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FAST FACTSLong-Chain Fatty AcidOxidation DisordersBarbara K Burton and Anne DalyUnderstand, identify and support S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

FAST FACTSLong-Chain Fatty Acid OxidationDisordersBarbara K Burton MDProfessor of Pediatrics(Genetics, Birth Defects, and Metabolism)Ann & Robert H Lurie Children’s Hospital of ChicagoChicago, IllinoisUSAAnne Daly MScSpecialist Metabolic DietitianDepartments of Dietetics andInherited Metabolic DisordersBirmingham Children’s HospitalBirmingham, UKDeclaration of IndependenceThis book is as balanced and as practical as we can make it.Ideas for improvement are always welcome: fastfacts@karger.com S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation DisordersFirst published 2021Text 2021 Barbara K Burton, Anne Daly 2021 in this edition S. Karger Publishers LtdS. Karger Publishers Ltd, Elizabeth House, Queen Street,Abingdon, Oxford OX14 3LN, UK; Tel: 44 (0)1235 523233Book orders can be placed by telephone or email, or via the website.Please telephone 41 61 306 1440 or email orders@karger.comTo order via the website, please go to karger.comFast Facts is a trademark of S. Karger Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the expresspermission of the publisher.The rights of Barbara K Burton and Anne Daly to be identified as the authorsof this work have been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs &Patents Act 1988 Sections 77 and 78.The publisher and the authors have made every effort to ensurethe accuracy of this book, but cannot accept responsibility for anyerrors or omissions.For all drugs, please consult the product labeling approved in yourcountry for prescribing information.Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not markedas such, are not to be considered unprotected by law.A CIP record for this title is available from the British Library.ISBN 978-3-318-06830-6Burton B (Barbara)Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders/Barbara K Burton, Anne DalyTypesetting by Amnet, Chennai, India.Printed in the UK with Xpedient Print.Cover image: a colored transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of amitochondrion inside a cell. K.R. Porter/Science Photo LibraryAn independent publication developed by S. Karger Publishers Limited andprovided as a service to medicine. Supported by an educational grant fromUltragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc. S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

List of abbreviations and glossary5Introduction7Fatty acid metabolism9Epidemiology and genetics18Clinical presentation24Diagnosis32Genetic counseling, newborn screening and patient support41Useful resources46Index47 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

List of abbreviations and glossaryACAD9: acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseETFDH: gene encoding electronfamily, member 9transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenaseACADM: gene encoding medium-FAD: flavin adenine dinucleotidechain acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseACADVL: gene encoding very-longchain acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseFADH2: reduced form of FADFAOD: fatty acid oxidation disorderHAD: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoAC0: free carnitinedehydrogenaseCACT: carnitine–acylcarnitinetranslocaseHADH: gene encoding3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenaseCK: creatine kinaseHADHA: gene encodingCoA: coenzyme A3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenaseCPT1: carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1.trifunctional multienzyme complexThere are different isoforms: a liversubunit αisoform (CPT1-L), encoded by CPT1A;HADHB: gene encodinga muscle and heart isoform (CPT1-M),encoded by CPT1B; and a brainisoform (CPT1-B), encoded by CPT1C.These isoforms have different kinetic3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenasetrifunctional multienzyme complexsubunit βproperties. A mutation associatedHELLP: hemolysis, elevatedwith a fatty acid oxidation disorderliver enzymes and low plateletshas been identified only in CPT1A in(syndrome)humans, and the defect is generallyreferred to as CPT1 deficiencyCPT2: carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2CTD: carnitine transporter deficiencyCUD: carnitine uptake defect, analternative name for carnitineHMG: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylHSL: hormone-sensitive lipaseLC: long-chainLCEH: long-chain-enoyl-CoAhydratasetransporter deficiencyLCFA: long-chain fatty acidETFA: gene encoding electronLCHAD: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-transfer flavoprotein subunit αCoA dehydrogenaseETFB: gene encoding electronLCKAT: long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAtransfer flavoprotein subunit βthiolase5 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation DisordersMADD: multiple acyl-CoAdehydrogenase deficiency, alsoknown as glutaric aciduria type 2(GA2)SCAD: short-chain acyl-CoAdehydrogenaseSCHAD: short-chain 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenaseMCAD: medium-chain acyl-CoAdehydrogenaseSCFA: short-chain fatty acidMCFA: medium-chain fatty acidTANGO2: gene encoding transportand golgi organization 2 homologMTP: mitochondrial trifunctionalprotein (also known as trifunctionalprotein [TFP])NAD: nicotinamide adeninedinucleotideNADH: reduced form of NADTFP: trifunctional protein (alsoknown as mitochondrial trifunctionalprotein [MTP])VLCAD: very-long-chain acyl-CoAdehydrogenaseVLFA: very-long-chain fatty acidNEFA: non-esterified fatty acid(also known as free fatty acid)OCTN2: organic cation/carnitinetransporter 2 (also known as SLC22A5[solute carrier family 22 member 5])6 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

