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Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool:Challenges and Possibilitiesfor Independent Media

Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool:Challenges and Possibilitiesfor Independent MediaTable of ContentsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Gatekeeping and Twitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Twitter and Sourcing Diversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Unequal Visibility on Twitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Endnotes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17About the AuthorsNoah Amir Arjomand is a sociologist and the Mark Helmke Postdoctoral Scholar in Global Media,Development, and Democracy at CIMA and Indiana University Bloomington’s Hamilton Lugar Schoolof Global and International Studies. Cambridge University Press will publish his book Fixing Stories:Local Newsmaking and International Media in Turkey and Syria in spring 2022. Arjomand is also afilmmaker and directed a series of animated explainer videos on global media issues for CIMA. Heholds degrees from Columbia (MA, PhD) and Princeton (AB) Universities.Ali Ghazinejad is a lecturer in the Department of Information and Library Science at IndianaUniversity (IU) Bloomington where he also received his PhD in information science (cognitive scienceminor). Ghazinejad’s research interests lie at the intersection of information and data sciences,new media, and the psychological underpinnings of political affiliations and behaviors. Originallytrained as a computer scientist, he likes to tap into his quantitative toolbox to tackle social scientificproblems. He has taught a variety of courses at IU Bloomington and currently teaches Social MediaMining and Information Retrieval to a talented group of graduate students with diverse educationalbackgrounds from across the IU campus.Cover Photo: Esther Vargas/Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)

IntroductionTwit ter holds the potential toenable journalists to diversif ytheir reporting. Worldwide, andespecially in developing countries, mediaoutlets face several barriers to expandingcoverage to include a diversity of eventsand perspectives.These include a concentration of media outlets inurban centers, shoestring budgets, and establishedroutines for reporting that rely on elite gatekeepers.Twitter, in theory, may help provide the means tocircumvent these barriers if journalists use theplatform to generate story ideas, identify sources,and conduct research in ways that seek out new,non-elite voices.Twitter has itself touted its usefulness to journalists.In 201 5, on the so cial m edia plat form’s ninthanniversary, founder and Chief Executive Officer JackDorsey gave special thanks to journalists and arguedthat they have a symbiotic relationship with Twitter ina series of tweets:Six years later, journalists around the world useTwitter daily for newsgathering. 1 Yet the questionremains whether journalists truly use the platformto expand the diversity of people and perspectivesthey cover in their reporting or whether they relyon a small, skewed subset of the population. Thereare several factors that may be reinforcing, ratherthan breaking, news echo chambers and journalists’dependency on elite gatekeepers.“ The question remains whetherjournalists truly use the platformto expand the diversity of peopleand perspectives they cover intheir reporting or whether theyrely on a small, skewed subset ofthe population.”First, institutional routines, norms, and practicesmay limit the potential for platforms like Twitter toradically alter everyday news production. Journalistsmay “normalize” Twitter by simply using it as a fasterand more efficient tool to access the same kinds ofsources they have always relied on.S e c o n d , t h e v a s t s p r e a d o f u s e r- g e n e r a t e dmisinformation and disinformation creates anadditional burden on journalists to verif y usergenerated content or risk inadvertently spreadingTwitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 3

f a ke n ew s . J o u r n a lis t s m ay s tick to s o u rcin ginformation from a familiar cast of gatekeepers inpart to avoid such missteps.Finally, the algorithmic nature of Twitter, where theplatform recommends whom to follow based on users’interests, means that it can replicate “pack journalism,”in which multiple news organizations follow the samestories using the same sources. Relevance-rankingalgorithms direct journalists to content from mediacolleagues, politicians, and large institutions thathave long served as information gatekeepers. 2organizations in Mexico and Venezuela, illuminate theways journalists in developing countries use Twitteras a newsgathering tool and gauge the extent to whichthey contend with—or are even aware of—problemswith elite gatekeeping, the limitations of Twitter’s userbase, and online misinformation.So which story does the evidence from developingcountries and emerging democracies support? Arejournalists using Twitter to expand their accessbeyond their traditional professional networks andincorporate more diverse perspectives? Or is areliance on Twitter planting journalists ever morefirmly in their own echo chambers?Both stories appear to be playing out simultaneously.S t u d i e s f ro m L a t i n A m e r i c a , Af r i c a , a n d t h eMiddle East, as well as original research at newsTwitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 4

