OVERFISHED AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE - International Coral Reef .

2y ago
14 Views
2 Downloads
2.45 MB
23 Pages
Last View : 17d ago
Last Download : 6m ago
Upload by : Gideon Hoey
Transcription

LIVE REEFFOOD R CHANGESadovy de Mitcheson, Y. 2019.The Live Reef Food Fish Trade; Undervalued, Overfished and Opportunities for Change.International Coral Reef Initiative.44 pages.Cover photo: «Camouflage grouper, Epinephelus polyphekadion, in a protectedspawning aggregation. These are their only mating opportunities and many aggregationsare now declining due to overfishing. This threatened species is valued in the live fishtrade» / Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson.Sadly, it has become widely recognizedthat “Much of Southeast Asia’s economicsuccess is based on the under-pricedexport of valuable natural resources.Nowhere is this more evident than infisheries”(Mulekom et al. 2006)The live reef food fish trade is a, if not the,prime example.Time to change that!2ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. SadovyICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. Sadovy3

EXECUTIVESUMMARYBackgroundThe international live reef food fish trade (LRFFT) startedover 4 decades ago. In the 1970s it emerged and overthe following decades grew in volume and geographicextent across the Indo-Pacific region in response torising interest in live seafood and increasing wealth. Thegrowth was largely in response to demand according toa culinary tradition of southern China in which food iskept alive until immediately before cooking. The trade inreef fish is small by global fishery standards, estimatedto be in the order of 20,000-30,000 metric tonnes (t),annually (after accounting for underreporting), butit is disproportionately valuable because it suppliesa luxury restaurant market in which retail values perfish or kg charged can be extremely high. The annualretail value of live seafood is estimated to exceed US 1billion, with wild fish far more valuable than culturedfish and sometimes attaining many hundreds of USDper kg or per fish at retail (Sadovy de Mitcheson et al.,2017). To put this live fish trade in the broader contextof the regional seafood trade in Southeast Asia, a majorconsumption region globally, when both live and deadreef fish, are included, the average annual productionfor 2008-2012 was about 90,000 t (Klinsukhon 2014).There is also an additional invertebrate componentwhich is not considered here. This puts the live fishtrade at between roughly a quarter and a third of all reeffish trade in the region.4ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. SadovyTwenty years ago ICRI Partners set a goal to reduceadverse ecological and socio-economic impactsof trade in coral and coral reef species, eliminateunsustainable fishing practices and protect coral reefsand related ecosystems. They also recognized thatinternational trade in corals and coral reef species iscontributing to stresses on these systems includingfrom extraction for, inter alia, the LRFFT, and is alsoassociated with destructive fishing practices. Thecurrent study recognizes the ongoing need to focuson sustainability in coral reef systems in general, andthe LRFFT in particular, and arose as an initiative of theformer Fishery Minister of Indonesia, Susi Pudjiastuti,with ICRI. This report recognizes that most of theearlier long-term targets to manage this trade havenot yet been addressed, generates a profile of the tradetoday and identifies drivers for ongoing problems andopportunities for positive change. The report recognizesthat much of the high worth of the lucrative live reefexport trade is leaving source countries undeclared(in terms of value), or unrecognized and much maybe sometimes under-reported (in terms of volume).Unchecked, the trade leaves behind it a trail of overfishedresources with long-term negative implications forlocal fisheries, reefs and fishing communities.ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. Sadovy5