IntroductionDisorders affecting the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids arecomplex, potentially life-threatening, metabolic conditions. A numberof genetically distinct conditions exist, depending on the gene andprotein affected, but there are some common clinical and biochemicalfeatures.Newborn screening, which allows early intervention to preventlong-term morbidity, is not universally available. Even with screening,it is important that health professionals recognize the symptoms thatmay manifest at different stages of life.This concise guide to these rare conditions will be of value to allhealth professionals who may encounter or care for an individual witha long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder. As well as explaining theunderlying defects, inheritance and how the conditions manifest, thebook describes the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of thedisorders. The final chapter gives some guidance on genetic counselingand supporting patients.Each chapter is supported by key learning points, and we encourageyou to take the free online FastTest that accompanies this resource atfastfacts.com to assess your understanding of these conditions.We hope that this first edition of Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty AcidOxidation Disorders will be a useful resource for anyone who has aninterest in learning more about these genetic disorders of lipidmetabolism.7 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

1Fatty acid metabolismThe term fatty acid oxidation refers to the breakdown of fatty acids,which are essential for the production of cellular energy. Fatty acidsare a major fuel supplying energy during fasting and aerobic exercise.They serve most cells, with the exception of brain and red blood cells,and are the preferred respiratory fuel used by the heart and skeletalmuscle, particularly during exercise. Oxidation of fatty acids duringfasting provides up to 80% of total energy requirements.Fatty acidsFatty acids are carboxylic acids. In carboxylic acids, a carboxyl group(COOH) is attached to a second chemical group, referred to as R. In afatty acid, R is a hydrocarbon chain (Figure 1.1).Fatty acids have some general characteristics. The carbon chain length can vary between 4 and 28 units. The carbon chain can be saturated or unsaturated, branched orunbranched; most fatty acids have unbranched chains with an evennumber of carbon atoms. They are hydrophobic and are transported in the blood bound toalbumin. They are characterized by their chain length:– short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), with fewer than six carbons inthe chain– medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), with six to 12 carbons(a)R(b)Long hydrocarbon chainCarboxylgroupOH H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H HCH C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C COHH H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H HOOHFigure 1.1 (a) The general structure of a carboxylic acid. (b) A fatty acid witha long hydrocarbon chain.9 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders– long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), with 13–21 carbons– very-long-chain fatty acids (VLFAs), with 22 or more carbons.TriglyceridesFatty acids are consumed in the form of dietary triglycerides(sometimes called triacylglycerols), and adipocytes store triglyceridesin large lipid droplets. Triglycerides form via a series of esterificationreactions that link the carboxyl groups of three fatty acids to a glycerolbackbone (Figure HHHHFigure 1.2 A triglyceride has three fatty acids joined to a glycerol. The fattyacid shown with a double bond in its chain is an example of an unsaturatedfatty acid.10 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fatty acid metabolismAbsorption, transport and uptake of dietary fatAbsorption of fat occurs in three stages: emulsification, lipolysis andtransportation. As fats are not naturally water soluble, they undergoseveral transformations before they can be utilized and transportedaround the body.Emulsification i s the formation of a homogeneous solution of twosubstances that are naturally immiscible (such as oil and water). Lipid(fat) globules containing triglycerides are emulsified in the intestine, alargely water-based environment. Bile salts, which are made in the liver,have an important role. They are amphipathic molecules, having bothhydrophilic and hydrophobic portions. The hydrophilic portion is watersoluble and the hydrophobic portion is fat soluble. The