Gatekeeping and TwitterThe central idea of the “gatekeepingtheory” of media production is thatbefore information reaches a wideaudience as news, it must pass through aseries of “gates” at which gatekeepers filterout some and amplify other information.Before a piece of information even reachesprofessional journalists, who are key gatekeepers inthis process, it often first passes through the handsof publicists and government spokespeople whoalert journalists to potentially newsworthy eventsand sources. 3 Much of journalists’ awareness ofevents and trends in the world is thus second hand,filtered through other gatekeeping institutions andindividuals. 4 Generations of media scholars haveargued that journalists’ reliance on elite gatekeepershas the anti-democratic consequence of limiting therange of voices in mainstream media and enablingpowerful elites to control news narratives. 5In the first decade of the new millennium, somejournalists and media experts expressed newfoundoptimism that social media could help upend thestatus quo of elite gatekeeping and make moreperspectives publicly visible.6 Not only could ordinarypeople use social media to reach a wider audience,professional journalists could also use social media tocircumvent the institutions and other gatekeepers onwhich they previously relied to set the news agendaand source information. They thought that Twitterin particular could be useful to journalists becauseof the platform’s predominantly public nature: Bydefault, tweets are globally visible and no permissionis needed to follow an account. A new generation of“networked journalists” could use Twitter to monitorevents and create news with input from non-eliteusers in a more collaborative and inclusive processthan traditional gatekeeping.7 This optimism peakedduring the Arab Spring of 2010–12, when Twitter andFacebook became forums for mobilization and toolsfor fact finding about revolutions in Tunisia, Egypt,Libya, and Syria. 8Traditional GatekeepingGovernmentsPR AgenciesInfoOther JournalistsNews AudiencesActivistsJournalistsNew Media GatekeepingTwitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 5

InfoOther JournalistsNews AudiencesActivistsJournalistsNew Media GatekeepingGovernmentsPR AgenciesInfoSocial MediaPlatformsOrdinary SocialMedia UsersNews AudiencesActivistsJournalistsOver the past decade, social media companieshave faced growing criticism. Rather than simplyproviding an open and neutral platform for a globalconversation in which all can participate on equalte r ms, Twit te r, Face b o ok , a n d oth e r s may b ereinforcing unequal access to public attention andcreating virtual echo chambers of like-minded usersthrough opaque algorithms and moderation policiesthat amplify some content while hiding others. Theseoften-automated processes can further marginalizecommunities that already struggle for public visibilityand acknowledgement of their concerns whileamplifying the voices of those with the resourcesand savvy to game the new system using engagementand search optimization techniques.9 Furthermore,social media platforms have enabled misinformation,conspiracy theories, and disinformation campaignsto reach the mainstream more easily and quicklythan ever before.10Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 6

