Educational Attainment In The United States: 2009

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Educational Attainment in theUnited States: 2009Issued February 2012Population CharacteristicsP20-566This report provides a portrait ofeducational attainment in the UnitedStates based on data collected in the2009 American Community Survey (ACS)and the 2005–2009 ACS 5-year estimates.It also uses data from the Annual Socialand Economic Supplement (ASEC) tothe Current Population Survey (CPS)collected in 2009 and earlier, as well asmonthly data from the CPS. Prior to 2007,U.S. Census Bureau reports on educational attainment were based on dataprimarily from the CPS.1 The ACS is nowused as the main source of educationalattainment data because it has a largersample and provides more reliable statistics for small levels of geography.The report also provides estimates ofeducational attainment in the UnitedStates, including comparisons by demographic characteristics such as age, sex,race, and Hispanic origin. Informationabout educational attainment among thenative-born and foreign-born populationsis included. This report also presents ageographic picture of educational attainment with estimates by region and state.Workers’ median earnings by educationalattainment are also addressed, includingdifferences by sex, race, and Hispanicorigin, as well as unemployment rates byeducational attainment. Historical dataare included to present some generaltrends over time.1For information on the differencesbetween the ACS and CPS estimates, seeComparison of ACS and ASEC Data on EducationalAttainment: 2004, Washington, DC, U.S. CensusBureau, 2007, and accompanying tables andfigures, available on the Census Bureau’s Website at www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/library/2007/2007 Scanniello 01.pdf .HIGHLIGHTS In 2009, more than 4 out of 5 (85 percent) adults aged 25 and over reportedhaving at least a high school diplomaor its equivalent, while over 1 in 4 (28percent) reported a bachelor’s degreeor higher. This reflects more than athree-fold increase in high schoolattainment and more than a five-foldincrease in college attainment sincethe Census Bureau first collected educational attainment data in 1940.2 A larger proportion of women thanmen had completed high school ormore education.3 A larger proportion of men had received at least abachelor’s degree. However, becausewomen 25 years old and over outnumber men aged 25 and over, the numberof women with bachelor’s degrees islarger than the number of men withthese degrees. Among people aged25 to 34, the percentage of womenwith a bachelor’s degree or higher was35 percent compared with 27 percentof men. Differences in educational attainment by race and Hispanic originexisted. Attainment for non-Hispanic2The decennial census has collected educationalattainment data since 1940.3“High school or more education” refers tocompleting a high school diploma, GED or alternativecredential, or higher degree.U.S. Department of CommerceEconomics and Statistics AdministrationU.S. CENSUS BUREAU urrentCPopulationReportsByCamille L. RyanandJulie Siebens

