Handbook Of Research On Human Performance And Instructional Technology

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Handbook of Research onHuman Performance andInstructional TechnologyHolim SongTexas Southern University, USATerry KiddTexas A&M University, USAInformatIon scIence referenceHershey New York

Director of Editorial Content:Senior Managing Editor:Assistant Managing Editor:Publishing Assistant:Typesetter:Cover Design:Printed at:Kristin KlingerJamie SnavelyMichael BrehmSean WoznickiMichael Brehm, Jamie Snavely, Kurt SmithLisa TosheffYurchak Printing Inc.Published in the United States of America byInformation Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global)701 E. Chocolate AvenueHershey PA 17033Tel: 717-533-8845Fax: 717-533-8661E-mail: cust@igi-global.comWeb site: http://www.igi-global.com/referenceCopyright 2010 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed inany form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher.Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products orcompanies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataHandbook of research on human performance and instructional technology / HolimSong and Terry Kidd, editors.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.Summary: "This book addresses the connection between human performance andinstructional technology with teaching and learning, offering innovative ideasfor instructional technology applications and elearning"--Provided bypublisher.ISBN 978-1-60566-782-9 (hardcover) -- ISBN 978-1-60566-783-6 (ebook) 1.Educational technology. 2. Performance technology. 3. Web-based instruction.4. Instructional systems--Design. I. Song, Holim. II. Kidd, Terry T.LB1028.3.H35555 2010371.3307'2--dc222009015377British Cataloguing in Publication DataA Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library.All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of theauthors, but not necessarily of the publisher.

List of ReviewersAhmed Ali, University of Wisconsin La Crosse, USABobbe Gaines Baggio, La Salle University, USABridget Sullivan, Towson University, USACarlos R. Morales, Lock Haven University, USADeepak Prem Subramony, Grand Valley State University, USADouglas L. Holton, Utah State University, USAFeng-Qi Lai, Indiana State University, USAHyo-Joo Han, Georgia Southern University, USAJozenia Torres Colorado, Emporia State University, USAJulia Thornton, RMIT University, AustraliaKaren Walsh, Consultant, USAKenneth Strang, Central Queensland University, AustraliaNicole Buzzetto-More, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, USARobert Zheng, University of Utah, USASoyoung Kim, Yonsei University, KoreaYoumei Liu, University of Houston, USAYungwei Hao, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan

List of ContributorsAltun, Arif / Hacettepe University, Turkey . 301Askar, Petek / Hacettepe University, Turkey . 301Baggio, Bobbe Gaines / La Salle University, USA . 88Blanchard, Emmanuel G. / ATLAS Laboratory, Canada . 413Borich, Gary / University of Texas at Austin, USA. 324Bowers, Clint / University of Central Florida, USA. 374Broos, Elizabeth / Netherlands Defence Academy, The Netherlands . 470University of Maryland Eastern Shore, USA . 149Cannon-Bowers, Jan / University of Central Florida, USA . 374Case, Tom / Georgia Southern University, USA . 446Casey, Des / Monash University, Australia . 310Chen, Irene / University of Houston-Downtown, USA . 119Colorado, Zeni / Emporia State University, USA . 344Crawford, Caroline M. / University of Houston – Clear Lake, USA . 43Dahl, Laura B. / University of Utah, USA . 1, 163Dick, Geoffrey / University of New South Wales, Australia . 446Dickenson, Virginia / (the famed Xenon Darrow in Second Life)eLumenata, USA. 43Dong, Chaoyan / New York University, USA . 182Eberle, Jane / Emporia State University, USA . 344Fraser, Janet / Monash University, Australia . 310Fu Lin, Chun / Minghsin University of Science & Technology, Taiwan . 131Han, Hyo-Joo / Georgia Southern University, USA . 446Hao, Yungwei / National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan . 324Holton, Douglas L. / Utah State University, USA . 485Hong, Junhee / Kyungwon University, Korea . 533Kalınyazgan, Kağan / Yuce Schools, Turkey . 301Kidd, Terry T. / Texas A&M University, USA . 119, 247Kim, Minyoung / Yonsei University, Korea . 533Kim, Soyoung / Yonsei University, Korea. 533Liu, Youmei / University of Houston, USA . 106Mauthner, Shari / University of Houston, USA. 106McDonald, Claudia L. / Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, USA . 374McLaren, Angelene / Wayne State University, USA . 210