amphipathicnature of bile salts means they can emulsify the larger lipid globules toform smaller fat globules that can then undergo lipolysis (Figure 1.3).Lipolysis is the process of breaking down the small fat globulescontaining triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. Mediated in theintestine mostly by pancreatic lipase, lipolysis involves a number ofhydrolysis reactions. The result is a mixture of free fatty acids,monoglycerides and diglycerides, which then aggregate with bile saltsand other amphipathic molecules to form mixed micelles. Micelleshave a fatty core and a water-soluble outer lining and are easilyabsorbed by the intestinal enterocytes.Transportation. Before fats can be absorbed into the bloodstream, theenterocytes reassemble free fatty acids and glycerol into triglycerides.These, together with cholesteryl ester, phospholipids andapolipoproteins, assemble to form chylomicrons, which then enter thebloodstream for transportation to tissues. The destiny of chylomicronsdepends on the body’s needs. They can be stored as fat in adiposetissue or undergo β-oxidation for energy. They are heterogeneous insize, composition and shape.11 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation DisordersLipid dropletcontainingtriglycerideBile saltEmulsificationPhospholipidTriglycerideFigure 1.3 Bile salts emulsify the lipiddroplet to form smaller droplets thatcan undergo lipolysis. Pancreatic lipasehydrolyzes the glycerol–fatty acid bondsof triglycerides to produce monoglyceridesand free fatty acids. Mixed micellesare formed from free fatty acids,monoglycerides, diglycerides, bile salts,cholesterol and lysophospholipids, whichare produced from the hydrolysis ofphospholipids.PancreaticlipasecFatty acids MonoglycerideMicellecFatty acid release from adipocytes is mediated by lipases, includinghormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which is under the control ofhormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) (Figure 1.4). Oncereleased, the free fatty acids are transported, bound to albumin, in theblood and taken up by metabolizing cells.12 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fatty acid metabolismGlycerolIn the bloodEpinephrineFree fattyacidsACGsATPcAMPPPKAIn the adipocyteHSLTriglyceridesFigure 1.4 The interaction of epinephrine (adrenaline) with its receptor inthe adipocyte cell membrane activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) via couplingto the trimeric G-protein, Gs. As a consequence, cyclic AMP (cAMP) isproduced from ATP and activates AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA).PKA phosphorylates HSL, and the phosphorylated enzyme moves to the lipiddroplet where, together with other lipases, it catalyzes the conversion oftriglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol.Fatty acid breakdownFatty acid breakdown is an important reaction for energy production in ametabolizing cell. It involves several steps, controlled by hormones andenzymes (Figures 1.5 and 1.6). Deficiency of an enzyme involved in oneof these steps results in a specific fatty acid oxidation disorder (FAOD).13 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation DisordersCarnitineFatty tyl-CoA43-Ketoacyl-CoA31Acylcarnitine 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoAFigure 1.5 LCFAs are activated outside of the mitochondrial matrix to formacyl-CoAs in a reaction catalyzed by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase or, forVLFAs, fatty acid transport protein (FATP) (shown in the figure as AS). Aslong-chain acyl-CoA molecules do not readily cross the inner mitochondrialmembrane, the activated LCFAs are carried across by carnitine. Carnitineis accumulated inside cells by the high-affinity organic cation/carnitinetransporter 2 (OCTN2) (shown as here as CU). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase(CPT) 1 catalyzes the formation of a high-energy bond between carnitineand LCFAs, and the resulting acylcarnitines are translocated across the innermitochondrial membrane by carnitine–acylcarnitine translocase (CACT,shown here as CT). Inside the mitochondrion, CPT2, located in the innermitochondrial membrane, removes carnitine from acylcarnitines andregenerates acyl-CoAs. The carnitine then returns to the cytoplasm andthe LCFA undergoes rounds of β-oxidation within the mitochondrion. SeeFigure 1.6 for explanation of numbers 1–4. CoA, coenzyme A.14 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fatty acid metabolism4 Thiolysis1 Dehydrogenation(C16) RCH2 CH2 iolaseFADH22 Hydration(C14) RHRCH2CCCHO 2,3-Enoyl-CoAEnoyl-CoAhydrataseS-CoAH2O3 eCS-CoAO 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoACH2 CS-CoA CH3 CO(C14) oAC4Acetyl-CoAAcetyl-CoANAD NADH H Figure 1.6 β-oxidation, shown here for palmitate (C16), comprisesfour steps. (1) Dehydrogenation: acyl-CoA is oxidized by acyl-CoAdehydrogenase, which is activated by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD),producing trans-enoyl-CoA. (2) Hydration: trans-enoyl-CoA is hydratedto produce 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, catalyzed by 2,3-enoyl-CoA hydratase.