Whites and Asians was higherthan attainment for Blacks andHispanics.44Federal surveys now give respondents the option of reporting more thanone race. Therefore, two basic ways ofdefining a race group are possible. A groupsuch as Asian may be defined as thosewho reported Asian and no other race (therace-alone or single-race concept) or asthose who reported Asian regardless ofwhether they also reported another race (therace-alone-or-in-combination concept). Thisreport shows data using the first approach(race alone). This report will refer to theWhite-alone population as White, the Blackalone population as Black, the Asian-alonepopulation as Asian, and the White-alonenon-Hispanic population as non-HispanicWhite. Use of the single-race population doesnot imply that it is the preferred method ofpresenting or analyzing data. The CensusBureau uses a variety of approaches. Inthis report, the term “non-Hispanic White”refers to people who are not Hispanic andwho reported White and no other race. TheCensus Bureau uses non-Hispanic Whites asthe comparison group for other race groupsand Hispanics. Because Hispanics may be anyrace, data in this report for Hispanics overlapwith data for racial groups. Educational attainment variedby nativity. About 89 percentof the native-born populationhad completed at least highschool, compared with 68 percent of the foreign-born population. More native-born thanforeign-born adults reportedcompleting at least a bachelor’sdegree (28 percent and 27 percent, respectively). Educational attainment offoreign-born Hispanics waslower than all other groups.The percentage of foreignborn Hispanics who had completed at least high school was48 percent. The Midwest had the highestpercentage of adults reporting that they completed highschool or more education, andthe Northeast had the highestpercentage with a bachelor’sdegree or more education.5 Among all workers, those witha bachelor’s degree on averageearned about 20,000 moreper year than workers with ahigh school diploma or a GeneralEducational Development (GED)certificate. Non-Hispanic Whitesearned more than other race5The Northeast region includes thestates of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.The Midwest region includes the states ofIllinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan,Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. TheSouth region includes the states ofAlabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida,Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, SouthCarolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, WestVirginia, and the District of Columbia, a stateequivalent. The West region includes thestates of Alaska, Arizona, California,Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada,New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington,and Wyoming.TWO SOURCES OF DATAThe information in this report is based on two separate data sources: the estimates of current educationalattainment come from the 2009 and the 2005–2009 5-Year Estimates from the American Community Survey(ACS), while historical data about educational attainment is from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement(ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Unemployment data are from the monthly CPS.The ACS, part of the Census Bureau’s re-engineered 2010 Census, looks at a wide range of social, economic,and housing characteristics for the population. The ACS collects information from an annual sample ofapproximately 3 million housing unit addresses. The ACS is administered to the entire domestic population,including those living in group quarters. In this respect, data from the ACS are generally comparable withdata from Census 2000 and earlier decennial censuses. In the ACS, educational attainment is classified bythe highest degree or the highest level of schooling completed, with people currently enrolled in schoolrequested to report the level of the previous grade attended or the highest degree received.Another important source of educational attainment information is the ASEC to the CPS. The CPS is a monthlysurvey with a sample of approximately 72,000 housing units. ASEC data are collected from CPS respondentsin February, March, and April of each year with an annual sample of approximately 100,000 households. Unlikethe ACS, the universe is the civilian noninstitutionalized population, and therefore does not include people livingin institutions or Armed Forces personnel (except those living with their families). While the sample size is notsufficient for describing small geographic areas, CPS data can provide estimates for the 50 states and the Districtof Columbia. CPS data also provide a time series of educational attainment information since 1947. Since 1992,data on educational attainment are derived from a single question that asks, “What is the highest grade of school. . . completed, or the highest degree . . . received?” Prior to 1992, respondents reported the highest grade theyhad attended, and whether or not they had completed that grade.The ACS and the CPS differ in geographic scope, data collection methods, and population universe. For moreinformation on these two sources of data, see the previous report, Educational Attainment in the United States:2007, Appendix A.2U.S. Census Bureau

Figure 1.Percentage of the Population 25 Years and Over Who Have CompletedHigh School or College: Selected Years 1940–2009Percent100908025 years old and over,high school or more25 to 29 years old,high school or more7060504025 to 29 years old,bachelor's degree or more302025 years old and over,bachelor's degree or 0052006200720082009Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey and decennial censuses.groups and more than Hispanicsat the high school level, whileearnings at the bachelor’s andadvanced degree level werehighest for Asians. Black andHispanic workers earned less atnearly all attainment levels.6 Men earned more than womenat each level of educationalattainment.6Among all workers, the median earningsfor blacks with a high school diploma werenot statistically different than the earningsfor Asians with a high school diploma. Also,the median earnings for Hispanics with a GEDwere not statistically different than the earnings for non-Hispanic Whites with a GED.U.S. Census BureauPORTRAIT OFEDUCATIONALATTAINMENT IN THEUNITED STATESHistorical Trends in EducationUsing Data From CPS and theDecennial CensusThis section uses data from the CPSand the decennial census. The CPSand the census are better sourcesof data to provide a historicalpicture of educational attainmentbecause the census has collectededucational attainment since 1940and CPS since 1947. The CensusBureau has documented an increasein the educational attainment of thepopulation since the question wasfirst asked in the 1940s.7Figure 1 plots educational attainment for the population aged 25and over from 1940 to 2009 usingdata from the CPS for 1947 to 2009and census for years prior to 1947.This percentage is shown for twolevels of education: completinghigh school (regular high schooldiploma or GED) or higher, andcompleting a bachelor’s degree orhigher. In 1940, one-fourth of thepopulation aged 25 and over had7See Educational Attainment inthe United States: 2007 (P20-560),available on the Census Bureau’sWeb site at www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/p20-560.pdf .3

