Greening Technical And Vocational Education And Training

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Greening Technical and VocationalEducation and TrainingA practical guide for institutions

Greening Technical and VocationalEducation and TrainingA practical guide for institutions

Publishedin 2017 by theUnited Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization7, place de Fontenoy75352 Paris 07 SPFranceandUNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for TVETUN CampusPlatz der Vereinten Nationen 153113 BonnGermany UNESCO 2017ISBN: 978-92-3-100231-1EAN: 9789231002311This publication is available in Open Access under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0IGO (CC-BY-SA 3.0 IGO) license /). By using the content of this publication, the users accept to be bound by theterms of use of the UNESCO Open Access Repository -en).The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout thispublication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part ofUNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of itsauthorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors;they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.DesignPrint2Front cover and inside pagesdesigned by Christiane MarweckiMessner Medien GmbHPrinted in Germany

FOREWORDThis Guide is designed to help leaders andpractitioners of technical and vocational educationand training (TVET) in improving their understandingand implementation of education for sustainabledevelopment (ESD) using a whole-institution approachto greening their institutions. The Guide reflectsthe objective of the UNESCO-UNEVOC InternationalCentre for TVET to assist TVET institutions in theirjourney towards transformation. This is consistentwith its advocacy since 2011 of initiating reforms thatmeet the twin challenges of youth unemploymentand low capacities in the field of sustainability acrossthe TVET sector. These reforms should be based onholistic and coherent transformations of institutions,rather than broken paths to institutional change thatare lacking in long-term vision. The UNEVOC Network– a global network of TVET institutions in UNESCOMember States – is at the forefront of formulatingstrategic responses to carry out transformationsof TVET in Member States as countries increasinglycommit themselves to develop solutions and adequateresponses for lower greenhouse gas emissions and areduced carbon and ecological footprint as a resultof human activities. For this reason, the support ofUNESCO-UNEVOC is targeted primarily at those whoare already within the Network, with the hope thatthey can serve as conduits for multiplying awarenessand education, scaling up training responses andpositively influencing institutional stakeholders,communities, enterprises and industries towardsadapting more responsible practices, particularly insectors with the highest impact on the environment.The processes and guiding examples presented inthis Guide are an illustration of a systematic journeytowards empowering TVET institutions to adaptto the changing needs of the green economy, andsustainable and digital societies. Where greening isa national priority, it is deemed necessary for TVETinstitutions to support transitional progress to sustainthese efforts. The jobs and employment promises ofgreen economic transitions are at the heart of theinstitutional greening agenda. However, it shouldnot be ignored that making TVET more attractiveto learners, communities and enterprises throughthe promotion of green skills is underpinned by thegreening of TVET institutions, which are often facedwith basic issues and the day-to-day struggle ofpromoting TVET. Preparing the workforce not only forthe jobs that exist now but for those of the future isanother reason for reinforcing greening. This requiresa change of mindset, while becoming aware of theknowledge, skills and attitudes that are sensitive toenvironmental, economic and social development.The Guide is divided into two sections and discussesfour key steps, focused on understanding, planning,implementing, and monitoring and assessment. Itdelivers several key elements to assist TVET leadersand their institutional teams in understanding thescale, scope and crucial steps in greening theirinstitutions and programmes. The Guide explains theneed for greening, and its institutional benefits. Italso addresses key elements in creating the rationaleand strategy prior to launching. The core elements ofcreating an institutional greening plan, addressingshort, medium and long-term goals, are outlined in theGuide. Section 2 addresses step-by-step suggestions forimplementing, developing and assessing the greeningprocesses. Finally, this Guide offers suggestions to helpinstitutions find further resources.This publication is another step taken by the UNESCOUNEVOC International Centre for TVET to reinforcesustainable development as a learning journey, nota destination; and to support institutional capacitydevelopment among its stakeholders in TVET, whichmay lead to the creation of a concerted effort tomainstream sustainable development in TVET.SHYAMAL MAJUMDARHead of UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for TVETFOREWORD3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Guide has been prepared by UNESCO-UNEVOC,guided by Shyamal Majumdar, with the excellentsupport and technical contributions from Dr CharlesHopkins, UNESCO Chair on Reorienting TeacherEducation, Institute for Research and Innovation inSustainability, York University, Canada.Other informed views and contributions were receivedfrom the following experts: Nick Sofroniou (Universityof Warwick, United Kingdom); Cristina MartinezHernandez (Western Sydney University, Australia);Martin Borg (Malta College of Arts, Science andTechnology, Malta); Erick Tambo (United NationsUniversity – Institute for Environment and HumanSecurity, UNU-EHS, Bonn, Germany); Eckart Lilienthal(Federal Ministry of Education and Research – BMBF,Germany); Jens Liebe (UNESCO).4ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSOther UNEVOC Network Members who were consultedand provided valuable suggestions to the Guideare Marie-Josee Fortin (Canada), Margarita Pavlova(Hong Kong SAR, China), Olga Oleynikova (RussianFederation), Matthews Phiri (Botswana), Harry Stolteand Michael Schwarz (Germany), Odette Brown(Jamaica), Jin Park and Namchul Lee (Republic ofKorea), Khaled Grayaa (Tunisia), Alfredo Rodarte(Mexico), Issam Abi Nader (Lebanon) and RonnySannerud (Norway). Their contributions reflect adiverse area of experiences and institutional expertisefor implementing TVET programmes in the context ofsustainable development.Taotao Yue (China), José Jara-Alvear (Ecuador) andOluwatosin Awolola (Nigeria), interns at UNESCOUNEVOC International Centre, also contributed to thestages of development of the Guide through theirresearch activities and input.