Morales, Carlos R. / Lock Haven University, USA . 24Pekince, S. Serkan / Yuce Information Systems, Turkey. 301Santos, Antonio / Universidad de las Américas Puebla, México . 63Schwarz, Lindsay / University of Houston, USA . 106Skoric, Miroslav / University of Novi Sad, Serbia . 223Smith, Marion S. / Texas Southern University, USA . 43Strang, Kenneth David / Central Queensland University, Australia . 392Subramony, Deepak Prem / Grand Valley State University, USA. 431Sullivan, Bridget Zalewski / Towson University, USA . 284Thornton, Julia / RMIT University, Australia . 263Van Slyke, Craig / Saint Louis University, USA . 446Wager, Walter / Florida State University, USA . 505Walsh, Karen / Consultant, USA . 517Wilkes, Heidi L. / Northeastern University, USA . 357Williams, Angela / Mississippi State University, USA. 131Yang Hao, Harrison / State University of New York at Oswego, USA . 195Yu, Chien / Mississippi State University, USA . 131Yu, Wei-Chieh / Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan . 131Zheng, Robert Z. / University of Utah, USA . 1, 163

Table of ContentsPreface . xxiiAcknowledgment . xxiiSection 1Instructional and Learning Design FoundationsChapter 1An Ontological Approach to Online Instructional Design . 1Robert Z. Zheng, University of Utah, USALaura B. Dahl, University of Utah, USAChapter 2Constructivist Instructional Design: A Blueprint for Online Course Design. 24Carlos R. Morales, Lock Haven University, USAChapter 3Classroom-in-a-Box: Rethinking Learning Community Classroom EnvironmentNeeds within Three-Dimensional Virtual Learning Environments . 43Caroline M. Crawford, University of Houston – Clear Lake, USAVirginia Dickenson, (the famed Xenon Darrow in Second Life)eLumenata, USAMarion S. Smith, Texas Southern University, USAChapter 4Three Contexts Methodology: Strategies to Bring Reality to the Classroom. 63Antonio Santos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, MéxicoChapter 5Creating Supportive Multimedia Learning Environments. 88Bobbe Gaines Baggio, La Salle University, USA

Chapter 6Using CPS to Promote Active Learning. 106Youmei Liu, University of Houston, USAShari Mauthner, University of Houston, USALindsay Schwarz, University of Houston, USASection 2Instructional Technology ApplicationsChapter 7Wired for Learning—Web 2.0 for Teaching and Learning:Trends, Challenges,and Opportunities for Education. 119Irene Chen, University of Houston-Downtown, USATerry T. Kidd, Texas A&M University, USAChapter 8Revisit Planning Effective Multimedia Instructions. 131Chien Yu, Mississippi State University, USAAngela Williams, Mississippi State University, USAChun Fu Lin, Minghsin University of Science & Technology, TaiwanWei-Chieh Yu, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, TaiwanChapter 9Applications of Second Life. 149Nicole Buzzetto-More, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, USAChapter 10Using Concept Maps to Enhance Students’ Prior Knowledge in Complex Learning. 163Robert Z. Zheng, University of Utah, USALaura B. Dahl, University of Utah, USAChapter 11Interface Design, Positive Emotions and Multimedia Learning. 182Chaoyan Dong, New York University, USAChapter 12Blogging Minds on Web-Based Educational Projects. 195Harrison Hao Yang, State University of New York at Oswego, USA