completed high school. By 1967,over 50 percent of this populationhad reached this level. This percentage continued to increase to75 percent by 1986 and reached 87percent in 2009.8The percentage of the populationaged 25 and over with a bachelor’sdegree or higher also increasedsteadily from 1940 to 2009. In1940, 5 percent of the population aged 25 and older held atleast a bachelor’s degree or higher.By 2009, this percentage hadincreased more than five-fold to30 percent.9In 1947, 51 percent of the population 25 to 29 years old had completed high school compared to33 percent of the total population25 years old and over. However,over time, the rates of educationalattainment have converged. By2009, the proportion of those whohad completed high school was89 percent for the 25 to 29 yearold population and 87 percent forthose aged 25 and over.During the 20 years from 1975to 1994, the proportion of 25- to29-year-olds who had completeda bachelor’s degree or higherstayed within the range of 21 to24 percent. Since then, the rate forthis age group has climbed to 31percent. The rate of college completion for the population 25 yearsand over grew from 11 percent in1970 to 30 percent in 2009.A Current Picture ofEducational Attainment UsingACS DataThe following sections use datafrom the ACS. The ACS is used8Estimates from ACS vary from CPS inthis report due to factors such as differencesin the population eligible for interview ineach survey and other differences in surveymethodology. See also the text box includedin this report.9ibid.4instead of the CPS because ACS hasa larger sample size and providesreliable estimates for populationsubgroups and smaller levels ofgeography. Estimates from ACSvary from CPS due to factors suchas differences in the population,who is eligible for interview in eachsurvey, and other differences insurvey methodology.10In 2009, 85 percent of the population aged 25 and over in the UnitedStates reported they had completedat least high school (receiving aregular high school diploma or theequivalent) (Table 1). More than 1in 4 adults (28 percent) reportedthey had a bachelor’s degree ormore education. In 2000, 80 percent of the 25-and-older populationcompleted high school or more and24 percent reported a bachelor’sdegree or more education.11The most common levels of educational attainment among theadult population were high schoolcompletion with a high schooldiploma (25 percent), followed bycompletion of a bachelor’s degree(18 percent). Table 1 also showsthat 4 percent of the population 25years old and over completed highschool by earning a GED or alternative credential. There was also asubstantial percentage of the population who had completed schooling beyond high school but lessthan a bachelor’s degree. Twentyone percent of the population 25years old and over had completed10For information on the differencesbetween the ACS and CPS estimates,see Comparison of ACS and ASECData on Educational Attainment: 2004,Washington, DC, U.S. Census Bureau,2007, and accompanying tables and figures,available on the Census Bureau’s Web site at www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/library/2007/2007 Scanniello 01.pdf .11For more information on educationalattainment in 2000, see EducationalAttainment: 2000 (C2KBR-24), availableon the Census Bureau’s Web site at www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-24.pdf .some college. In addition, 8 percentof the population had completed anassociate’s degree.Differences by Age, Sex, Race,and Hispanic OriginAge. Educational attainment variesby several demographic characteristics, including age. The overallincrease in educational attainment documented over the past 6decades occurred as younger (andmore educated) cohorts replacedolder, less educated cohorts inthe adult population. In 2009, thegroup aged 65 and older reportedlower levels of high school andcollege attainment than all youngerage groups. Among those aged 65and over, 77 percent had completed high school or more education, and 20 percent reported abachelor’s degree or more education (Table 1).Sex. Gender differences in education continue to exist. In 2009, alarger proportion of women thanmen had completed high schoolwith a high school diploma, somecollege, associate’s, and master’sdegrees. On the other hand, ahigher proportion of men hadcompleted high school with a GED,as well as bachelor’s, professional,and doctorate degrees.Although women 25 years andover were less likely than mento have bachelor’s, professional,or doctorate degrees, they werestill ahead of men by some measures. Because there were morewomen than men 25 years oldand over, the number of womenwith a bachelor’s degree or higher(28.7 million) was greater than thenumber of men with a bachelor’sdegree or higher (27.7 million).1212See Table B15002, Sex by EducationalAttainment for the Population 25 Years andOver: 2009, available on the Census Bureau’sWeb site at index.xhtml .U.S. Census Bureau

