Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore InformationIntroductionStudent’s Book with online accessOnline Assessment Comes complete with access to Online Assessment, OnlinePractice and Online Workbook – delivered via the CambridgeLearning Management System (CLMS) Validated and reliable assessment throughout the course– developed by experts at Cambridge English LanguageAssessment Syllabus informed by English Profile, the Cambridge EnglishCorpus, and benchmarked to the CEFR A learning-oriented approach – assessment that regularlyinforms teaching and learning A Unit Progress Test for every unit (automatically marked) –covering grammar, vocabulary and functional language – plusa Unit Speaking Test Mid-course and end-of-course competency tests that coverall four skills and generate a CEFR report which reliablybenchmarks learners to the target levelInteractive eBook With the Interactive eBook, you can do the Student’s Bookactivities in interactive form (specially designed for tablets),play all Class Audio and Video, check and display answers,control audio speed, create text and voice notes, and more. The Interactive eBook can be accessed with the CambridgeBookshelf iPad app, or using the Cambridge Bookshelf WebReader on a desktop or laptop computer. With the iPad app itcan be used offline (after initial download).For more details about the Cambridge English Empowerassessment package, and Learning Oriented Assessment,please see pages 7–8.Online Practice Personalised practice – automatically assigned according toeach student’s score in the Unit Progress Test, so their timeis spent on what they need most Language presentations, practice activities and skills-basedextension activities for every unit Automatically markedOnline Workbook Extra practice of all the grammar, vocabulary and functionallanguage, plus extra writing Automatically markedTeacher’s BookPresentation Plus Detailed teacher’s notes for every lesson, including extra tips,ideas and support, and answer keys Photocopiable activities – a range of communicative extrapractice activities for every unit, including grammar,vocabulary, pronunciation and Wordpower With Presentation Plus, you can display all Student’s Bookmaterial, play all Class Audio and Video, show answerkeys, and more. Presentation Plus can be used with all types of interactivewhiteboards, or with a computer and projector.Online access for teachersClass DVD To access Cambridge English Empower’s unique onlineassessment and practice package, please go tocambridgelms.org/empower, select ‘Register’ and followthe instructions. All the video material for the Student’s Book, plus Video ExtraClass Audio CDs All the listening material for the Student’s BookPrint tests Print tests are available from your local Cambridgerepresentative.For more information and extra resources, go to:cambridge.org/empower3 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore InformationCourse methodologyKey methodological principlesA learner-centred approachCambridge English Empower, with its unique mixof learning and assessment, places the learner atthe centre of the learning process. This learnercentred approach also applies to the coursemethodology – the Student’s Book and additionalresources provide a range of classroom materialsthat motivate learners, address their languageneeds and facilitate the development of theirskills.Supporting the teacherCambridge English Empower also supports theteacher through classroom methodology thatis familiar and easy to use, and at the sametime is flexible and creative. A number of keymethodological principles underpin the course,enhancing the interface between learnersand their learning, and between learners andteachers. Cambridge English Empower:1234encourages learner engagementdelivers manageable learningis rich in practiceprovides a comprehensive approach toproductive skills1 Learner engagementGetting StartedEach unit begins with a Getting Started page, designed toengage learners from the very start of the unit – leading togreater motivation and more successful learning. It does this inthe following ways: Striking images that take an unusual perspective on the unittheme – this raises curiosity, prompts ideas and questionsin the mind of the learner, and stimulates them to want tocommunicate. Speaking activities that prompt a personal response –exploring beyond the surface of the image, providinga cognitive and linguistic challenge and a diagnosticopportunity for the teacher.Remarkable texts and imagesThroughout the C1 Student’s book, learners encounter a rangeof authentic reading texts and a selection of authentic broadcastaudio along with specially recorded unscripted and scripted audioand video. The texts have been carefully selected to appeal toadvanced learners from a variety of cultural backgrounds. Thetopics will inform, amuse, surprise, entertain, raise questions,arouse curiosity and empathy, provoke an emotional responseand prompt new insights and perspectives – this means thatC1 learners are consistently motivated to deal with morecomplex language and engage with varied written and spokenstyles.Frequent