Botany Language Basics For Identification Of Flowering Plants

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www.gardening.cornell.edugarden@cornell.eduBotany Language Basics for Identification of Flowering PlantsTo understand the form, function, habitat and essential needs of plants use all your senses(vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch) to observe plants. A collective understanding offundamental botanical terms helps us share and discuss our discoveries with each other.Duration of vegetative partsAnnual: completes life cycle in one yearBiennial: completes life cycle in two yearsPerennial: life cycle extends three or more yearsDeciduous: plants that shed their leaves at the end of the season and become dormantEvergreen: plants that are never without leaves attached (broadleaf evergreensinclude all evergreens except conifers which have needle or scale-like leaves)Plant appearance or habitHerbs (Herbaceous plant): plants with non-woody stemsShrub: woody perennial with more than one main stemTree: woody perennial with a single main stemVine: herbaceous plants with elongate, flexible, non-self-supporting stemsLiana: a woody vineLeaf featuresBlade: Flattened part of the leafPetiole: stalk supporting the bladeLeaf scar: a heart-shaped scar remains on the stemwhere the petiole was attachedBud: forms above leaf scar and contain thebeginnings of future growth; size, color, shapeand marking of the scales on buds offer ID characteristicsLeaf arrangements on plant stemNode: area on stem from which one or more leaves developAlternate leaves1 per nodeOpposite leaves2 per nodeWhorled leavesRosette leavesMore than 2 per node Radiating cluster at base

ment on leaf petioleSimpleSimple leaf isundivided though canbe deeply lobedCompoundPinnate compound leaf isfeather-like with leaflets attachedboth sides of central axisPalmate compound leaf ishand-like with three or moreleaflets radiating from one pointLook for a leaf scar and bud in area where the petiole was attached. No leaf scar or bud?Leaflet: resembles a leaf but is attaches to the axis of a compound leaf not the stemLeaf modificationsBract: modified leaf often associated with a flower or inflorescenceSheath: basal portion of leaf that surrounds the stemSpine: sharp pointed leaf or portion of a leafTendril: twining leaf or portion of a leafLeaf blade surfaceGlabrous: without hairsGlaucous: waxy coatingPubescent:hairy surface--there are many kinds of hairinessLeaf blade venationNet (Reticulate)veins form a complexnetworkPalmate veinsradiate from a centralpoint at baseParallel veins extendin same directionbeside each otherBuilding Strong and Vibrant New York CommunitiesCornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities.Pinnate veins form amajor mid-vein withbranching side veins

www.gardening.cornell.edugarden@cornell.eduLeaf blade marginCiliateFine hairsCrenateRounded y wavyDentateSymmetricalangular teethDenticulateFine teethangular teethSerrateCoarse teethcurved forwardSerrulateFine teethcurved forwardSinuateWave-likeindentationsLeaf blade shapeCuneateWedgeshapedEllipticalOval-shapedwith small orno taperingLanceolatePointed atboth ends;base widestOblanceolate SpatulateWidest section Spoontowards tipshapedRhomboidDiamondshapedLinearThin; sidesparallelOblongWider;parallel sidesObovateEgg shape;widest at tipOvateEgg shape;widest at ng Strong and Vibrant New York CommunitiesCornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities.

www.gardening.cornell.edugarden@cornell.eduLeaf blade bases and tips (apex)AcuteLess than90o angleAuriculateLobes of ahuman earObtuseGreater than90o angleCordateHeartshapedAcuminateCurving inward;fine pointHastateTriangularlobesCuspidateLong, thin,sharp s baseObliqueAsymmetricalMucronateShort abruptpointGrass plant structuresBuilding Strong and Vibrant New York CommunitiesCornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities.TruncateSquaredoff

scence typeUmbel flowers originatingfrom a common point withfloral stalks of equallengthCorymb flowers along a centralaxis with floral stalks of unequallength, all ending at the sameheightCyme produce a flat-toppedwith oldest flowers at the endof main axisSpike has flowers withoutstalks along a central axisRaceme has flowers with shortfloral stalks along a central axisPanicle is a branched orcompound racemeHead produce a shortdense arrangement rayand disk flowersSolitary is a single flower on aflowering stalk attached to stemCatkin is a spike-like; oftenpendent and falling as a unitBuilding Strong and Vibrant New York CommunitiesCornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities.

www.gardening.cornell.edugarden@cornell.eduFlower partPistil consists of the ovary at the basethat contains the embryo seedsor ovules. At the top is stigma thatreceives the pollen. Often the stigma ison a stalk-like structure called the style.A flower may have one or more pistils.Stamen is pollenproducing part of aflower, usually with aslender filamentsupporting the anther.Perfect flower: with "male" stamens and"female" pistilImperfect flower: (unisexual) contain apistil or stamens, but not bothMonoecious species: with male on femaleflowers on same plantDioecious species: with male and femaleflowers on separate male and female plantsSepals are the outer parts of theflower (often green and leaf-like)that enclose a developing bud.Petals are parts of a flower thatare often conspicuously colored.Regular flower (actinomorphic): radially symmetrical; star-shapedIrregular flower (zygomorphic): one dividing plane into two mirror-image halvesComplete flower: with all 4 main parts (sepal, petal, stamen and pistil)Incomplete flower: lacking one or more of 4 main parts (sepal, petal, stamen, pistil)Learn more: gardening.cornell.edu/polyculturesPublished: March 2014 by Cornell Garden-Based Learning ProgramAuthor: Lori J. Brewer, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853Line Drawing Illustrator: Rose GrosskopfBuilding Strong and Vibrant New York CommunitiesCornell Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities.

garden@cornell.edu Flower part Regular flower (actinomorphic): radially symmetrical; star-shaped Irregular flower (zygomorphic): one dividing plane into two mirror-image halves Complete flower: with all 4 main parts (sepal, petal, stamen and pistil) Incomplete flower: lacking one or more of 4 main parts (sepal, petal, stamen, pistil)

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