(3) Oxidation: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA oxidation is catalyzed by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoAdehydrogenase, activated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD),producing 3-ketoacyl-CoA. (4) Thiolysis: the 3-ketoacyl-CoA is split by a thiolgroup, catalyzed by 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, producing acetyl-CoA and anacyl-CoA chain that is two carbon atoms shorter than when beginning theprocess.15 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation DisordersStep 1: activation of fatty acids. Before LCFAs can enter themitochondria of a metabolizing cell to be broken down, each one hasto be activated by the enzyme long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA)synthetase to form an acyl-CoA.Step 2: transportation into the mitochondria. T he activatedlong-chain acyl-CoA is transported into the inner mitochondria viathe carnitine shuttle. This requires three enzymes: carnitine–acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), in the outer mitochondrialmembrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2), in the inner mitochondrialmembrane.Organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) is responsible forcarnitine uptake across the plasma membrane. This reaction isparticularly active in the heart, skeletal muscle and kidney. Deficiencyin this transporter system leads to primary carnitine deficiency.Fatty acids with hydrocarbon chains containing fewer than12 carbons – medium- and short-chain fatty acids – can enter themitochondria directly without the carnitine transporter system.Step 3: β-oxidation is a catabolic process mostly facilitated by themitochondrial trifunctional protein (TFP, also sometimes abbreviatedto MTP). This is a complex enzyme system associated with the innermitochondrial membrane. The TFP complex comprises twoα subunits and two β subunits, encoded by HADHA and HADHB,respectively.The α subunits function as two enzymes: long-chain-enoyl-CoAhydratase (LCEH) and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase(LCHAD).The β subunits function as long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (LCKAT).Within the TFP complex, long straight-chain fatty acids areoxidized via a spiral pathway, with each turn in the pathway involvingfour enzyme reactions – dehydrogenation, hydration, oxidation andthiolysis – each catalyzed by a specific enzyme.Step 4: the electron transport chain, also known as the respiratorychain, is embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Electrons16 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fatty acid metabolismmove from the reduced forms of both nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (NADH andFADH2, respectively), which are produced during β-oxidation, throughthe transport chain to, ultimately, molecular oxygen. Energy releasedduring the process establishes a proton gradient, which is used togenerate ATP. Oxygen combines with hydrogen ions to form water.Products. Each turn of the β-oxidation pathway involves removingtwo carbon atoms from the fatty acid chain, forming acetyl-CoA,NADH and FADH2. Acetyl-CoA is used in the Krebs cycle or convertedin the liver to produce ketone bodies via 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl(HMG)-CoA synthase and lyase, while NADH and FADH2 are passed tothe electron transport chain. Both these pathways produce energy.At the end of the oxidation process, acyl-CoA chains with an evennumber of carbon atoms are broken down to two acetyl-CoA units.Acyl-CoA chains with an odd number of carbons yield a five-carbonunit, which is broken down to a three-carbon propionyl-CoA and atwo-carbon acetyl-CoA. The propionyl-CoA is then converted tosuccinyl-CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle to produce energy.Disorders of fatty acid oxidationDisruption at any point in the complex pathway described above leadsto energy failure and characteristic clinical features. The biochemicalhallmarks of these disorders are the accumulation of potentially toxicacylcarnitines, fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids in the urine and blood.Key points – fatty acid metabolism Fatty acids are a major fuel supplying energy during fasting andaerobic exercise. Oxidation of fatty acids during fasting provides up to 80% of thebody’s total energy requirements. Fatty acids with a chain length of fewer than 12 carbons can entermitochondria without the carnitine transporter carrier. Disruption at any point in the complex pathway of β-oxidation leadsto energy failure and characteristic clinical features.17 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