Twitter as a Newsgathering ToolCase Study: Noticias.MxDTwitter is central to the outlet’s repor tingroutines, though there is a good deal of variationin how different editors and reporters use theplatform. Daily news editors are divided betweenunits focused on soft news—entertainment,science, celebrity gossip, sport—and those onhard news—crime, politics, the economy. Theymust produce news articles at a fast pace, oftenseveral each per day. Twitter provides them anefficient means of monitoring other journalistscovering the same topics and hundreds orthousands of figures and institutions relatedto their individual beats. Many of their storiesaggregate this information and embed tweetsfrom such accounts. As one editor put hisn e w s m a k i n g p r o c e s s , “ I d o n’ t p r o d u c einformation so much as organize it.”11Photo Credit: Noah Amir Arjomand.own a side street from Mexico City’s bustling Avenida de los Insurgentes,the office of the independent news website Noticias.Mx—a pseudonym—is in operation 24/7. Noticias.Mx features both daily news and in-depthinvestigations. Nearly all of Noticias.Mx’s 18 journalists always have at least oneTwitter tab open on their web browsers.A Noticias.Mx editor writes a story, while TV newsdisplays a tweet above her.While daily news editors churn out stories bythe hour, members of Noticias.Mx’s investigativereporting unit take days or weeks to researchand write each of their features. Even these investigative reporters rely heavily on Twitter tomonitor the outside world. Their ability to conduct field reporting is limited by scarce resourcesand the threats posed by Mexico’s numerous criminal organizations. On their Twitter homepages,investigative reporters find tweets on topics such as missing persons, testimonials of governmentcorruption, or political organizing, which alert them to potential story ideas. They then use bothFacebook and targeted Twitter searches to follow up with research, find sources, and requestinterviews. One investigative reporter described the process of covering a recent university protestmovement: “I first contacted [activists] on Twitter, then visited them in person. Social media gaveme an idea of what to ask and what they had already said.”12Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 7

These observations of Noticias.Mx echo studies ofnewsmaking around the world. Twitter helps journalistsidentify newsworthy events, provides them directsources of information in the form of tweets thatthey quote in news pieces, and serves as a platformto find and contact sources to interview. Studies ofjournalism in the Americas and Europe have foundthat journalists use Twitter in their daily newsgatheringroutines more than any other social media platform.13There is, however, some variation across nationaland regional media ecosystems.14 Facebook is morecentral to journalists’ daily routines in sub-SaharanAfrica than in Latin America, for example.15In the c ase study outlined above, Noticias.Mxjournalists’ usage of Facebook as a newsgatheringtool is limited, despite the platform’s broad user base,in part because more of the content on the platformis by default private—visible only to a poster’sfriends. On the other hand, tweets are publiclyvisible. Journalists are free to follow whomever theychoose, rather than relying on “friending” requeststhat potential sources must approve. Governmentofficials, companies, and institutions like the centralbank have all adopted the platform as the primarymedium for their official public communications.Celebrities, sports stars, and cultural and educationalinstitutions also use Twitter as their channel forpublic announcements.Notwithstanding the increasing prominence of Twitterin the newsroom, Noticias.Mx journalists still use newswire agencies like the Associated Press and AgenciaEFE. They also still monitor competing news outletswhen deciding what events and issues to cover. Twitterdoes not entirely set Noticias.Mx’s agenda, but it is animportant tool used to complement those longerstanding methods of deciding what is newsworthy.Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 8

Twitter and Sourcing DiversityCase Study: Informaciones.VeInformaciones.Ve—a pseudonym—is a small, online-only, independent newsoutlet based in a half-empty shopping center in Caracas’s struggling businessdistrict. The outlet employs around two dozen staff journalists, most of themin their twenties or early thirties.Twitter plays a central role in Informaciones.Ve’s newsgathering activities. Journalists shuttlebetween Twitter and other web browser tabs on their laptops throughout the day, frequentlyrefreshing their homepage feeds for the latest updates.Despite Informaciones.Ve’s small size and limited resources, Twitter helps it avoid undue dependenceon larger, more established news outlets and agencies as agenda-setters and gatekeepers.Informaciones.Ve journalists do not routinely visit other Venezuelan news websites during theirshifts at the newsroom, preferring to primarily consult Twitter. The country’s political contextshapes this disregard for mainstream media. Most of Venezuela’s major television stations andnewspapers opposed President Hugo Chávez in the early 2000s. But, in more recent years, theyhave been effectively captured through intense economic and political pressure by both Chavez andthe current government under President Nicolás Maduro.16 Informaciones.Ve journalists are criticalof the government and view national news organizations as part of the state propaganda machine.Informaciones.Ve journalists do, however, use Twitter to follow individual colleagues working forother news outlets, including prominent pro-Maduro journalists. On Twitter, they can find bothpro-government and opposition voices. Journalists’ reliance on Twitter is unsurprising given thatapproximately a quarter of Venezuela’s population uses Twitter, the highest rate in Latin America.17Informaciones.Ve reporters and editors follow accounts of state agencies, political parties, churchofficials, and other organizations and their leaders, as well as intermediaries and aggregators ofinformation like the Twitter-native news service @ReporteYa.Social media ex tends the reach of journalists,particularly those without the time, money, andsecurity to travel widely to conduct field reporting.Journalists who might other wise be forced torely exclusively on institutionalized channels forreporting the news, such as attending official pressconferences or gathering information second handfrom other publications, can find and communicatewith sources beyond the familiar c ast of elitegatekeepers. Journalists at both independent newsoutlet s in developing countries and emergingdemocracies and international publications cantake advantage of Twitter to diversify their sourcing.Studies of NPR and BBC coverage of revolutionsand political movements in the Middle Eastshow that Twitter-savvy foreign correspondentshave developed novel techniques to find and vetinformation from non-elite sources. 18 The platformis also relatively free from state regulation. A SouthAfrican journalist interviewed for one 2014 studyargued, “Twitter gets information out so quickly,it is much harder to control. This means that factsget into the public domain before any gatekeeper,whether an editor or otherwise, can stop it.”19Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 9