Chapter 13Language Simulations for Fostering Language Acquisition and CommunicativeCompetence in Adult Second-Language Learners . 210Angelene McLaren, Wayne State University, USAChapter 14Amateur Radio in Education. 223Miroslav Skoric, University of Novi Sad, SerbiaSection 3E-LearningChapter 15My Experience Tells the Story: Exploring Technology Adoption from a QualitativePerspective - A Pilot Study . 247Terry T. Kidd, Texas A&M University, USAChapter 16Framing Pedagogy, Diminishing Technology: Teachers Experience of OnlineLearning Software . 263Julia Thornton, RMIT University, AustraliaChapter 17Online Studio Design Pedagogy: Community, Personality, Graphic Design, Usability. 284Bridget Zalewski Sullivan, Towson University, USAChapter 18Using Ontology for Personalized E-Learning in K-12 Education . 301Petek Askar, Hacettepe University, TurkeyArif Altun, Hacettepe University, TurkeyKağan Kalınyazgan, Yuce Schools, TurkeyS. Serkan Pekince, Yuce Information Systems, TurkeyChapter 19A Framework for Developing and Implementing u-Learning Models . 310Des Casey, Monash University, AustraliaJanet Fraser, Monash University, AustraliaChapter 20A Practical Guide to Evaluate Quality of Online Courses . 324Yungwei Hao, National Taiwan Normal University, TaiwanGary Borich, University of Texas at Austin, USA

Chapter 21Web Accessibility Essentials for Online Course Developers. 344Jozenia Torres Colorado, Emporia State University, USAJane H. Eberle, Emporia State University, USAChapter 22Web Accessibility Policy for Students with Disabilities in U.S. PostsecondaryDistance Education. 357Heidi L. Wilkes, Northeastern University, USAChapter 23Pulse!!: Designing Medical Learning in Virtual Reality. 374Claudia L. McDonald, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, USAJan Cannon-Bowers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USAClint Bowers, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USASection 4Sociocultural Aspects of Instructional TechnologyChapter 24Multicultural e-Education: Student Learning Style, Culture and Performance. 392Kenneth David Strang, Central Queensland University, AustraliaChapter 25Adaptation-Oriented Culturally-Aware Tutoring Systems: When AdaptiveInstructional Technologies Meet Intercultural Education. 413Emmanuel G. Blanchard, ATLAS Laboratory, CanadaChapter 26Asian American Perspectives on Education and Technology. 431Deepak Prem Subramony, Grand Valley State University, USASection 5Human PerformanceChapter 27Key Capabilities, Components, and Evolutionary Trends in Corporate E-Learning Systems. 446Hyo-Joo Han, Georgia Southern University, USAGeoffrey Dick, University of New South Wales, AustraliaTom Case, Georgia Southern University, USACraig Van Slyke, Saint Louis University, USA

Chapter 28Developing a Model for Information Society Competencies Required by Managersin the Information Society . 470Elizabeth Broos, Netherlands Defence Academy, The NetherlandsChapter 29How People Learn with Computer Simulations . 485Douglas L. Holton, Utah State University, USAChapter 30The MORE Model for Faculty Development . 505Walter Wager, Florida State University, USAChapter 31Object-Oriented Faculty Development: Training Teachers with Learning Objects . 517Karen Walsh, Consultant, USAChapter 32Integrated Design of Web-Platform, Offline Supports, and Evaluation Systemfor the Successful Implementation of University 2.0 . 533Soyoung Kim, Yonsei University, KoreaMinyoung Kim, Yonsei University, KoreaJunhee Hong, Kyungwon University, KoreaCompilation of References . 552About the Contributors . 608Index . 618

Detailed Table of ContentsPreface . xxiiAcknowledgment . xxiiSection 1Instructional and Learning Design FoundationsThis section presents the concepts and applications of instructional design to the real classroom. In addition,this section discusses key features in designing learning environments and strategies to incorporateeffective instructional design models into designing a technology rich learning environment.Chapter 1An Ontological Approach to Online Instructional Design . 1Robert Z. Zheng, University of Utah, USALaura B. Dahl, University of Utah, USAThis chapter introduces the ontological instructional design as an alternative to the traditional instructionaldesign in teaching and learning. By comparing the differences between traditional instructional designand e-Learning, the authors suggest that instructional design in e-Learning require a different modelthan the existing traditional models due to the idiosyncratic nature of e-Learning in terms of population,environment, and resources.Chapter 2Constructivist Instructional Design: A Blueprint for Online Course Design. 24Carlos R. Morales, Lock Haven University, USAWith the continuous growth of online learning in higher education, the need to design course materialsthat capitalize and leverage on the richness of the Internet and learning technologies has taken on newdimensions. This chapter explores constructivist theory paired with instructional design models to designlearning environments that apply content to real-life situations.