The StudyThis study focused on groupers and on the wild capturefishery aspect of the LRFFT, which accounts for almostall the species in trade and a significant proportion of thevolume. The trade also includes a growing proportion ofhatchery-reared fish. The wild capture part of the trade,however, is particularly important because of concernsover biological sustainability, degraded fisheries, andthreats to several species (four species in trade areconsidered to be threatened), to spawning aggregations(see cover photo) from overfishing, and to damage toreefs from destructive fishing and loss of important hightrophic levels predators, amongst other concerns. Themost highly valued species today (per unit fish) includethe leopard coral trout, P. leopardus, and the Napoleonwrasse, Cheilinus undulatus.The study was conducted using questionnaires sent toICRI members and supplemented by literature review,personal communications and databases. It developsan overview of the trade as currently practiced,participating countries, volumes, values and species,fishing gears used, management in place and neededand other related issues. It also identifies the need formanagement of several elements of the trade chainto bring activities under control and to improve theeconomic value gained by source countries withoutfurther compromising the resources. Study findings arebriefly summarized as follows.The LRFFT today mainly operates out of Indonesia,followed by the Philippines and Malaysia, with lowervolumes of exports of wild fish also coming fromAustralia and the Maldives and a few other countries.Indonesia is the biggest exporter of groupers overall,whether wild, live or chilled, or cultured. Thailand andTaiwan also export live fish but these are mostly orheavily from hatchery production. Although live groupersare the major target group, by value and volume, otherreef fishes are also involved in small volumes annuallyless than 100-200 t; wrasses, parrotfish, snappers,and emperors, among others. The leopard coral troutis currently the single most important wild sourcedspecies, by volume, as well as being particularlyvaluable. While a growing proportion of the trade iscomprised of hatchery-produced fish, this is not likelyto reduce pressure on wild-captured fish because theseare the highest in value and the most important forfishers (see Box ‘The mariculture myth’).Key findings highlight several ongoing and someemerging concerns around the exploitation of reefresources, including overfishing, illegal, unregulated andunmonitored fishing and trade, and threats to several6ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. SadovyThe Mariculture Myth and some Truthsspecies and to coral habitat. Most major exporters(Australia excluded) may not fully recognize thepotentially higher value that live reef resources couldbring to their country than they do today. This is becauseof sparse documentation of volumes and values and isassociated with opaqueness in export trade chains.For example, under-declaring by exporters, by at least3 to 5 times the correct estimated export value pertonne substantially reduces potential income to sourcecountries. Limited declaring of exports and imports (forexample by Hong Kong-registered vessels) obscuresthe true value, volume and composition of the trade. Alimited understanding of correct species identificationand of the large price differentials among species onthe part of fishery or enforcement officers or othergovernment officials, means that such irregularitiesgo undetected or overlooked. Chilled/frozen reef fishhave become more acceptable to consumers in China,and demand for these is rapidly increasing elsewherewhich will put further pressures on reefs. Dead fish areexported to a larger number of countries than live foodfish according to questionnaire responses.Given ongoing concerns, it is promising and encouragingthat some progress has been made over the last twodecades and several examples now show what canbe achieved in LRFFT management. Australia hassuccessfully sustained its leopard coral trout fisheryby management; Australia monitors its exports andcapture, the Maldives carries out some monitoring andthere are laws for size limits that are species-specificin the Maldives, Australia and the Philippines, althoughthe level of enforcement is not known for the Maldivesand