TABLE OF CONTENTS3FOREWORD4ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS5TABLE OF CONTENTS7FIGURES AND TABLES8GLOSSARY9USING THIS GUIDE11OVERVIEW OF THE GUIDE13TARGET AUDIENCE15SECTION 116171920242628IntroductionWhy TVET institutions must engage in the greening processInvesting in greening TVETSkills and environmental considerations for greening TVETTransforming TVET for meeting the needs of a greening economy and societyA global framework for sustainabilityA global action programme on ESD31SECTION 232Step 1: Understanding the ProcessClarifying the greening conceptMaking an institutional alignment and assessmentAdapting a whole-institution approachEngaging teamsTABLE OF CONTENTS5

43Step 2: Planning for the Greening of TVETRaising awareness and formulating the rationaleDeveloping a visionPromoting broader engagementAssessing current realitiesDeveloping an institutional greening plan of action54Step 3: Implementing the Institutional Greening PlanDelegation of what needs to be doneConsolidating and embedding in the core systemsDeployment of resourcesInstitutionalizing change and celebrating65Step 4: Monitoring Progress and Assessing ResultsEstablishing the reason for monitoringClarifying the scope needing assessmentDeveloping a monitoring and assessment frameworkAPPENDIX6TABLE OF CONTENTS72A Greening TVET Monitoring and Assessment Framework87REFERENCES91ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

FIGURES AND TABLESFIGURES1429313843464950697071FIGURE 1FIGURE 2Step-by-step guide for implementing ESD in TVET institutionsTVET in the UN Sustainable Development Goals, part of the2030 Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentFIGURE 3 Priority areas of the Global Action Programme on ESDFIGURE 4 Five approaches to sustainability in TVET institutionsFIGURE 5 An example of a problem tree analysis in skills developmentin the field of renewable energyFIGURE 6 Establishing the rationale – key considerationsFIGURE 7 An example of a master assessment using the force fieldanalysis methodFIGURE 8 An example of a Green Plan framework:George Brown College, CanadaFIGURE 9 Approaches to assessmentFIGURE 10 A template for a four-stage assessmentFIGURE 11 An example of a spider chartTABLES22Table 15172Table 2Table 3Key considerations for greening the TVET agenda to enablesustainable practices in sectors served by a vocationallyskilled and trained workforceThree levels to consider in integrating skillsAn example of a scoring framework to assess progress ingreening the campusSECTION ONE7