In Venezuela, Informaciones.Ve uses Twitter notonly to find non-elite sources for conventional newsstories and investigations, but also to crowdsourcelarge-scale data of public interest. The unreliability ofofficial institutions as sources for social and economicstatistics has drivenInformaciones.Ve to takesuch measures, and socialmedia have made it possible.For example, suspicious thatofficial figures on blackoutsor gasoline shortages areunrealistic, Informaciones.Vewill announce on Twitter that it is seeking information.Followers then write to a provided WhatsApp numberwith the number and duration of recent power outagesin their area or to tell how many hours they waited atthe station to fill their gas tank.The benefit of WhatsApp’s encrypted messagingis privacy: People can provide such informationto Informaciones.Ve with less fear of reprisal thanwhen using publicly visible media like Twit ter.Twitter users and journalists have been arbitrarilyarrested for public online speech, especially sincethe 2017 enactment of a vague but broad anti-hatespeech law. 21 Thus, WhatsApp provides an essentialcomplement for Twitter that is better suited tosensitive communications. 22 For example, one reporterPhoto Credit: Noah Amir Arjomand.In Mexico at Noticias.Mx, the investigative unit activelyseeks out information from non-elite sources that arenot present in mainstream news. Reporters follownongovernmental organizations and colectivos,organized groups of citizens affected by an issue thatplay an important role in Mexican civil society. It iscommon for ordinary citizens to write testimonials onFacebook and Twitter about their personal experienceswith corruption or violence, which often come to theattention of Noticias.Mx reporters when quoted orretweeted by a colectivo account. Such tweets areoften the first breadcrumb leading a reporter downthe path of an investigation, followed by targetedsearches and phone interviews. “You can put a wordinto [Twitter’s] search bar and . . . find sources thatnobody else has,” 20 said a reporter who was in theprocess of investigating an economic developmentproject in the southwest Mexican state.Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaidó speaks toreporters as police block him from entering FederalLegislative Palace in January 2020.focused on the Caracas crime beat participates inthe discussion thread of a private WhatsApp groupin which police of ficers leak information aboutongoing investigations and crime reports to him andother journalists.In other cases, Informaciones.Ve journalists use officialsources’ tweets against the grain of governmentcontrol. For instance, one reporter investigatedshutdowns of the Caracas metro system due to bothblackouts and intentional shutdowns used to hinderanti-government protesters. She found that althoughgovernment-published statistics inaccurately claimedthat the system had a nearly per fect record ofuninterrupted service, the Metro de Caracas officialTwitter account had tweeted each time there was ashutdown. She then used these tweets to tally theinterruptions and produce her count, which was muchhigher than the government’s.Twitter thus helps journalists collect information fromofficial sources without having to exchange positivecoverage for access. As one Informaciones.Ve politicalreporter reflected, “Twitter is important for journalistsfrom the independent media because we can’t go toofficial sources anymore. They won’t talk to us. Theyhave blocked our access.”23In each of these examples, Twitter was a tool todiversify sourcing and helped journalists collectinformation overlooked by, or inconvenient to, elitegatekeepers and official communication channels. Yet,paradoxically, Twitter may also be driving these samejournalists into elite echo chambers in subtle ways.Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 10