2Epidemiology and geneticsFAODs are categorized as inborn errors of metabolism. They are agroup of autosomal recessive inherited conditions present from birth.In countries offering newborn screening, FAODs are identified in theneonatal period. Where screening is not available, they may present atany time, often being precipitated during times of stress arising fromillness, surgery, fasting or exercise.There are a number of FAODs, and they are named depending onthe specific defect or enzyme deficiency: for example, a short-,medium- or long-chain FAOD, or a transporter deficiency if theaffected protein is involved in transporting fatty acids from one partof the cell to another (for example, carnitine transporter deficiency)(Table 2.1).FAODs are primarily treated by dietary changes, which are disorderspecific.Incidence and prevalenceAs a group, FAODs are among the most prevalent monogenicconditions worldwide; the combined incidence is estimated as1:9300.1 The prevalences of individual FAODs differ significantly(Table 2.2), and incidence can be difficult to estimate.Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is themost common disorder of LCFA oxidation and its prevalence at birthhas been estimated as 1:30 000 to 1:100 000.2LCHAD deficiency/TFP deficiency is estimated to have a worldwideprevalence at birth of 1:250 000. It is known to be more common insome countries, such as Poland (1:120 000).3FAODs have a particularly high incidence in populations ofEuropean origin, though certain FAODs have a higher frequency insome specific ethnic populations – CPT1 deficiency, for example, has ahigh frequency in the Inuit people of northern Canada.418 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Epidemiology and geneticsTABLE 2.1Protein deficiencies causing fatty acid disordersDeficiencies affecting the carnitine shuttleOCTN2Organic cation/carnitine transporter 2(carnitine transporter deficiency)CPT1Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1CACTCarnitine–acylcarnitine translocaseCPT2Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2Deficiencies affecting mitochondrial β-oxidationTFP/MTPMitochondrial trifunctional proteinVLCADVery-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseLCHADLong-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenaseMCADMedium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseSCADShort-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenaseHMG-CoA3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase/lyaseOther rare deficiencies affecting β-oxidationACAD9Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 9Crotonase*Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydrataseHADH†3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenaseDECR2,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductaseDeficiencies affecting electon transferMADDMultiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencyThose shown in italics are included for completeness but are outside of the scope ofthis book.*Crotonase is also known as short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH or ECHS1).†HADH deficiency is also known as M/SCHAD deficiency.19 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation DisordersTABLE 2.2Common genetic mutations in FAODsDeficiencyEstimatedprevalence ofdisorderGeneCommon mutationDisorders affecting the carnitine shuttleCPT1CPT1A1:500 2A5)1:20 000 to1:120 000Mild phenotypec.1436C T Inuit,Alaskan Nativec.338C T (lateronset myopathicpresentations)Disorders affecting mitochondrial β-oxidationVLCADVLCAD(ACADVL)1:50 000 to1:100 000Mild or benignvariant c.848T C(also c.917T C)LCHADHADHA1:110 000 to1:150 000c.1528G CTFP/MTPHADHA,HADHBRareHADHHADHRareDisorder affecting electron transferMADDETFA, ETFB,ETFDHRareWhere an older gene is shown, the up-to-date symbol is shown in parentheses.CTD, carnitine transporter deficiency; HAD, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase;MADD, multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.20 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Epidemiology and geneticsImpact of newborn screening programs. In countries with newbornscreening programs, screening has led to the detection of many moreaffected infants than would have been predicted based on previousestimates of incidence.2 Most individuals identified in this way areasymptomatic at the time of diagnosis.GeneticsInherited defects in 17 proteins directly affecting either carnitinedependent transport or the process of β-oxidation have so far beenidentified.5–8The phenotypes of FAODs are diverse, and they may be alteredby genetic and environmental factors. Patients with medium-chainacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency of the same genotypemay die or remain asymptomatic, depending on their exposure tofasting stress. In contrast, the most common mutation associatedwith VLCAD deficiency in individuals of European descent,c.848T C (p.Val283Ala), has been found only in mildly affectedor asymptomatic patients. TFP deficiency, a clinically heterogeneousdisorder with phenotypes of different severity, has been associatedwith a lethal mutation.9The lack of a clear association between genotype and clinicalsymptoms makes clinical management particularly difficult. It isimportant to ensure patients have the optimal treatment toprevent possible clinical and life-threatening complications.Molecular heterogeneity has been described in all these fattyacid disorders, but some prevalent mutations have beenidentified (see Table 2.2).Several mutations (missense) that affect CPT2 cause the myopathicform of CPT2 deficiency. In individuals of European descent, the mostfrequent (affecting 60%) results in the replacement of serine withleucine at position 113 (c.338C T).Isolated LCHAD deficiency is associated with a homozygousHADHA