GLOSSARY8GREENINGThe process of pursuing knowledge and practices withthe intention of becoming more environmentallyfriendly, enhancing decision-making and lifestyle inmore ecologically responsible manner, that can lead toenvironmental protection and sustainability ofnatural resources for current and future generations.GREEN JOBSJobs that contribute to preserving or restoringenvironmental quality, while also meeting longstandingdemands and goals of the labour movement, such asadequate wages, safe working conditions and workers’rights (UNEP et al., 2008).GREEN SKILLSThe knowledge, abilities, values and attitudes neededto live in, develop and support a sustainable andresource-efficient society (CEDEFOP, 2012).SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTDevelopment that meets the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of future generationsto meet their own needs (UNCED, 1987).RETRAININGTraining enabling individuals to acquire new skills givingaccess either to a new occupation or to newprofessional activities (CEDEFOP, 2008).TRANSFORMATIONA process of allowing institutions to change to adapt tothe changing functions and expectations, or to shiftaccording to the changes in the functions over time(Campbell, 2007).UPSKILLINGShort-term targeted training typically following initialeducation or training, and aimed at supplementing,improving or updating knowledge, skills and/orcompetences acquired during previous training(CEDEFOP, 2008).GREENING TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING. A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR INSTITUTIONS

USING THIS GUIDEGreening Technical and Vocational Education andTraining: a practical guide for institutions is designedto help leaders and practitioners of technical andvocational education and training (TVET) in improvingtheir understanding of, and implementing, educationfor sustainable development (ESD). It is guided by awhole-institution approach, and uses a step-by-stepprocess that can be applied in an institutional setting.The process consists of four steps: understanding,planning, implementing, and monitoring andassessment. The Guide identifies several key elementsto assist TVET leaders and their institutional teams inunderstanding the steps in greening their institutionsand programmes. It explains the need for, and theinstitutional benefits of, greening. It also addresseskey elements for creating the rationale and strategyprior to launching the first step. The core elementsof creating an institutional greening plan (IGP),addressing short, medium and long-term goals, areoutlined in Step 2. Then Steps 3 and 4 addresssuggestions for implementing, developing andassessing the greening process.BOX 1WHOLE-INSTITUTION APPROACHIn addition to the reorientation of teaching and learning content and methodology, a whole-institution approachconsiders an integrated process for mainstreaming sustainability in the whole process of an institution.The UNESCO Roadmap for Implementing the Global Action Programme on Education for SustainableDevelopment suggests areas in which this approach can be realized:(a) An institution-wide process is organized in a manner that enables all stakeholders – leadership,teachers, learners, and administration – to jointly develop a vision and plan to implement ESD inthe whole institution.(b) Technical and, where possible and appropriate, financial support is provided to the institution tosupport its reorientation. This can include the provision of relevant good practice examples, trainingfor leadership and administration, the development of guidelines, as well as associated research.(c) Existing relevant inter-institutional networks are mobilized and enhanced in order to facilitatemutual support such as peer-to-peer learning on a whole-institution approach, and to increase thevisibility of the approach to promote it as a model for adaptation.In practice, a whole-institution approach suggests the incorporation of sustainable development notonly through the aspects of the curriculum, but also through an integrated management and governanceof the institution, the application of a sustainability ethos, engagement of community and stakeholders,long-term planning, and sustainability monitoring and evaluation.Source: UNESCO (2014)USING THIS GUIDE9

The Guide situates a whole-institution approachin different education and training settings andacross different actors (learners or trainees, teachers,principals, training managers and even those that arenot traditionally part of an ‘academic’ structure butwith whom institutional actors interact).TVET is a complex sector, in which a wide range ofskills and knowledge is imparted in a wide range ofsettings. The whole-institution approach takes intoaccount these complexities and justifies the need foran integrated institutional development. The processrequires the planning of responsibilities that can beperformed by different actors within an institutionsetting to create an institution-wide change; the10USING THIS GUIDEanticipation of the further roles that these actors takeup in their personal and professional life to influenceinputs, processes and outcomes; and preparation toperform these roles in any workplace setting and inlife situations. These actors are to be equipped withthe knowledge, skills and competencies to effect thenecessary change and perform their roles to the pointthat sustainability is embedded in everything they do.The whole-institution approach also develops workrelated skills and competencies. Both life and workrelated skills and competencies affect the mannerin which individuals in the community conductthemselves when dealing with day-to-day personaland professional functions and activities.