opportunities for personal responseMeasurable progressThis leads to motivated learners, successfullessons and measurable progress. This progressis then measured by a uniquely reliableassessment package, developed by test expertsat Cambridge English Language Assessment.There are frequent opportunities to contribute personal views,experiences and knowledge to discussion of the themes inevery lesson. Every lesson includes regular activities thatencourage learners to respond personally to the content of textsand images. These include personalisation tasks which makethe target language in every unit meaningful to the individuallearner.Independent learningIn order to progress, C1 learners must build their vocabularyand use a broad range of language appropriately. Readingand listening widely in English will help students to progressfaster, as will good study skills. In Empower C1 the Languagein context feature and Learning Tips support C1 learners bothinside and outside the classroom. These features accompanythe authentic texts and recorded audio and encouragelearners to notice and systematically note topical sets,synonyms, collocations, idioms, metaphor, etc. The Teacher’sNotes for each lesson include Homework activities whichencourage learners to put the Learning Tips into practice intheir independent learning and motivate further reading andlistening outside the classroom.4 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore InformationIntroduction2 Manageable learningA second core principle that informs Cambridge EnglishEmpower C1 is recognition of the importance of manageablelearning. This offers learners (and their teachers) reassurancethat the material is at the right level for advanced learners:the language syllabus avoids obscure language and theauthentic reading and listening material is carefully chosento be accessible whilst consistently acknowledging advancedlearners’ linguistic competencies and challenging them.The Cambridge English Empower C1 classroom material reflectsthe concept of manageable learning in three main ways:Syllabus planning and the selection of languageA key element in making learning material appropriate for C1concerns the selection of target language. In Cambridge EnglishEmpower, two powerful Cambridge English resources – theCambridge Corpus and English Profile – have been used toinform the development of the course syllabus and the writingof the material. This means learners using Cambridge EnglishEmpower C1 are presented with target language that includes:Grammar a fresh approach to familiar language, accompanied byCambridge Corpus-informed Tips, with notes on usage andtypical errors, helping learners improve usage and tacklehabitual mistakes lexical equivalents to grammatical structures – develop moreprecise and sophisticated language use structures likely to be new at C1 – for more sophisticatedfunctions, e.g. emphasis or distancing, as well as morecomplex sentence structures, e.g. participle clauses and cleftsentencesVocabulary lexical sets which build on existing knowledge and furtherdevelop the ability to use language precisely and flexibly –focusing on word-building, collocation and idiomatic use topical sets building learners’ understanding of the precisemeanings of closely related words and phrases topical sets encouraging appropriate use of rich descriptivelanguageThe level is carefully designed to offer measurable progressthrough the core syllabus whilst they develop towards a C1level of competency as independent individual learners.Lesson flowTeaching and learning is made manageable through thecareful staging and sequencing of activities, ensuring thateach individual learner at C1 will be challenged and engagedwhilst working together as a class. Each lesson is comprisedof several sections, each with a clear focus on languageand/or skills. Each section builds towards the next, andactivities within sections do likewise. Every section of languageinput ends in an output task, offering learners the opportunityto personalise the target language. At the end of each lessonthere is a substantial freer topical speaking and/or writingtask motivating learners to use new language in a natural,functional context.Task and activity designTasks and activities have been designed to give learners anappropriate balance between freedom and support. As anoverall principle, the methodology throughout CambridgeEnglish Empower anticipates and mitigates potential problemsthat learners might encounter with language and tasks. Whilethis clearly supports learners, it also supports teachers becausethere are likely to be fewer unexpected challenges during thecourse of a lesson – this also means that necessary preparationtime is reduced to a minimum.How does Cambridge English Empower C1 meet theneeds of Advanced Learners?When learners join an advanced course they are alreadycompetent users of English, having achieved the B2 level. TheEmpower C1 level motivates advanced learners to further theirskills and provides what they need to achieve C1 competencyin the following ways: Topics, tasks and texts with an appropriate level of cognitiveand linguistic