In addition, among people aged 25to 34, the percentage of womenwith a bachelor’s degree or higherwas 35 percent compared with 27percent of men.13Race and Hispanic Origin. Educational attainment also varied byrace and Hispanic origin. NonHispanic Whites reported thehighest percentage of adults withat least a high school education(90 percent). Asians reported thehighest percentage of those witha bachelor’s, master’s, professional, and doctorate degrees.Blacks reported higher percentagesat each level of those with highschool diplomas and GED’s of allrace groups and Hispanics. Blackswere also more likely to have completed some college than any othergroup. However, Blacks were lesslikely to have completed bachelor’s,master’s, professional, or doctorate degrees than those who wereWhite alone, non-Hispanic Whites,and Asians. Hispanics reportedthe lowest percentages overall ofthose with a high school diplomaor equivalent and above—61 percent had completed high school orhigher and 13 percent had completed at least a bachelor’s degree.Diverse EducationalExperiences Among theForeign-Born PopulationEducational attainment differed bynativity status. About 20 percentage points separated the nativeborn (89 percent) and foreign born(68 percent) aged 25 and olderwho had completed high schoolor more. Foreign-born residentsmade up 35 percent of the population that had not completedhigh school. At the bachelor’s andadvanced degree attainment levels,13See Subject Table S1501,Educational Attainment: 2009,available on the Census Bureau’s Website at index.xhtml .U.S. Census Bureauthere was about a one percentagepoint difference between the nativeborn and the foreign born. A higherpercentage of native-born thanforeign-born adults reported completing at least a bachelor’s degree(28 percent and 27 percent, respectively), while more foreign-bornthan native-born adults reportedhaving a professional or doctoratedegree. These differences suggestthat, while a large proportion ofthe foreign-born population hadlower levels of education, a sizeable segment also had high levelsof education.Since 2000, the percentage of thepopulation aged 25 and over witha bachelor’s degree who are foreignborn has increased. The foreignborn population made up 14 percent of the population aged 25 andover with a bachelor’s degree, upfrom 13 percent in 2000. The number of foreign-born residents withbachelor’s or higher degrees hasalso increased by 49 percent since2000.14 For some race groups andHispanics, there was little difference in educational attainment bynativity, but for others there werelarge differences (Table 1). For allgroups except Blacks, a larger percentage of the native born than theforeign born had completed at leasthigh school. The pattern differsfor college attainment, with higherattainment among the foreign bornfor the non-Hispanic White andBlack populations.The lower educational attainmentof foreign-born Hispanics affectedthe overall Hispanic educationlevels. In 2009, about 57 percent14For information about nativityand educational attainment in 2000, seeTable 2L-01 available on the Census Bureau’sWeb site at 39/index.html .Also see Table B06009, Place of Birth byEducational Attainment in the United States:2009, available on the Census Bureau’s Website at index.xhtml .of all Hispanics aged 25 and overin the United States were foreignborn. Educational attainment offoreign-born Hispanics was lowerthan all other race, Hispanic origin,and nativity groups. The percentage of foreign-born Hispanics whocompleted at least high school was48 percent. Although native-bornHispanics had higher educationalattainment than foreign-bornHispanics, all other native-bornrace groups had higher educational attainment than native-bornHispanics.15GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENCESIN EDUCATIONALATTAINMENTEducational Attainment byCountyEducational attainment variedamong states and counties. The2005–2009 ACS 5-year datasetis used for Figure 2 and Figure 3because these data can be usedto show small geographies including counties. Figure 2 shows thegeographic distribution of thepopulation aged 25 and overwhose educational attainment ishigh school completion (e.g., a highschool diploma or a GED) or higher.The highest concentration of highschool completion tended to belocated in counties in the West andthe Midwest. Of the ten countieswith high school completion ratesover 95 percent, three countieswere located in Colorado (Hinsdale,Douglas, and Routt) and three werein Nebraska (Wheeler, Logan, andGrant). The other four countieswere Los Alamos, New Mexico;Hamilton, Indiana; Washington,Minnesota; and Gallatin, Montana.15About 16 percent of the native-bornHispanic and the native-born Black populations had completed a bachelor’s degree, butthe difference was not statistically different.5