the Philippines. Gear controls in many countriesprohibit the use of cyanide or compressed air forfishing although enforcement trails regulation. A majorIndonesian trader has implemented his own minimumsize limits and demonstrated that this is feasible froma business perspective. He also monitors catcheswhich provides important insight into species-specifictrends over time. The Philippines, Maldives, Indonesiaand Australia have some seasonal and/or spatialprotection of spawning aggregations either in place or(for the Maldives) planned. The CITES-listed Napoleonwrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, receives some protectionin the only legal exporter country (Indonesia) althoughabundance of the species remains low in the country;both Indonesia and the Philippines have National Plansof Action for the species. Finally, many guidelines,methodologies, studies, best practice guides andprotocols now exist for data-poor fisheries and to guidecomplex multi-species fishery management.During the course of this project it was several times suggested or implied that since mariculture willultimately solve the supply of groupers for the live fish trade (and other seafood demands), it is not soimportant to commit heavily to managing these natural resources. This perspective is seriously misplacedfor several reasons: (1) mariculture does not address the main driver of overfishing which is too muchfishing effort. When mariculture starts or increases, fishing does not decrease, both are done and fishingpressure can actually increase (see item (4); (2) since fishermen need to fish and most fishermen will notbe culturists, natural wild populations need to be sustained long into the future from human welfare andequity perspectives, (3) in the LRFFT most species are wild-caught and only a few (about 4) are regularlyhatchery-produced; (4) much of what is classified as ‘cultured or ranched fish’ today actually involves thecapture and grow-out of juvenile wild groupers – this is still a fishing activity that needs to be managed asit adds fishing pressure and removes many fish before they can reproduce; (5) many consumers want tocontinue eating wild fish which are often considered more tasty and safer, and (6) wild-only sourced fishare the most highly valued economically and yield the best profit margins to traders. Since some desirablespecies may get higher prices the rarer they are, even when a species is threatened or very uncommon,there will still be interest to find, capture and trade it.In the LRFFT almost all species and very approximately 50% of the production comes from the wild (seeTable 1). Although hatchery production is increasing for a few species, the wild-caught component willcontinue to be important for the trade and for the region’s fishers. These species, particularly the vulnerablegrouper species and Napoleon wrasse, will need careful management by the governments of countriesexporting LRFF.Also on the positive side, multiple international andregional commitments and promises have been madewithin the last decade, or so, directly or indirectlyrelevant to the LRFT and provide excellent guidanceand agendas. These now need to be fulfilled, honouredand advanced. Among the most important regionalinitiatives are the SEAFDEC vision for sustainablemanagement and development of fisheries andaquaculture to contribute to food security, povertyalleviation and livelihoods for people in the SoutheastAsian region, and the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI)on coral reefs, fisheries and food which has yet to beimplemented. The CITES listing of the Napoleon wrassehelped to better control the trade in this species andmay have slowed declines. Attention to reef-associatedresources is growing with the noteworthy formalizationof collaboration between the CTI and SEAFDEC thatincludes strong biological sustainability componentsand multi-government, multi-stakeholder engagement.Figure 1. Variety of species in the LRFFT; mainly groupers but the Napoleon fish (upper left) is one of the highest value species.Species traded are a mixture of wild-caught and cultured fish. Photos show fish (at least 6 species, most wild-caught) on displayfor customers to select just prior to preparation in a Hong Kong restaurant.ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. Sadovy7