challenge motivate learners by helping them tonotice the gap between their current skills and those of a C1user of English. As at all other levels, Empower C1 offers every learnermultiple communicative opportunities in every lesson, helpingthem become fluent, natural and spontaneous speakers ofEnglish. Regular focuses on register help C1 learners to becomeflexible and effective users of English in a wide variety ofspoken and written contexts. Learners improve their written style with extended controlledand semi-controlled practice in the back of the book WritingFocus. There is additional writing practice in the A and Blessons, when new language lends itself to written contexts. Varied and stimulating texts motivate learners to develop theirreading and listening skills so that a wide range of textsbecome accessible. Authentic reading texts raise learners’ awareness of style andregister, and help build the broad vocabulary required of a C1user of English. A combination of authentic, semi-scripted and scripted listeningmaterial exposes students to a wide variety of voices andnatural, colloquial, idiomatic speech, whilst giving a strongfocus on the language students need to produce themselves. The Language in context feature and Learning Tips supportC1 learners to develop a broad vocabulary both inside andoutside the classroom.5 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore Information3 Rich in practice4 A comprehensive approach to productive skillsIt is essential that learners are offered frequent opportunities topractise the language they have been focusing on – they needto activate the language they have studied in a meaningful waywithin an appropriate context. Cambridge English Empower isrich in practice activities and provides learners and teacherswith a wide variety of tasks that help learners to becomeconfident users of new language.Most learners study English because they want to use thelanguage in some way. This means that speaking and writing– the productive skills – are more often than not a priorityfor learners. Cambridge English Empower is systematic andcomprehensive in its approach to developing both speakingand writing skills.Student’s BookThe C lesson in each unit – ‘Everyday English’ – takes acomprehensive approach to speaking skills, and particularly indeveloping C1 learners to become flexible and effective usersof language for social and professional purposes. The targetlanguage is clearly contextualised by means of engaging video(also available as audio-only via the Class CDs), filmed in thereal world in contexts that will be relevant and familiar to adultlearners. These ‘Everyday English’ lessons focus on three keyelements of spoken language:Throughout each Cambridge English Empower Student’s Book,learners are offered a wide variety of practice activities,appropriate to the stage of the lesson and real-world use of thelanguage. There are frequent opportunities for spoken and writtenpractice. Activities are clearly contextualised and carefullystaged and scaffolded. Extended spoken and written practiceis provided in the final activity in each of the lessons. In the ‘Grammar Focus’, ‘Vocabulary Focus’ and ‘WritingFocus’ pages at the back of the Student’s Book, there aremore opportunities for practice of grammar, vocabulary andwriting skills, helping to consolidate learning. In the ‘Review and Extension’ page at the end of each unit,there are more opportunities for both written and spokenpractice of target language.Teacher’s Book Many learners find practice activities that involve an elementof fun to be particularly motivating. Many such activities –seven per unit – are provided in the photocopiable activitiesin the Teacher’s Book, providing fun, communicative practiceof grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. The main teacher’s notes also provide ideas for extraactivities at various stages of the lesson.Other componentsThrough the Cambridge LMS, Cambridge English Empowerprovides an extensive range of practice activities that learnerscan use to review and consolidate their learning outside theclassroom: The Online Practice component offers interactive languagepresentations followed by practice and extension activities.Learners are automatically directed to the appropriate pointin this practice cycle, according to their score in the UnitProgress Test (at the end of Student’s Book lesson C). The Workbook (Online or Print) provides practice of the targetinput in each A, B, C and D lesson. The extension activities in the Online Practice component(via the Cambridge LMS) also offer further practice in readingand listening skills.6 in this web service Cambridge University PressSpeaking Useful language – focusing on the discourse functions andspeaking strategies that are most relevant to C1 learners’needs Pronunciation – focusing on intelligibility and thecharacteristics of natural speech, from individual soundsto extended utterances, developing C1 learners’ ability toexpress finer shades of meaning by varying intonation andstress Idiomatic language (Language in context) – focusing on theuse of high-frequency idiom in a variety