Unequal Visibility on TwitterThe potential for Twitter to diversifynews sourcing is undercut byforces that filter out many voiceswhile amplifying a few for journalists.Platform usership skews elite. Even amonginformation sources potentially availableon Twitter, journalists under time pressureand concerned about online misinformationgravitate toward those accounts that appearto offer verified information—in many cases,a familiar cast of elite media gatekeepers.Conformity to long-standing sourcing andgatekeeping patterns is further reinforcedby Twitter’s relevance-ranking algorithms.impediments to digital communications. Blackoutsare usually short-lived in Caracas, but often last fordays on end in provincial cities and rural areas. 26Informaciones.Ve journalists are very aware of thisproblem and have given it significant news coverage.Even among those able to log on to social media,Twitter hosts a small, self-selected minority. Studiesof digital journalism across the sub-Saharan Africancountries of Mozambique, Kenya, Uganda, andZimbabwe have found Twit ter to constitute an“elite public sphere” that reflects the perspectivesof an internationally oriented technocratic andcultural elite. 27 Even in countries with widespreadinte r n et a cc e s s , Twit te r g a r n e r s a m o re eliteusership than Facebook. 28The selectivity of the entire network of Twitter users,then, limits the diversity of sourcing before evenfactoring in journalists’ particular ways of usingTwitter or the platform’s interface and algorithms.An Exclusive ClubAccess to the internet and electricity are requirementsto use Twitter, which effectively excludes manypeople around the world. Internet access varieswidely by region, country, and rural-urban divides.According to the latest estimates available from theInternational Telecommunication Union, less thanhalf the world’s population uses the internet. 24 Abouttwo-thirds of the populations of Latin America andthe Middle East and North Africa are online, but lessthan one in five in sub-Saharan Africa. In Mexico,internet adoption was estimated in 2017 to be morethan 70 percent in urban areas but under 40 percentin rural areas. 25NEWSInternet connectivity in Venezuela is nominally on a parwith the regional average, but data speeds are oftenimpractically slow, particularly from the affordablestate-run ser vice provider, CANT V (CompañíaAnónima Nacional Teléfonos de Venezuela), andin rural areas. Power outages are also frequentTwitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 11