Challenges, Recommendationsand OpportunitiesThe outcomes of this and other studies on reef fisheriesappear to converge on seven actions, ideally developedin parallel, that are achievable, and have precedentsor available materials that can provide guidance andsupport. Fishery Management Plans (FMPs) relevant tothe LRFFT are already variously developed, for example,in the Philippines and Australia, or being planned (theMaldives), while Indonesia has management plans forlobster and swimming crab, that could perhaps be usedas reference, although not for reef fishes. Certification/traceability practices are increasing with some retailersin Hong Kong keen to access certified luxury seafood butlargely unable to due to opaque trade structure and lackof traceability along the trade chain. Source countriesare becoming more interested in certification initiatives,improving traceability or in Fishery ImprovementProjects.The crux of the matter, then, is that dedicated governmentaction, political will and commitment, at the highestlevels, is needed by the major LRFFT exporting countries,to address commitments and obligations already madeat regional and international levels as well as to developor strengthen the necessary national level regulations.Such measures could also make significant progresstowards ensuring the long-term health and value ofreef fisheries, and safeguarding reef ecosystems andthe many important benefits these generate. Ten issuesand 7 key recommendations are identified in this reportto move the LRFT towards a more sustainable footing,improve transparency, protect reefs and retain themany priceless benefits of reef ecosystems to sourcecountries. Several assumptions that may be impedingprogress may need to be considered.Undervalued and OverfishedIt is undisputed that reef-associated fisheries play acrucial role for millions of small-scale fishers aroundthe world for income and food security and are ofcritical importance in Asia (Teh et al., 2013). Yet,while there is increasing focus on understanding theimportance of coral reef habitat and reef ecosystems,including in relation to climate change and from theperspective of coral reef habitat conservation, far lessattention is being paid to the state of the coral reef fishand invertebrate populations of reef ecosystems andthe fisheries these support. While fish need healthy reefhabitat to survive and preservation of coral habitat isessential, it is also the case that the main value of coralreefs to most fisheries and to millions of people aroundthe tropics is the food and income they generate, callingfor improved management. Governments to honour and advance existingcontrol of coral reef fisheries and trade to withinbiologically sustainable levels. A Coral Reef FisheryManagement Plan could focus primarily on longerterm benefits of fishery resources to coastal fishercommunities, for food and livelihoods.The history of the LRFFT from the 1980s or so to thepresent is depicted in the infographic. It shows howforeign traders working with local partners typicallyenter an area, fish for or initially purchase preferredspecies and sizes for live export and may move on asresources dwindle. The various possible stages of thisprocess have occurred in several countries and may Establishclear operational, regulatory andadministrative distinctions between hatchery-basedmariculture and wild capture fisheries in termsof objectives and management and specificallyrecognize juvenile capture as a wild capture fishery. Reduce/eliminateillegal,unregulatedandunmonitored fishing and trade by better monitoringand controlling exports conducted at airports, the useof cyanide and particularly the activities of foreign8ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. Sadovyhave different time-sequences or durations (e.g. Fiji,Indonesia, the Philippines, Maldives, Palau, Solomon Is.,Papua New Guinea, Malaysia, among others). Trendsare moving towards the right hand side of the graph andwill continue to do so without management as demandrises for live and especially dead fish.HISTORY OF THE LIVE REEF FOOD-FISH TRADEHISTORY OF THE LIVE REEF FOOD-FISH TRADETraditional reef fisheries catch multiple species/sizesfor food and income; dead/fresh/salted.Live export commences of favoured species/sizes; good income andcommunity benefits prompt fishers to keep fish alive with some adoptingdamaging gear (esp. cyanide). Corruption of officials/leaders common.Grouper andNapoleonCatches(tonnes)Traders take more control; indebtedness may occurand fishers with limited power over asking prices.Catches decline. Juveniles may be increasingly retainedor targeted for grow-out to market size. Spawning aggregationsmay be increasingly targeted/overfished.1980s1990sMarket-sized fish decline, fishing intensifies, wider sourcingto maintain catches, reef damage from cyanide,some abandonment of fishing grounds by traders.vessels. Ensure that export values and volumes arecorrectly reported.Countries recognize overexploitation and cease live exports,or manage fishery, or ignore problems. Ensure protection of spawning biomass of keytarget/threatened species by safeguarding juveniles(minimum sizes) and/or managing juvenilefisheries (e.g. for grow-out). Spawning aggregationmanagement will be necessary for some species,and all threatened species need better protection.the growth in chilled fish trade will help diversificationand reduce controls by and risks from having a singlemajor export market.History of the LRFFTRecommendations for actionat national and regional levels Improve government understanding, oversight and Reduce heavy dependence on single export markets;agreements and commitments made both regionallyand internationally, such as those under CBD, CITES,SEAFDEC-CTI (especially the 2015 MoU Tables 3 & 4).Inter-government cooperation and communicationcould help to standardize and share practicesand address IUU fishing and sustainability issues,amongst 000sFuturewithoutmanagementRegulations may be introduced or strengthenedbut can be influenced by business interests or notenforced. Chilled fish become more acceptable.As favoured wild fish decline, targeted species maychange or become threatened; retail prices rise with fishscarcity but fishers may not benefit. Develop certification and/or traceability systems byestablishing closer links with consumer centres, andanalyzing trade chains. Consider the introduction ofexport duties/tariffs for luxury seafood. Value chainanalysis would help to identify opportunities to retainvalue in-country.Larger fishesSmaller and fewer fishesICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. Sadovy9