of contexts andregisters of social interactionThis comprehensive approach ensures that speaking skills areactively and appropriately developed, not just practised.WritingIn the Cambridge English Empower C1 Student’s Book, learnersreceive guidance and practice in writing a wide range of texttypes. The D lesson in each unit – ‘Skills for Writing’ – buildsto a learning outcome in which learners produce a written textthat is relevant to their real-life needs, appropriate to the C1level, and related to the topic of the unit. However, these arenot ‘heads-down’ writing lessons – instead, and in keeping withthe overall course methodology, they are highly communicativemixed-skills lessons, with a special focus on writing. Each‘Skills for Writing’ lesson follows a tried and tested formula:1 Learners engage with the topic through activities that focuson speaking and listening skills.2 They read a text which also provides a model for the laterwriting output task.3 They then do a series of activities which explore the mainfeatures and structure of each genre of text as well asdeveloping aspects of specific writing sub-skills that havebeen encountered in the model text.4 They then go on to write their own text, in collaboration withother learners.5 Process writing skills are embedded in the instructions forwriting activities and encourage learners to self-correct andseek peer feedback.6 The writing leads to a final communicative task, ensuringthat learners are always writing for a purpose.This means that writing is fully integrated with listening,reading and speaking – as it is in real life – and is notpractised in isolation.www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore InformationLearning Oriented AssessmentWhat is Learning Oriented Assessment (LOA)?As a teacher, you’ll naturally be interested in your learners’progress. Every time they step into your classroom, you’ll noteif a learner is struggling with a language concept, is unable toread at a natural rate, or can understand a new grammar pointbut still can’t produce it in a practice activity. This is often anintuitive and spontaneous process. By the end of a course or acycle of learning, you’ll know far more about a learner’s abilitythan an end-of-course test alone can show.An LOA approach to teaching and learning brings together thisongoing informal evaluation with more formal or structuredassessment such as end-of-unit or end-of-course tests. Ideallysupported by a learner management system (LMS), LOA is anapproach that allows you to pull together all this informationand knowledge in order to understand learners’ achievementsand progress and to identify and address their needs in atargeted and informed way. A range of insights into learnersand their progress feeds into total assessment of the learner. Italso allows you to use all of this information not just to producea report on a learner’s level of competence but also to plan andinform future learning.For more information about LOA, go tocambridgeenglish.org/loaHow does Cambridge English Empower support LOA?Cambridge English Empower supports LOA both informally andformally, and both inside and outside the classroom:1 Assessment that informs teaching and learning Reliable tests for both formative and summativeassessment (Unit Progress Tests, Unit Speaking Tests andskills-based Competency Tests) Targeted extra practice online via the Cambridge LearningManagement System (CLMS) to address areas in which thetests show that learners need more support Opportunities to do the test again and improve performance Clear record of learner performance through the CLMS2 LOA classroom support Clear learning objectives – and activities that clearly buildtowards those objectives Activities that offer opportunities for learner reflectionand peer feedback A range of tips for teachers on how to incorporate LOAtechniques, including informal assessment, into yourlessons as part of normal classroom practiceIntroduction1 Assessment that informs teaching and learningCambridge English Empower offers three types of tests writtenand developed by teams of Cambridge English exam writers.All tests in the course have been trialled on thousands ofcandidates to ensure that test items are appropriate to thelevel.Cambridge English tests are underpinned by research andevaluation and by continuous monitoring and statisticalanalysis of performance of test questions.Cambridge English Empower tests are designed around thefollowing essential principles:Validity – tests are authentic tests of real-life English and testthe language covered in the coursebookReliability – tasks selected are consistent and fairImpact – tests have a positive effect on teaching and learningin and outside the classroomPracticality – tests are user-friendly and practical for teachersand studentsUnit Progress TestsThe course provides an online Unit Progress Test at the endof every unit, testing the target grammar, vocabulary andfunctional language from the unit. The teacher and learnerare provided with a score for each language area that hasbeen tested, identifying the areas where the learner has eitherencountered