Chapter 3Classroom-in-a-Box: Rethinking Learning Community Classroom EnvironmentNeeds within Three-Dimensional Virtual Learning Environments . 43Caroline M. Crawford, University of Houston – Clear Lake, USAVirginia Dickenson, (the famed Xenon Darrow in Second Life)eLumenata, USAMarion S. Smith, Texas Southern University, USAThis discussion focuses upon a theoretical understanding of the instructional architecture that supportslearning communities within three-dimensional virtual world environments; specifically, within theSecond Life world environment. This theoretical understanding provides the essential link between instructional imperatives, performance improvement and a community of learning within an instructionaltechnology framework. Motivated by the shift from the Information Age known for the availabilityof information towards the Cognitive Age which emphasizes the ability to access, evaluate, organize,comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize and innovatively represent information into an enhanced understanding and novel use, this discussion offers the opportunity to directly address the learner’s needswithin the three-dimensional virtual learning environment, such as Second Life, through the design ofa virtual learning environment classroom-in-a-box.Chapter 4Three Contexts Methodology: Strategies to Bring Reality to the Classroom. 63Antonio Santos, Universidad de las Américas Puebla, MéxicoThe main objective of this manuscript is to propose a methodology called the Three Contexts Methodology based in the situated learning paradigm. It attempts to integrate three contexts related to the processof learning: 1) the context of the community of professional practice that created the content; 2) theschool classroom; and 3) the context in which what is learned is going to be applied. Through this the3CM strives to improve learning transfer and the integration of technology.Chapter 5Creating Supportive Multimedia Learning Environments. 88Bobbe Gaines Baggio, La Salle University, USAThis chapter explores strategies for developing effective multimedia instruction should be based onevidence presented by cognitive science and backed by research. Unless guided by instructional designprinciples, multimedia learning products run the risk of being unusual and entertaining but not effective.Chapter 6Using CPS to Promote Active Learning . 106Youmei Liu, University of Houston, USAShari Mauthner, University of Houston, USALindsay Schwarz, University of Houston, USA

This chapter discusses the integration of the Classroom Performance System (CPS), and will cover threeaspects: 1) incorporating CPS based on active learning theory, 2) discussing student positive feedback onCPS use experiences, and 3) sharing CPS best practice with other educators to promote active learningfrom teaching, design and administration perspectives.Section 2Instructional Technology ApplicationsThis section includes contributions that address innovative technology interventions to solve educationalrelated problems in curriculum and in instruction. Not only does this section speak toward how to usetechnology in the teaching and learning process, it also address key issues in implementation, projectmanagement, and diffusion. Also present in this section are examples and strategies on how to usecertain technologies to promote active learning. This collection of articles should be required readingfor anyone planning to infuse technology into their teaching and learning practices.Chapter 7Wired for Learning—Web 2.0 for Teaching and Learning:Trends, Challenges,and Opportunities for Education . 119Irene Chen, University of Houston-Downtown, USATerry T. Kidd, Texas A&M University, USAWeb 2.0 refers to the recent expansion of the Web. This expansion can be thought of as a new layer on topof the Web and refers to the ways the platform, the Web, is used. Previously, World Wide Web sites wererelatively static sites and provided the user information. This chapter will focus on the second generationof Web tools that allow for communication tools, interaction with media and humans, and collaborationand sharing. Web 2.0 tools allow users to create online content--they are writing to the Web.Chapter 8Revisit Planning Effective Multimedia Instructions . 131Chien Yu, Mississippi State University, USAAngela Williams, Mississippi State University, USAChun Fu Lin, Minghsin University of Science & Technology, TaiwanWei-Chieh Yu, Chang Gung Institute of Technology, TaiwanThe effective use of pedagogical design principles with appropriate multimedia can permit greater individualization, which in turn fosters improved learning, greater learner satisfaction, and higher retentionrates. This chapter reviews the trends and issues of today’s multimedia education, and attempts to providestrategies and guidelines for planning multimedia instruction.Chapter 9Applications of Second Life . 149Nicole Buzzetto-More, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, USA