INTRODUCTIONInternational trade in live seafood took off in the 1980sand by the mid-1990s concerns were being raisedabout elements of it considered to be destructive,illegal, unregulated and undocumented leading todamage to coral habitat and heavy fishing in someareas (Johannes and Riepen 1995). There have alsolong been concerns about corruption and unduepolitical influence associated with traders seeking newsources, gaining access to community fishing groundsor compromising fishery regulations in their favour (e.g.case study, Lowe 2002). As more attention was paid tothis trade, other workers also documented overfishing,illegal trade, destructive fishing (particularly the use ofcyanide which was typically supplied to fishers by trader/exporters, and the use of explosives to catch reef fish tofeed cultured fish) and corruption. The recognition thatmany of the fish involved in the trade had life historiesthat make them easy to overfish was also recognizedearly highlighting the need for management (e.g. Lauand Parry-Jones 1999; Sadovy et al., 2003). See aboveInfographic for approximate timelines of the LRFFT.As a result of these concerns projects were initiated toimprove fishing and mariculture practices, documentthe trade and seek ways to address possible threatsto species and habitats. Workshops were held andstandards of good practice developed. In 2009 (seededin 2007) the Coral Triangle Initiative was launched, inrecognition of a critical need to safeguard the region’smarine and coastal resources, as a cross-governmentalgrouping in association with major NGOs and others.Many publications were produced to summarize thetrade as well as the experiences of many countries thatopted to enter the trade in the 1990s and early 2000sand allow exports of live fish. This history is quite welldocumented in a range of reports and publicationsincluding issues of Live Reef Fish Bulletin (as of 1996)of the Secretariat for the Pacific Community and variousreviews among many others (e.g. Muldoon et al., 2009;Klinsukhon 2014; Sadovy de Mitcheson et al. 2017).The government of Hong Kong (Customs and StatisticsDepartment) introduced several harmonized codesfor trade declarations of the most frequently tradedspecies. The government (Agriculture Fisheries andConservation Department) also developed an informalsystem to collect data from some (it is a voluntarysystem) Hong Kong-registered vessels which, atthe time, did not have to declare their imports to thegovernment (that changed in 2009). These initiativeshave proven very useful for documenting a substantialproportion of the total LRFFT trade, with species-leveldata for the key species, and occasional updates toincorporate changes, such as the introduction of hybridgrouper in 2016. Data can be assessed according tomode of transport (sea or air).Today, two decades on and despite multiple initiativesundertaken, workshops and forums conducted,trade documented and ongoing concerns raisedby intergovernmental agencies, non-governmentalorganizations (NGOs), aid agencies, academics, andin an extensive literature, many of the same problemspersist, some have worsened and solutions to move theindustry in a more sustainably practiced direction seemlittle nearer. Overfishing appears to be more widespreadas traders move into ever-new fishing grounds, demandfor exports is growing to supply an expanding andwealthier consumer base, several more species are nowconsidered to be threatened, partly due to the trade andthe loss of their spawning aggregations, cyanide fishingpersists, spawning aggregations may be disappearing,juveniles are increasingly the target of fishing (usuallycaptured to grow to adult size in the absence ofsufficient adults), and illegal practices continue largelyunabated in several exporting countries. The role offoreign vessels in illegal trade is particularly highlighted(Sadovy de Mitcheson et al., 2017). The gaps betweenpolicies and practice around the control of the trade canalso be large (Fabinyi and Dalabajan 2011).The trade supplies a growing demand for live seafood andoften involves a complex and sometimes opaque tradechain. While there are economic benefits associatedwith this trade for many people along this chain, fromreef to restaurant, the trade undeniably has a murky sidewith most accrual of benefits occurring downstreamrather than within source countries. If source areas donot recognize the value or the trade or cannot benefitsubstantially there may be little incentive to considermanaging exploited populations.While mariculture (hatchery-production) is producingan ever-larger percentage of live groupers for theLRFFT, interest in wild-caught fish remains high for theirperceived safety and taste qualities, while the majorityof species in the trade, including all those that are mostvaluable economically, are wild-sourced. Wild fishpopulations and healthy coral reef ecosystems are alsoimportant for fishing communities across the region.Fishes in the LRFFT and theirimportance for coral reefecosystemsThe LRFFT mainly targets groupers (familyEpinephelidae), with much smaller volumes of othercoral reef fish species of wrasses and parrotfishes(Labridae), particularly the Napoleon wrasse andsnappers (Lutjanidae) among several others of 100-200t at most, annually (Bloom Association 2017; Sadovyde Mitcheson et al., 2017) (Fig. 1, 2). These taxa areimportant for coral reef ecosystems and the benefitsthat humans derive from reef systems. The groupers,for example, are top-level reef fish predators and animportant part of the biomass and biodiversity of coralreefs and, as such, may help keep reef ecosystems inbiological balance. Because of their life histories (longlife, slow maturation, aggregation-spawning, slowreproduction rates) many groupers and the Napoleonwrasse are easy to overfish. On the other hand, one ofthe most popular species, P. leopardus, is relatively fastgrowing and early maturing suggesting it can sustaingreater pressure than some of the other groupers traded.Loss from heavy removals of large volumes of reefpredators, like groupers, is of concern not only forfishing communities but also for reef ecosystems. Interms of biomass, groupers count among the largerspecies in reef fish assemblages and, at natural levels,can occur in significant numbers in reef environments(Craig et al. 2011). Groupers are apex predators likelyto be important in shaping coral reef assemblagesbecause the top-down effect of grouper predation couldinfluence community structure in highly diverse systems(Bellwood et al. 2004, Boaden and Kingsford 2015).Figure 2. New, valuable, species becoming prominent in the live fish trade include the tomato hind I (two reddish fish on leftof photo) Cephalopholis sonnerati. The light colour/brownish species with blue dots (two fish lower and left) is Plectropomusareolatus. Photo: Stanley Shea.10ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. SadovyICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade - Y. Sadovy11