difficulties and needs more support, or hasmastered well. According to their score in each section of thetest, the learner is directed either to extension activities orto a sequence of practice activities appropriate to their level,focusing on the language points where they need most support.This means that learners can focus their time and effort onactivities that will really benefit them. They then have theopportunity to retake the Unit Progress Test – questions theygot right first time will still be filled in, meaning that they canfocus on those with which they had difficulty first time round.Unit Speaking TestsCambridge English Empower provides a comprehensive approachto speaking skills. For every unit, there is an online UnitSpeaking Test which offers learners the opportunity to test andpractise a range of aspects of pronunciation and fluency. Thesetests use innovative voice-recognition software and allow thelearner to listen to model utterances, record themselves, andre-record if they wish before submitting.Competency TestsCambridge English Empower offers mid-course and end-ofcourse Competency Tests. These skills-based tests coverReading, Writing, Listening and Speaking, and are calibratedto the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR).They provide teachers and learners with a reliable indicationof level, as well as a record of their progress – a CEFR report is7 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore Informationgenerated for each learner, showing their performance withinthe relevant CEFR level (both overall and for each of the skills).The Cambridge Learning Management System (CLMS) providesteachers and learners with a clear and comprehensive recordof each learner’s progress during the course, including all testresults and also their scores relating to the online practiceactivities that follow the tests – helping teachers and learnersto recognise achievement and identify further learning needs.Within the CLMS, a number of different web tools, includingmessage boards, forums and e-portfolios, provide opportunitiesfor teachers and learners to communicate outside of class,and for learners to do additional practice. These tools can alsobe used by teachers to give more specific feedback based onthe teacher’s informal evaluation during lessons. The CLMShelps teachers to systematically collect and record evidenceof learning and performance and in doing so demonstrates toteachers and learners how much progress has been made overtime.LOA classroom tips for teachersIn a typical lesson you’re likely to use some or perhaps all ofthe following teaching techniques: monitor learners during learner-centred stages of the lessonelicit information and languageconcept check new languagedrill new vocabulary or grammarencourage learners to review and reflect after they’ve workedon a taskThe table below summarises core and LOA-specific aims foreach of the above techniques. All these familiar teachingtechniques are a natural fit for the kind of methodology thatinformally supports LOA. An LOA approach will emphasisethose parts of your thinking that involve forming evaluations orjudgements about learners’ performance (and therefore whatto do next to better assist the learner). The ‘LOA teacher’ isconstantly thinking things like: Have they understood that word?2 LOA classroom support How well are they pronouncing that phrase?Clear objectives How many answers did they get right?An LOA approach encourages learners to reflect and selfassess. In order to do this, learning objectives must be clear.In Cambridge English Empower, each unit begins with a clear setof ‘can do’ objectives so that learners feel an immediate senseof purpose. Each lesson starts with a clear ‘Learn to ’ goal,and the activities all contribute towards this goal, leading to asignificant practical outcome at the end of the lesson. At theend of each unit, there is a ‘Review your progress’ feature thatencourages learners to reflect on their success, relative to the‘can do’ objectives at the start of the unit. Within the lessons,there are also opportunities for reflection, collaborative learningand peer feedback. How well did they understand that listening text? Were they able to use that language in a freer activity? How many errors did I hear? And what does that mean for the next step in the learningprocess?The Cambridge English Empower Teacher’s Book provides tips onhow to use a number of these techniques within each lesson.This will help teachers to consider their learners with more ofan evaluative eye. Of course it also helps learners if teachersshare their assessment with them and ensure they get plenty offeedback. It’s important that teachers make sure feedback iswell balanced, so it helps learners to know what they are doingwell in addition to what needs a little more work.Teaching techniquesmonitoringelicitingconcept checkingdrillingreview and reflectCoreaims checking learnersare on task checking learners’progress making yourselfavailable to learnerswho are havingproblems checking whatlearners know abouta topic in order togenerate interest checking that learnersunderstand the use