Table 1.Educational Attainment for the Population 25 Years and Over by Age, Sex, Race andHispanic Origin, and Nativity Status: 2009AgeTotalpopulationCharacteristic25 to 34years35 to 44yearsPercentMarginoferror1( )65 yearsand overTotalpopulationPercentMarginoferror1( )Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .No schooling completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nursery school to 8th grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9th grade to 12th grade, no diploma . . . . . . . . .Regular high school diploma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GED or alternative credential . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Some college, less than 1 year. . . . . . . . . . . . .Some college, 1 or more years, no degree. . . .Associate’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bachelor’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Master’s degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Professional school degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Doctorate degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71.4(X)–0.10.10.1–0.10.1–0.10.1––High school or more education2. . . . . . . . . . . . .Bachelor’s degree or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.230.90.10.187.728.60.10.176.520.20.10.1Native BornTotal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .No schooling completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nursery school to 8th grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9th grade to 12th grade, no diploma . . . . . . . . .Regular high school diploma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GED or alternative credential . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Some college, less than 1 year. . . . . . . . . . . . .Some college, 1 or more years, no degree. . . .Associate’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bachelor’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Master’s degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Professional school degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Doctorate degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.3(X)–0.10.10.1–0.10.1–0.10.1––High school or more education2. . . . . . . . . . . . .Bachelor’s degree or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.731.40.10.290.828.70.10.179.220.30.10.1Foreign BornTotal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .No schooling completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nursery school to 8th grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9th grade to 12th grade, no diploma . . . . . . . . .Regular high school diploma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GED or alternative credential . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Some college, less than 1 year. . . . . . . . . . . . .Some college, 1 or more years, no degree. . . .Associate’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bachelor’s degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Master’s degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Professional school degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Doctorate degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.40.30.30.10.10.20.10.20.20.10.1High school or more education2. . . . . . . . . . . . .Bachelor’s degree or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rginoferror1( )45 to 64yearsPercentMarginoferror1( )PercentMarginoferror1( )U.S. Census Bureau

Table 1.Educational Attainment for the Population 25 Years and Over by Age, Sex, Race andHispanic Origin, and Nativity Status: 2009—Con.SexMaleRace and Hispanic OriginFemaleMarginofPer- error1cent( )White aloneMarginofPer- error1cent( )MarginofPer- error1cent( )Non-HispanicWhite aloneMarginofPer- error1cent( )Black aloneMarginofPer- error1cent( )Asian aloneMarginofPer- error1cent( )Hispanic(of any race)MarginofPer- error1cent( ��CharacteristicTotalNo schooling completedNursery school to 8th grade9th grade to 12th grade, no diplomaRegular high school diplomaGED or alternative credentialSome college, less than 1 yearSome college, 1 or more years, no degreeAssociate’s degreeBachelor’s degreeMaster’s degreeProfessional school degreeDoctorate degree0.2 High school or more education20.1 Bachelor’s degree or more(X)0.10.10.20.20.10.10.20.10.20.1––Native BornTotalNo schooling completedNursery school to 8th grade9th grade to 12th grade, no diplomaRegular high school diplomaGED or alternative credentialSome college, less than 1 yearSome college, 1 or more years, no degreeAssociate’s degreeBachelor’s degreeMaster’s degreeProfessional school degreeDoctorate degree0.2 High school or more education20.2 Bachelor’s degree or more(X)0.10.30.20.30.10.10.20.10.10.1––Foreign BornTotalNo schooling completedNursery school to 8th grade9th grade to 12th grade, no diplomaRegular high school diplomaGED or alternative credentialSome college, less than 1 yearSome college, 1 or more years, no degreeAssociate’s degreeBachelor’s degreeMaster’s degreeProfessional school degreeDoctorate degree0.3 High school or more education20.1 Bachelor’s degree or more– Represents or rounds to zero.(X) Not applicable.1 A margin of error is a measure of an estimate’s variability. The larger the margin of error in relation to the size of the estimate, the less reliable the estimate.When added to and subtracted from the estimate, the margin of error forms the 90 percent confidence interval.2 “High school or more education” refers to completing a high school diploma, GED or alternative credential, or higher degree.Sourc

tional attainment were based on data primarily from the CPS. 1. The ACS is now used as the main source of educational attainment data because it has a larger sample and provides more reliable statis - tics for small levels of geography. The report also provides estimates of educational attainment in the United . States, including comparisons by .

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