OVERVIEW OF THE GUIDESection 1 gives an introduction and sets thebackground regarding Education for SustainableDevelopment (ESD), and its relationship to QualityEducation, Agenda 2030, Education 2030 and GlobalCitizenship Education. It explains the many initiativesthat learning institutions are being requested todeliver. As time and resources are limited, it isimportant to explore the possibility of synergy ofthese initiatives with greening TVET institutions. Theintroduction explains what ESD is and how it is linkedto TVET, as well as to education in the broadest terms.It outlines why greening and ESD in general matterto TVET institutions, to society and particularly tostudents.Section 2 outlines a four-step framework for thegreening of TVET institutions, implying a wholeinstitution approach.AN OVERVIEW OF THE STEP-BY-STEP GUIDEStep 1looks at understanding the process of greeningTVET institutions. It explains why it is important toundertake a greening process, and how it could bepositioned for an institution within a multi-level andmultidimensional approach to reform in the context ofsustainable development. This step outlines the scale,scope and range of greening, including economic,social and environmental actions. Importantly, it helpsteams within institutions understand the nature, thebroad approach and the scale of the required changes.It offers helpful and quick reference to the fiveapproaches for implementing ESD in TVET institutions.Step 2deals with planning the process of greening. It isimportant to develop a planning framework andstrategy before starting the main greening process.The step outlines strategic planning approaches, suchas building the motivation for a whole-institutionapproach, developing a vision, the engagementof key stakeholders and help in setting priorities.To give guidance on how these priorities could beimplemented, examples are provided. These offer ideasand methods for organizing activities around a greenplan.Step 3focuses on developing an implementationstrategy. This step builds on the five approaches forimplementing ESD in TVET institutions, and identifiesopportunities for making them operational within thedaily routine of the institution. Its suggestions willassist with the core tasks of creating an institutionalpolicy framework to allow simultaneous work onGreening the Campus, Greening the Curriculumand Training, Greening Research, Greening theInstitutional Culture, and assisting the broaderworkplace and community in their own greeningefforts. This chapter also offers some examples.Step 4is to monitor and assess the efforts and results ofthe greening process. This step describes the needboth to develop assessment criteria that can becommunicated and celebrated, and to recognize thatsome hoped-for outcomes do not lend themselves asreadily to assessment. These more difficult to assessoutcomes must not be overlooked in the planning andimplementing phases. While quantitative measuresindicate progress in, for example, energy and waterconsumption, it may be necessary to supplement thiswith qualitative assessment based on the opinions ofemployers, faculty and graduates.OVERVIEW OF THIS GUIDE11

AN OVERVIEW OF THE FIVE APPROACHESFOR IMPLEMENTING ESD IN TVETWithin the key steps are individual approaches forimplementing ESD in TVET institutions: Greening theCampus, Greening the Curriculum and Training,Greening Research, Greening the Community andWorkplace and Greening the Institutional Culture.The approaches are independent actions that makeup a whole-institution approach. Examples showinghow other institutions have started to introduce thegreening process are important features of the Guide.They show both different approaches to sustainabilityand different areas in which they can be applied.The Appendix provides a sample monitoring andassessment framework.FIG. 1STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE FOR IMPLEMENTING ESD IN TVET INSTITUTIONS Delegation of what needs to bedone Consolidating and embedding in thecore systems Deployment of resources Institutionalizing change andcelebratingIMPLEMENTING THEINSTITUTIONALGREENING PLANSTEP 4MONITORING PROGRESSAND ASSESSING RESULTS Establishing the reason formonitoring Clarifying the scope needingassessment Developing a monitoring andassessment frameworkSTEP 3SCOPE OF SUSTAINABILITYFOR TVET INSTITUTIONSWhole-institutional approach Greening the Campus Greening the Curriculumand Training Greening Research Greening the Communityand Workplace Greening the InstitutionalCulture Raising awareness andformulating the rationale Developing a vision Promoting broaderengagement Assessing current realities Developing an institutionalgreening plan of actionSTEP 2PLANNING FOR THEGREENING OF TVET12OVERVIEW OF THIS GUIDESTEP 1UNDERSTANDINGTHE PROCESS Clarifying the greeningconcept Making an institutionalalignment and assessment Adapting a wholeinstitution approach Engaging teams

