Biomass For Energy And Fuel

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Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass for Energy and FuelReference: Donald L. Klass, Biomass for Renewable Energy,Fuels and Chemicals, Academic Press, edia/Lecture webcompedu/media/Lecture notes/BiomassCombustionStudyPack.pdf

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBioenergyBioenergy is energy derived from biomass. Biomass is all organic materialbeing either:The direct product of photosynthesis (for example plant matter such asleaves, stems, etc.)The indirect product of photosynthesis (for example animal mass resultingfrom the consumption of plant material).The photosynthesis process uses solar energy to combine carbon dioxidefrom the atmosphere with water (and various nutrients) from the soil toproduce plant matter (biomass).CO2 H 2O light chlorophyll (CH 2O ) O2The carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted on combustion of biomass is taken up bynew plant growth, resulting in zero net emissions of CO2. However, itshould be remembered that there are some net C02 emissions associatedwith bioenergy when looked at on a life-cycle basis – emissions from fossilfuels used in the cultivation, harvesting and transport of the biomass. Theseare generally small compared to the CO2 avoided by displacing fossil fuelswith energy from biomass. Consequently, bioenergy is a renewable energyresource with the added benefit of being CO2 neutral.

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass EnergyBiomass resources are potentially the world's largest and mostsustainable energy sourceThe annual bio-energy potential is about 2900 EJ, though only 270 EJcould be considered available on a sustainable basis and at competitiveprices.The expected increase of biomass energy, particularly in its modernforms, could have a significant impact not only in the energy sector, butalso in the drive to modernize agriculture, and on rural development.The share of biomass in the total final energy demand is between 7%and 27%.Source: http://www.worldenergy.org/wec-geis/

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass DefinitionsOrganic material mainly composed of carbohydrate and lignincompounds, the building blocks of which are the elementscarbon, hydrogen and oxygen.Carbohydrates consist of sugars, starches, and cellulose , which contain CHO andfunction primarily as energy storage, energy transport and plant structure.Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymer polysaccharide carbohydrate, of betaglucose. It forms the primary structural component of plants and is not digestibleby humans.Cellulose is a common material in plant cell walls and was first noted as such in1838. In combination with lignin and any hemicellulose (C5H8O4)n, it is found inall plant material.Lignin is a polymer in the secondary cell wall of woody plant cells that helps tostrengthen and stiffen the wall.

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass (other than wood)Agricultural and wood/forestry residues and herbaceous crops grown specifically forenergy but excludes forest plantations grown specifically for energy.Dedicated energy plantations: 3 million ha of eucalyptus plantations used for charcoalmaking (Brazil); Plantation program for 13.5 million ha of fuel wood by 2010 inChina; 16000 ha of willow plantations used for the generation of heat and powerin Sweden; and 50000 ha of agricultural land has been converted to woodyplantations, possibly rising to as much as 4 million ha (10 million acres) by 2020in USA.Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is potentially a major source of energy. This source ofbiomass will not be considered here due to the following reasons:the nature of MSW, which comprises many different organic and non-organicmaterialsdifficulties and high costs associated with sorting such material, which make itan unlikely candidate for renewable energy except for disposal purposesre-used MSW is mostly for recycling, e.g. paperMSW disposal would be done in landfills or incineration plants.Bio energy challenge: to device systems to overcome low combustion efficiency andhealth hazards.

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass SourcesAgricultural residues: Amount of crop residues amounted to about 3.5 to 4 billion tones annually, withan energy content representing 65 EJ, or 1.5 billion tones oil equivalent. Hall et al (1993) estimated thatjust using the world's major crops (e.g. wheat, rice, maize, barley, and sugar cane), a 25% residuerecovery rate could generate 38 EJ and offset between 350 and 460 million tones of carbon per year. Forexample, that over 2 billion tones of agricultural residues were burned annually world-wide, producing1.1 to 1.7 billion tones/yr of CO2. The most promising residues from the sugar cane, pulp and paper, andsawmill industrial sectors. Estimates are that about 1200 TWh/yr of electricity can be produced from thissource.Forestry residues: Forestry residues obtained from sound forest management can enhance andincrease the future productivity of forests. Recoverable residues from forests have been estimated tohave an energy potential of about 35 EJ/yr. A considerable advantage of these residues is that a largepart is generated by the pulp and paper and sawmill industries and thus could be readily available.Livestock residues: The use of manure may be more acceptable when there are other environmentalbenefits, e.g. the production of biogas and fertilizer, given large surpluses of manure which can, ifapplied in large quantities to the soil, represent a danger for agriculture and the environment, as is thecase in Denmark; environmental and health hazards, which are much higher than for other biofuels.Energy forestry/crops. Dedicated energy crops in land specifically devoted and intercropping withnon-energy crops. This is a new concept for the farmer, which will have to be fully accepted if large-scaleenergy crops are to form an integral part of farming practices. Factors to be considered are: landavailability, possible fuel versus food conflict, potential climatic factors, higher investment cost ofdegraded land, land rights, etc. The most likely scenario would be the use of about 100-300 million ha,mostly in developed nations, where excess food production exists.