The following chapter will provide readers with a better understanding of Second Life; the applicationsand implications of Second Life for teaching, learning, and professional development training; projectexamples; best practices; a model for the development of education and/or training projects in SecondLife; pitfalls and potential problems; how Second Life can offer a linkage between education, professional development training, and organizational development; and future directions for Second Life.Chapter 10Using Concept Maps to Enhance Students’ Prior Knowledge in Complex Learning. 163Robert Z. Zheng, University of Utah, USALaura B. Dahl, University of Utah, USAAs an instructional tool, concept map has been widely used to teach complex subjects in schools. Researchsuggests that concept mapping can help bridge learners’ prior knowledge with new learning, reducethe cognitive load involved in learning and improve comprehension, content retention, and knowledgetransfer. Existing literature focuses on cognitive features, cognitive styles and differences between instructor provided and student generated concepts. However, little is known about the effects of conceptmaps as a cognitive tool to influence learners’ learning, specifically before and after the learning takesplace. This chapter offers a discussion of general research in concept mapping and theories that supportsuch instruction.Chapter 11Interface Design, Positive Emotions and Multimedia Learning. 182Chaoyan Dong, New York University, USAResearch in multimedia learning has not yet been sufficiently investigated. In this chapter, the authorproposes that attractive interface design does indeed promote multimedia learning. This hypothesis isbased on the review of the following theories and related empirical studies: 1) an interface impacts auser’s experience; 2) beautiful interfaces induce positive emotions; 3) positive emotions broaden cognitiveresources; and 4) expanded cognitive resources promote learning. The Model of Emotional Design inMultimedia Learning is proposed to highlight how emotions regulate multimedia learning. Suggestionsregarding designing attractive interfaces are provided.Chapter 12Blogging Minds on Web-Based Educational Projects. 195Harrison Hao Yang, State University of New York at Oswego, USAThis chapter examines issues and problems of typical Web-based educational projects as gleaned fromthe literature. It then reveals the potentials and advantages of the Weblog for enhancing those existingWeb-based educational projects. It also proposes a new framework which integrates the Weblog as ameans for Web-based educational project design, development, and implementation. Finally, a case studyis presented which incorporated Weblogs in a specific Web-based educational project - the developmentof a professional portfolio.

Chapter 13Language Simulations for Fostering Language Acquisition and CommunicativeCompetence in Adult Second-Language Learners . 210Angelene McLaren, Wayne State University, USAThis change requires finding effective ways to facilitate this paradigm shift. This chapter will try to answer question: Can language simulations foster language acquisition and communicative competence inadult second-language learners? It will also explore: what language acquisition is and how it is obtained;theoretical foundations of language acquisition; learning simulations and what makes them effective;language simulations – how and why they work; what simulations can do to promote communicativecompetence; a practical example; future applications and importance of language simulations; and whatfuture research is necessary to fulfill this promise.Chapter 14Amateur Radio in Education. 223Miroslav Skoric, University of Novi Sad, SerbiaThe intention of this chapter is to increase capacities in educators for using computer and communicationtechnologies; to help them to acquire systematic knowledge in basic computer networking and communicating with their peers, other

List of Reviewers Ahmed Ali, University of Wisconsin La Crosse, USA Bobbe Gaines Baggio, La Salle University, USA Bridget Sullivan, Towson University, USA Carlos R. Morales, Lock Haven University, USA Deepak Prem Subramony, Grand Valley State University, USA Douglas L. Holton, Utah State University, USA Feng-Qi Lai, Indiana State University, USA Hyo-Joo Han, Georgia Southern University, USA

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