c.1528G C mutation in most individuals of Europeandescent.TFP/MTP deficiency due to complete or partial deficiency of allthree enzymes (LCEH, LCHAD, LCKAT; page 16) is typically associatedwith a HADHA c.1528G C (p.Glu510Gln) mutation affecting oneallele and an allele carrying a different mutation at the same gene21 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Fast Facts: Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation mozygousCompoundheterozygousmut mutmut mutFigure 2.1 The arrangement of mutations in different genotypes. In individualswith a compound heterozygous genotype, two alleles have different recessivemutations at the same locus.locus on the other chromosome (that is, most patients are compoundheterozygotes, Figure 2.1).A unique polymorphism of the CPT1A gene, c.1436C T(p.Pro479Leu), is associated with decreased enzymatic activityand impaired fasting ketogenesis, which can lead to hypoketotichypoglycemia in young children. This polymorphism is particularlyprevalent among the Canadian and Greenland Inuit and some AlaskaNative populations.10Key points – epidemiology and genetics Some FAODs have a wide range of clinical presentations, withphenotypic diversity reflecting interactions between genetic andenvironmental factors. The lack of clear association between genotype and clinicalsymptoms makes clinical management complex. The incidence of individual FAODs is difficult to estimate. Newbornscreening programs have led to an increase in prevalence of theconditions in some countries.22 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

Epidemiology and geneticsReferences1. Lindner M, Hoffmann GF,Matern D. Newborn screening fordisorders of fatty-acid oxidation:experience and recommendationsfrom an expert meeting. J InheritMetab Dis 2010;33:521–6.2. Leslie ND, Valencia CA, Strauss AWet al. Very long-chain acyl-coenzymeA dehydrogenase deficiency. 2009(updated 2019). In: Adam MP,Ardinger HH, Pagon RA et al, eds.GeneReviews . University ofWashington, 1993–2020.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6816/, last accessed15 September 2020.3. Orphanet. Long chain3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenasedeficiency. www.orpha.net/consor/cgi-bin/OC Exp.php?lng EN&Expert 5, last accessed15 September 2020.4. Vockley J. Long-chain fatty acidoxidation disorders and currentmanagement strategies. Am J ManagCare 2020;26(suppl):S147–54.5. Bennett MJ, Rinaldo P, Strauss AW.Inborn errors of mitochondrial fattyacid oxidation. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci2000;37:1–44.6. Spiekerkoetter U, Mayatepek E.Update on mitochondrial fatty acidoxidation disorders. J Inherit MetabDis 2010;33:467–8.7. Wanders RJ. Functions anddysfunctions of peroxisomes in fattyacid alpha- and beta-oxidation.New insights. Adv Exp Med Biol1999;466:283–99.8. Wanders RJ, Komen J, Kemp S.Fatty acid omega-oxidation as arescue pathway for fatty acidoxidation disorders in humans.FEBS J 2011;278:182–94.9. Spiekerkoetter U, Bennett MJ,Ben-Zeev B et al. Peripheralneuropathy, episodic myoglobinuria,and respiratory failure in deficiencyof the mitochondrial trifunctionalprotein. Muscle Nerve 2004;29:66–72.10. Gillingham MB, Hirschfeld M,Lowe S et al. Impaired fastingtolerance among Alaska nativechildren with a common carnitinepalmitoyltransferase 1A sequencevariant. Mol Genet Metab 2011;104:261–4.23 S. Karger Publishers Ltd 2021

3Clinical presentationGeneral symptomsMany of the most common clinical manifestations of long-chain(LC)-FAODs are shared by all of the individual disorders in the group(Figure 3.1). In addition, there are two important clinical findings thatare typically observed only in LCHAD and TFP deficiency, namelyperipheral neuropathy and retinopathy.All of the LC-FAODs exhibit a spectrum of clinical severity, and ageof onset can be any time from the immediate neonatal period throughadult life. In addition, the phenotype in an individual patient oftenchanges as a function of age. Symptoms such as hypoglycemia andhepatic dysfunction are most common in infants and young childrenwhile, in adolescents and adults, the phenotype is often dominated byskeletal myopathy with recurrent rhabdomyolysis and chronic exerciseintolerance. Cardiomyopathy, either hypertrophic or dilated, canoccur at any age but is most severe in infants and children and mayresolve as patients get older. Pericardial effusions may be observed.Severely affected infants c an present in the immediate neonatalperiod with a severe metabolic crisis, characterized by hypoglycemia,hyperammonemia, hepatic dysfunction, muscle weakness, respiratorydistress and seizures with encephalopathy. The conditions most likelyto present in this severe fashion are CACT deficiency and the severeform of CPT2 deficiency.The mortality rate i

Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders 41 Genetic counseling, newborn screening and patient support 9 Fatty acid metabolism 18 Epidemiology and genetics 24 Clinical presentation 32 Diagnosis Fill the gap in your knowledge, fast! with Fast Facts - the ultimate medical handbook series FAST FACTS Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

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