Predators can influence lower trophic levels throughtheir interactions with prey, helping to preserve topdown trophic interactions in ecological systems (e.g.Ruttenberg et al. 2011, Walsh et al. 2012, Boadenand Kingsford 2015). Their loss, or reduction in theirbiomass, can affect reef ecosystems, both directlyand indirectly (e.g. Thrush 1999, Heithaus et al. 2008).Specific examples range from an inverse relationbetween grouper density and that of the coral-eating,crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, in Fiji, withreduction of predators by fishing correlated to higherdensities of the starfish, which, in turn, can damageliving coral (Dulvy et al. 2004). The Napoleon wrasseis one of the few predators to feed on crown of thornsstarfish, a species that can devastate coral reefs whenpopulations explode (Randall et al. 1978).In addition to reduced abundances of groupers andNapoleon fish taken for the LRFFT, four species are nowthreatened according to the categories and criteria usedfor assessing species for the IUCN Red List (Sadovy deMitcheson et al., 2020), while several fishing methodscan degrade coral reef habitat. Threatened species(IUCN Red List Vulnerable category) include severalspecies important in the trade. E. fuscoguttatus, E.polyphekadion and P. areolatus. The endangeredNapoleon wrasse was listed on the Convention onInternational Trade in Endangered Species of Flora andFauna (CITES) Appendix II in 2004 largely as a resultof the LRFFT. Damage to living corals can be causedin areas where the poison cyanide is repeatedly used(Jones et al. 1999). Explosives are used to catch reef fishused as food for groupers held in captivity as they wait tobe exported or during many months, sometimes years,of grow-out of small fish to market size, Multiple reportsand assessments have been produced over many yearsby many workers on the trade or for species assessmentsfrom Indonesia, Maldives, the Philippines, Australiaand by international bodies (e.g. Koeshendrajana andHartono, 2006; Fabinyi and Dalabajan 2011; Sattar et al.2012; 2014; Frisch et al., 2016; USAID 2013; Khasanahet al., 2020).In light of ongoing sustainability concerns, the focusof the present study is on the wild-capture componentof the Asian-based LRFFT, in terms of volumes, values,impacts, practices opportunities and challenges formajor source countries. The impacts of internationaltrade on coral reef ecosystems were recognized by ICRIover 20 years ago and the current initiative reflects theongoing interest and concerns around the trade for reefecosystems.In recognition of the ongoing problem with the LRFFTand its implications for coral reef ecosystems andrecalling the 33rd International Coral Reef Initiative(ICRI) Meeting adopted Plan of Action 2018 – 2020 tothis study seeks: Improve understanding of the LRFFT by, collectinginformation on the extent and impacts of the LRFFTon coral reef species and ecosystems, includingcompiling a list of species impacted by the LRFFT,particularly in Southeast Asia, and collectinginformation on the socio-economic impacts of theLRFFT. Improve management measures related to the LRFFTbased on an understanding of existing measures andcollecting information on management measuresbeing used to address the LRFFT, including the roleof species and habitat protection and MPAs. Compile policies that address illegal trade in reeffish, including existing policies to combat the illegalextraction of and trade in other fauna and flora, witha particular emphasis on marine species, in order toidentify where ICRI can contribute to and improve themanagement of LRFFT.The present study was designedto address the following specificobjectives: Develop an understanding of the live fish export tradeat the national level (with some coverage of dead reeffish); Provide a summary of internati