TARGET AUDIENCEThis Guide is designed as a practical tool for TVETinstitutional leaders, administrators, managers andteaching personnel to assist them in creating theirown successive steps towards the greening process intheir institution. It serves as a powerful tool to inspirethe development of localized policies, programmesand practices, as well as improvements to structuresand investments, both capital and human. Studentsand the broader school community could also benefitfrom this information, since they are instrumentalin the successful implementation of the greeningprocess.LIMITATIONSGreening is an emerging and ongoing conceptthat has an infinite timeframe. We recommendthat institutions pursue a formal greening processuntil they are confident that the concepts areembedded, that the actions are mainstreamed intodaily functions, and that they are covered in routinemonitoring measures. Since TVET institutions varywidely, from small rural handicraft centres to highlyadvanced technical schools, it will be necessary toadapt the generic advice offered here to suit thespecific learning situation.This Guide is designed primarily for vocationalinstitutions that deliver programmes within theirown school, college or independent setting, wherethe administration and teaching or training personnelhave control over the facility and the educationalprogramme/curriculum and training. However, thegeneral principles outlined will be a useful startingpoint for any formal TVET institution wanting toinitiate a systemic transformation. They are alsobroadly applicable to the content and processes ofother types of institution and TVET delivery system.For example, the four practical steps outlined in theGuide could be adapted by TVET managers or trainerswho are involved in upskilling activities in a workplacesetting, and who aim to bring about the broadchanges described in the text.Since it is to be used to create a starting point forbuilding systemic transformations, the Guide does notdefine what a ‘greened TVET institution’ should looklike, since this will largely depend on prior assessmentof the existing level of implementation of ESD in thedifferent areas of an institution. Similarly, greeningTVET institutions will rely on their own abilitiesto make a plan, as well as the resources availableto them to advance the idea of transforming theinstitution. Thus, the Guide sets out helpful measuresto facilitate institutions in their journey, and offers aset of possible outcomes to be pursued.TARGET AUDIENCE13



INTRODUCTIONTechnical and vocational education and training (TVET)systems play an important role in equipping youthand adults with the skills required for employment,decent work, entrepreneurship and lifelong learning.In the present development context, TVET can equipyouth with the skills required to access the worldof work, including skills for self-employment. TVETcan also improve responsiveness to changing skilldemands by companies and communities, increaseproductivity and increase wage levels. TVET can lowerbarriers that limit access to the world of work.Implementing ESD in TVET can serve as an enablerof transformation in TVET institutions by enhancingthe sustainability scope of an institutional vision andincreasing opportunities to build the capacities of thecommunity and stakeholders in it. In effect, ESD inTVET provides an enhanced tool to equip youth andadults with the skills needed in the changing worldof work, including the knowledge and competencyrequirements to make the transition to greeneconomies and societies. ESD is therefore essential forinstitutions to educate and train individuals on theserequirements.BOX 2DEFINING TVETUNESCO defines TVET through a range of learningactivities, and describes it as an important routefor developing individuals who will be futureagents of sustainable transformations.The UNESCO Recommendation concerningtechnical and vocational education and training(2015) defines TVET ‘as comprising education,training and skills development relating to a widerange of occupational fields, production, servicesand livelihoods. TVET, as part of lifelong learning,can take place at secondary, post-secondaryand tertiary levels and includes work-basedlearning and continuing training and professionaldevelopment, which may lead to qualifications.TVET also includes a wide range of skillsdevelopment opportunities attuned to nationaland local contexts. Learning to learn and thedevelopment of literacy and numeracy skills,transversal skills and citizenship skills are integralcomponents of TVET.TVET contributes to sustainable development byempowering individuals, organizations, enterprisesand communities, and fostering employment,decent work and lifelong learning so as to promoteinclusive and sustainable economic growth andcompetitiveness, social equity and environmentalsustainability.’Source: UNESCO (2016a)16GREENING TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING. A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR INSTITUTIONS

