 3rd edition of the guidelines, published 2015. This involved changing the 2010 Husbandry Guidelines to Best Practice Guidelines as per EAZA recommendations and some updating of content has also taken place. The authors would like to thank Dr Ken Gold and Dr Gabor Gosi for their contribution to the 1st edition of the husbandry .