andmeaning of new language providing highlycontrolled practiceof new language finding out what ideaslearners generated whenworking on a task praising learners’performance of a task indicating whereimprovement can bemadeLOAaims listening to learners’oral language, andchecking learners’written language, inorder to:» diagnose potentialneeds» check if they canuse new languagecorrectly in context finding out if learnersalready know avocabulary orgrammar item adapting the lessonto take into accountstudents’ individualstarting points andinterests checking what could be apotential problem withthe use and meaningof new language for yourlearners anticipating and preparingfor challenges inunderstanding newlanguage, both for thewhole class and forindividuals checking that learnershave consolidated theform of new language checkingintelligiblepronunciation of newlanguage asking learners how wellthey feel they performeda task giving feedback tolearners on specificlanguage strengths andneeds fostering ‘learning how tolearn’ skills8 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore InformationIntroductionUnit overviewGetting Started page clear learning objectives togive an immediate senseof purpose striking and unusual imagesto arouse curiosity activities that promoteemotional engagement anda personal responseLesson C functional language incommon everyday situations language is presented throughvideo filmed in the real worldReview and Extension extra practice of grammar andvocabulary Wordpower vocabulary extension ‘Review your progress’ toreflect on successUnit Progress Test covering grammar, vocabularyand functional languageAlso available: Speaking Test for every unit mid-course and end-of-coursecompetency testsLesson A and Lesson B input and practice of coregrammar and vocabulary,plus a mix of skillsLesson D highly communicativeintegrated skills lesson special focus on writing skills recycling of core language fromthe A, B and C lessonsFor extra input and practice,every unit includes illustratedGrammar Focus, Vocabulary Focusand Writing Focus sections atthe back of the book.9 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press978-1-107-46920-4 — Cambridge English Empower Advanced Teacher's BookWayne Rimmer , With Tim Foster , Julian OakleyExcerptMore InformationLessons A and BGrammar and Vocabulary and a mix of skillsAuthentic reading textsAuthentic texts raise learners’awareness of style and register, andhelp build the broad vocabularyrequired of a C1 user of English.Clear goalsEach lesson starts with a clear, practicaland achievable learning goal, creating animmediate sense of purpose.Regular speakingactivitiesFrequent speakingstages to getstudents talkingthroughout thelesson.‘Teach off the page’Straightforwardapproach andclear lesson flowfor minimumpreparation time.Regular focuses onregisterFocuses on registerhelp C1 learners tobecome flexible andeffective users ofEnglish.Rich in practiceClear signposts toGrammar Focus andVocabulary Focussections for extrasupport andpractice.10 in this web service Cambridge Universit
Cambridge English Empower Student s Book, learners are offered a wide variety of practice activities, appropriate to the stage of the lesson and real-world use of the language. There are frequent opportunities for spoken and written Cambridge English Empower Cambridge English Empower The , learners
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essential part of your training and the EMPOWER Test Prep course. Video explanations for all Ofﬁcial Guide question are also available in the EMPOWER Test Prep library. POWERPREP PLUS Online - Practice Tests 1, 2, and 3 Included in certain EMPOWER Test Prep resource plans, or available at a 25% discount in your EMPOWER Test Prep account.
Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-63581-4 – Cambridge Global English Stage 6 Jane Boylan Kathryn Harper Frontmatter More information Cambridge Global English Cambridge Global English . Cambridge Global English Cambridge Global English
Cambridge International GCE Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced level (AS and A level) 47 Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education (Cambridge IGCSE)/Cambridge International Certificate of Education (Cambridge ICE)/Cambridge GCE Ordinary level (Cambridge O level) 47 Cambridge International Diploma in Business 48 European Baccalaureate (EB) 65 International Baccalaureate .
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The Cambridge Companion to Bede. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Evans, G.R. The Language and Logic of the Middle Ages: The Earlier Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. ———. The Language and Logic of the Middle Ages: The Road to Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge .
piece of paper and draw an outline of your chosen animal or person. 2. sing and dance when they If you would like to make more than one of any animal or person, fold your paper a few times behind the outline. You could also cut out your outline and trace around it. 3. from things they may Think of how to connect your paper animals or people.