Why TVET institutions mustengage in the greening processTVET plays an important role in helpingmake transitions to a low-carbon economyand climate-resilient society. It is carriedout through the traditional roles of TVET inpreparing learners for occupational fields andincreasing their participation in the world ofwork. These traditional roles are facing newexpectations:TVET for educating and trainingindividuals to transition to a sustainablesocietyHuman activities, as well as occupations inthe workplace, need to be carried out in away that is sustainable and environmentallyfriendly. Since many human activities in thepast have not achieved this, there is a need toadapt the processes in personal consumptionas well as in occupations that are carried overfrom the past, and to develop new sectors ofactivity to replace environmentally unfriendlyalternatives. They are essential to create a moresustainable society: for instance, developingskills and promoting the study of technologiesthat lead to avoiding as far as possible the useof irreplaceable raw materials, recycling waste,minimizing energy use, and avoiding pollutionof the environment. The opportunity to developentrepreneurial learning through vocationaleducation and training could also lead to thecreation of sustainable enterprises and socialenterprises that work for the common good ofthe society.Making TVET input current and relevantfor ongoing labour market regulationsThe opportunity toThere are a large number of TVET graduatesworking throughout the economy. Manyemployment sectors are regulated by standardscovering their operations, and many jobs havedefined skills standards. Individuals typicallyundertake TVET with the aim of obtainingthe skills level or qualifications needed forregulated occupations, or jobs for whichstandards of competence levels of skillsrequired are clearly established. As well asregulations covering personnel qualifications,much economic activity is governed byregulations covering operations more widely(although to a degree that varies betweencountries and sectors). Unfortunately, manyexisting regulations and standards date froman era before the need for sustainability wasfully appreciated, and have not yet beenfully updated to meet the requirements for atransition to a green economy. They may evenhelp to maintain a ‘business-as-usual’ modeof operations, work processes and methods,when this is patently not sustainable, usingraw materials, creating waste and emissions, toa degree that causes unnecessary harm to theenvironment.learning throughdevelop entrepreneurialvocational educationand training couldalso lead to creation ofsustainable enterprisesand social enterprisesthat work for thecommon good of thesociety. Many of theseenterprises addressmore efficientlysocial, human andenvironmentalconcerns.SECTION ONE17

Collective actioncan be mobilized byestablishing greenagendas as a normin an institution.Factors preventingor slowing changecan be addressedtogether with acommon goal, anenhanced motivationand collective actionInstilling consciousness, motivationto develop a green cultureStaff and students in learning institutionsmay not have reached the point ofunderstanding what needs to be changed toachieve sustainable development. Even whenthey appreciate the issues, they may notpossess the motivation to be part of a biggertransformational agenda that is possiblethrough a collective movement. It is firstnecessary to ensure that there is a collectiveappreciation of the changes in the economyand society that are needed to achievesustainability. Then it is necessary for themto act corresponding to these changes.Collective action can be mobilized byestablishing green agendas as a norm in aninstitution. Factors preventing or slowingchange can be addressed together with acommon goal, an enhanced motivation andcollective action to demonstrate good practices.This paves the way for developing a new cultureand guiding those involved so that changes dotake place.The greening of TVET institutions will notonly add value to the normal institutionaldevelopment process, it will stimulate progresstowards a learning and evolving demonstrate goodpractices. This pavesthe way for developinga new culture andguiding those involvedso changes do takeplace.POINTS TO CONSIDER:TVET has a role to play in ensuring that the knowledge, skills and competencies acquiredby individuals will enable them to contribute to the developing green economy, andindeed to pursue sustainable practices in other areas of their lives. A green economy isone ‘that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantlyreducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities’ (UNEP, 2011). This is crucial if weare to move towards sustainable societies.18GREENING TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING. A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR INSTITUTIONS

Investing in greening TVETA global momentum has been created f

this Guide are an illustration of a systematic journey towards empowering TVET institutions to adapt to the changing needs of the green economy, and sustainable and digital societies. Where greening is a national priority, it is deemed necessary for TVET institutions to support transitional progress to sustain these efforts.

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