4 ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade Y Sadovy ICRI Report 2019 Live Reef Food Fish Trade Y Sadovy 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The international live reef food fish trade (LRFFT) started . reef fish is small by global fishery standards, estimated to be in the order of 20,000-30,000 metric tonnes (t), . Australia and the Maldives and a few .

Related Documents:

Bruksanvisning för bilstereo . Bruksanvisning for bilstereo . Instrukcja obsługi samochodowego odtwarzacza stereo . Operating Instructions for Car Stereo . 610-104 . SV . Bruksanvisning i original

10 tips och tricks för att lyckas med ert sap-projekt 20 SAPSANYTT 2/2015 De flesta projektledare känner säkert till Cobb’s paradox. Martin Cobb verkade som CIO för sekretariatet för Treasury Board of Canada 1995 då han ställde frågan

service i Norge och Finland drivs inom ramen för ett enskilt företag (NRK. 1 och Yleisradio), fin ns det i Sverige tre: Ett för tv (Sveriges Television , SVT ), ett för radio (Sveriges Radio , SR ) och ett för utbildnings program (Sveriges Utbildningsradio, UR, vilket till följd av sin begränsade storlek inte återfinns bland de 25 största

Hotell För hotell anges de tre klasserna A/B, C och D. Det betyder att den "normala" standarden C är acceptabel men att motiven för en högre standard är starka. Ljudklass C motsvarar de tidigare normkraven för hotell, ljudklass A/B motsvarar kraven för moderna hotell med hög standard och ljudklass D kan användas vid

LÄS NOGGRANT FÖLJANDE VILLKOR FÖR APPLE DEVELOPER PROGRAM LICENCE . Apple Developer Program License Agreement Syfte Du vill använda Apple-mjukvara (enligt definitionen nedan) för att utveckla en eller flera Applikationer (enligt definitionen nedan) för Apple-märkta produkter. . Applikationer som utvecklas för iOS-produkter, Apple .

Table A. Summary of Stock Status for FSSI Stocks 1 Jurisdiction FMP. Stock Overfishing: Overfished Approaching Overfished: Rebuilding Program . Brown shrimp - Gulf of Mexico; No No; No NA; 10.34 4; GMFMC Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of . Management Area Arrowtooth flounder - Bering Sea / Aleutian Islands No; No No; NA 2.57; 4 NPFMC;

This presentation and SAP's strategy and possible future developments are subject to change and may be changed by SAP at any time for any reason without notice. This document is 7 provided without a warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a .

och krav. Maskinerna skriver ut upp till fyra tum breda etiketter med direkt termoteknik och termotransferteknik och är lämpliga för en lång rad användningsområden på vertikala marknader. TD-seriens professionella etikettskrivare för . skrivbordet. Brothers nya avancerade 4-tums etikettskrivare för skrivbordet är effektiva och enkla att