Newsgathering RoutinesThere is no one fixed way to interact with Twitter.A journalist may try to find novel ways to discovern ews so urce s an d p er sp e c tive s . O r th ey may“normalize” the platform by using it as a new interfacefor established sourcing routines.At Noticias.Mx, the daily news editors are the onesmost systematic about following the most relevantaccounts to their beats, and they optimize their Twitternetworks for efficiency and not diversity. “I use Twittermost for public figures,” acknowledged one editor,pointing out that many days he writes one story perhour, making it essential that he keep track of whatthe most prominent people are saying. 29These daily news editors also closely monitorTwitter’s trending lists, which are found on the rightside of Twitter’s homepage and under a page labelled#Explore/#Explorar. Depending on a user’s settingsand the tab selected, these trending sections maydisplay a personalized list of popular keywords andhashtags or a general list of terms trending throughoutMexico as identified by Twitter’s algorithms. Editorswill often click on these trending terms to displayrelated tweets, and the top results generally comefrom accounts of public figures already followed bythose editors, or accounts with large followings.For daily news editors, they define a topic asnewsworthy if it is trending according to Twitter, orif other news outlets or famous people are payingattention to it. One Noticias.Mx editor summarizeshis process for judging newsworthiness as follows:“If I see other news media sharing and confirmingsomething, then I will cover it.”30 Although trendinglists might potentially be sources for more diverseinformation, the way these editors engage with thelists as well as the criteria they follow for decidingwhat to cover both tend to reinforce conformity withmainstream news interests. These practices and theconstant pressure to quickly produce news storiesmake influential gatekeepers—not new and diversevoices—most visible to these journalists.“ Studies of journalists’ Twitterfollowing networks in othercountries have also found thatthey tend to connect with otherjournalists and other kinds ofelite gatekeepers who havetraditionally guided the newsagenda. Journalists may be overrelying on fellow media insidersfor information rather than findingoutsiders with fresh perspectives.”Not only fast-moving daily news editors, but alsothe investigative repor ters and senior editorsat both Noticias.Mx and Informaciones.Ve follow adisproportionate number of other journalists on Twitter.Approximately 30 percent of the accounts followedby Noticias.Mx employees and 38 percent of thosefollowed by Informaciones.Ve employees belongedto individual journalists or news organizations. 31That means that when journalists at either outlet arescanning their homepages or personalized trendinglists, much of the content they see has already cycledthrough the professional news media.Studies of journalists’ Twitter following networks inother countries have also found that they tend toconnect with other journalists and other kinds of elitegatekeepers who have traditionally guided the newsagenda. 32 Journalists may be over-relying on fellowmedia insiders for information rather than findingoutsiders with fresh perspectives.Twitter as a Newsgathering Tool: Challenges and Possibilities for Independent Media # mediadev 12

Misinformation WorriesJournalistic routines that limit sourcing diversitycan stem from justifiable concerns over onlinem isi n fo r m a ti o n . Eve r yo n e a t Noticias.Mx a n dInformaciones.Ve is aware that much of what they readon Twitter is false or unproven, and that uncriticallyusing such information could have negativeprofessional consequences. “I know other journalistsat other publications who have gotten in trouble forpublishing rumors or fake news,” said one Noticias.Mxdaily news editor. 33To avoid falling for “fake news,” journalists at bothNoticias.Mx and Informaciones.Ve favor informationfrom, and prefer to follow, accounts verified byTwitter’s blue check badge. The blue check simplyindicates that the platform has verified that theaccount is controlled by a “prominently recognizedindividual or brand,” and not that the informationthey provide is accurate. 34 Nonetheless, journalistsat both outlets view blue checks as an indicator oftrustworthiness.The practice of following colleagues is also a responseto the threat of misinformation: Journalists trust otherjournalists more than they do other sources. Thoughthe pattern of relying on known and verified sourcesis understandable, it also undermines the potential forthe platform to enlarge journalists’ spheres to includenews sources overlooked by other news outlets.Informaciones.Ve journalists tend to distrust notonly individual unknown sources but also Twitter’stre n d in g lis t s . T h ey a s su m e th a t th e ge n e r a lVenezuelan trends list is politically manipulatedusing government-controlled bot and troll armiesto promote pro-government hashtags andcatchphrases. Analysts have indeed found evidencethat both pro- and anti-government factions attemptto manipulate Twitter’s trending list through boththe use of bots and coordinated campaigns. 35 Onecommunications manager at Informaciones.Ve notedthat she does come up with news story ideas basedon the trends displayed on Twitter, but these tend tobe international stories, not news about Venezuela,which is Informaciones.Ve’s main focus.Noticias.Mx and Informaciones.Ve are far from uniquein weighing openness to new sources against trustin familiar gatekeepers. Studies of journalists’ useof social media in Belgium, Brazil, France, Kenya,and Mexico have all found that journalists trustinformation that colleagues or official accounts ofknown institutions post to Twitter more than contentfrom ordinary, non-elite users. 36Ev e n w h e n j o u r n a l i s t s a t N oti c ia s . Mx

platform . Daily news editors are divided between units focused on soft news—entertainment, science, celebrity gossip, sport—and those on hard news—crime, politics, the economy . They must produce news articles at a fast pace, often several each per day . Twitter provides them an efficient means of monitoring other journalists

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