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBioenergy ApplicationsBiomass-fired electric power plants/CHP (Combined Heat and Power)Liquid fuels e.g. bio-ethanol and bio-dieselBiogas production technologyBio-energy production and use:Improved integrated biomass gasifier/gas turbine (IBGT) systems for powergeneration and gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GTCC)Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and integrated gasification combined cycles(IGCC) cogeneration,Bio-ethanol and bio-diesel productionProduction of methanol and hydrogen from biomass

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterUSA Bioenergy SourcesBiomass type:Municipal solid l residues - cornquantity of raw material available167 million toneselectricity generating capacity2,862 MWelectricity generation71,405 TJdirect use from combustion217,722 TJtotal energy production289,127 TJelectricity generating capacity6,726 MWelectricity generation124,712 TJdirect use from combustion2,306,026 TJtotal energy production2,430,738 TJquantity of raw material available13.5 million tonesethanol fuel production capacity152,376 TJ/yearyield of ethanol8.8 GJ/toneethanol fuel production118,010 TJ

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterUSA Bioenergy SourcesBiomass type:Agricultural residues - soy bean oil and waste food oilsbiodiesel production capacity6,708 TJ/yearyield of biodiesel40 GJ/tonebiodiesel production671 TJWood pelletsquantity of raw material available 0.582 million tonesdirect use from combustion8,872 TJelectricity generating capacity10,602 MWelectricity generation11,328 TJdirect use from combustion102,084 TJtotal energy production113,412 TJOther biomassSource: www.worldenergy.org

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterUSA Biomass ConsumptionSource: www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterUS DOE RoadmapBiofuelsBiopower

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiopowerDirect-fired Systems: The biomass fuel is burned in a boiler to produce highpressure steam. The steam is used to produce electricity in steam turbine generators.Biomass boilers are typically 20 - 50 MW range. The energy in biomass is convertedto electricity with a efficiency of about 35% - a typical value of a modern coal-firedpower plant.Biomass gasifiers: Operate by heating biomass in an environment where the solidbiomass breaks down to form a flammable low calorific gas. The biogas is thencleaned and filtered to remove problem chemical compounds. The gas is used in moreefficient power generation systems called combined-cycles, which combine gasturbines and steam turbines to produce electricity. The efficiency of these systemscan reach 60%. Gasification systems may also be coupled with fuel cell systems usinga reformer to produce hydrogen and then convert hydrogen gas to electricity (andheat) using an electro-chemical process.Pyrolysis: Biomass pyrolysis refers to a process where biomass is exposed to hightemperatures in the absence of air, causing the biomass to decompose. The endproduct of pyrolysis is a mixture of solids (char), liquids (oxygenated oils), and gases(methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide).

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiopowerAnaerobic digestion:Anaerobic digestion is a process by which organic matter isdecomposed by bacteria in the absence of oxygen to produce methane and otherbyproducts. The primary energy product is a low to medium calorific gas, normally consistingof 50 to 60 percent methane.Modular systems (micro-power) : Employ some of the same technologies mentioned above,but on a smaller scale that is more applicable to villages, farms, and small industry.

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass Conversion ProductsSolid Products: charcoal, ashLiquid Products: water, tar, volatile acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketonesGaseous Products: H2, CO, CO2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6GasTarSolid

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterWood Conversion Products

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass Composition and Energy Content

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass Fuel Heat ContentSource: www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBioenergy Integrated System

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass ConversionFeedstockIntermediate conversionWoodForest residueBranchesSawdustBlack asificationMunicipalsolid wasteHuman andanimal wasteFinal conversionEnd useCooking heatCombustionComfort heatSolidProcess quidCombustionand heatpower processMech. powerElectricityGasDirectchemoelectricconversion

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass ConversionFeedstockIntermediate conversionWoodForest residueBranchesSawdustBlack GasificationMunicipalsolid wasteHuman andanimal wasteFinal conversionEnd useCooking heatCombustionComfort heatSolidProcess quidCombustionand heatpower processMech. powerElectricityGasDirectchemoelectricconversion

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass ConversionFeedstockWoodForest residueBranchesSawdustBlack liquorPlantationIntermediate man andanimal wasteEnd useCooking heatCombustionComfort heatSolidProcess heatPlantsCropsAgroresiduesMunicipalsolid wasteFinal ompositionCombustionand heatpower processMech. powerElectricityGasDirectchemoelectricconversion

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiomass ConversionFeedstockIntermediate conversionWoodForest residueBranchesSawdustBlack GasificationMunicipalsolid wasteHuman andanimal wasteFinal conversionEnd useCooking heatCombustionComfort heatSolidProcess quidCombustionand heatpower processMech. powerElectricityGasDirectchemoelectricconversion

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiofuelsEthanol: It is made by converting the carbohydrate portion of biomass into sugar,which is then converted into ethanol in a fermentation process similar to brewingbeer. Ethanol is the most widely used biofuel today with current capacity of 1.8billion gallons per year based on starch crops such as corn. Ethanol produced fromcellulose* biomass is currently the subject of extensive research, development anddemonstration efforts.Biodiesel: It is produced through a process in which organically derived oils arecombined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst to formethyl or methyl ester. The biomass- derived ethyl or methyl esters can be blendedwith conventional diesel fuel or used as a neat fuel (100% biodiesel). Biodiesel canbe made from soybean or Canola oils or waste vegetable oils.Syngas: Biomass can be gasified to produce a synthesis gas composed primarily ofhydrogen and carbon monoxide, also called syngas or biosyngas. Hydrogen can berecovered from this syngas, or it can be catalytically converted to methanol. It canalso be converted using Fischer-Tropsch catalyst into a liquid stream withproperties similar to diesel fuel, called Fischer-Tropsch diesel.*Cellulose(C6H10O5) is a long-chain polysaccharide carbohydrate of beta glucose. It forms theprimary structural component of plants and is not digestible by humans.

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterEthanol - Octane BoostEthanol provides an octane boost, both for conventional andreformulated gasoline.In the absence of ethanol, gasolinesuppliers use alkylates and other petroleum-based compoundsto increase the octane of gasoline. Ethanol is particularlydesirable as an octane enhancer since it can substitute forbenzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as toluene,xylene, and other 'benzene-ring'-based compounds in gasoline.This substitution reduces emissions of benzene and butadiene,both of which are carcinogenic.Example: Mixture with 92 octane premium10% ethanol will boos to 94.3 - 94.7 octane

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterEthanolSource: Renewable fuels associationRenewable FuelsE85 - 85%Gasolineethanol and 15%E diesel - blending ethanol withdiesel fuel, used primarily in heavyduty urban vehicles

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiodiesel EmissionsSource: EPA420-P-02-001

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiodiesel CO2 EmissionsSource: EPA420-P-02-001

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterEthanol EnergySource: Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterE 85 Energy Use

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterE85 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterEthanol Fuel Cycle

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterEthanol ProductionStarch and Sugar based feedstock: Corn and Barley and foodprocessing waste streams such as potato and brewery wasteCellulosic feedstock: Agricultural crop residues, forestry woodwastes, mill residues, urban wood waste, paper manufacturingwastes, waste paper and energy crops.Cellulosic biomass ethanol provides about four units of energy for every unit offossil fuel energy used to produce it – a significantly higher ratio than for otherrenewable fuels, such as corn ethanol. The large positive net energy balance forcellulosic biomass ethanol compared to corn ethanol is due to the fact thatrelatively little fossil energy is used in the creation of cellulosic biomass and in thebiomass to ethanol conversion process. However, unlike starch based crops, suchas corn, this biomass waste is often burned (ethanol production solves thisproblem), and does not have market value other than as feedstock for energyproduction. In addition, biomass resources such as wood waste, and certaindedicated biomass ethanol crops (such as switch grass) are not nearly as energyintensive to produce as starch crops.

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterStarch and Sugar Based Ethanol

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterCellulose Ethanol Production

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterBiofuel Costs

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering CenterRenewable Liquid FuelsBiomass is the only source of renewable liquid fuels. Engines utilizingbiofuels produce fewer emissions. From an economic standpoint, thelocal production and use of biofuels creates jobs, creates cash flow backinto rural communities. Greatest potential for widespread production anduse will occur from using feedstocks not in the food chain. feedstockssuch as trees, grasses, and other plant materials high in cellulosiccontent.Direct substitution of fossil fuels, which seems to be the mostadvantageous and appropriate strategy, with its greater environmental,energy, and ecological benefits.

Biomass boilers are typically 20 - 50 MW range. The energy in biomass is converted to electricity with a efficiency of about 35% - a typical value of a modern coal-fired power plant. Biomass gasifiers:Operate by heating biomass in an environment where the solid biomass breaks down to form a flammable low calorific gas. The biogas is then

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