Apeejay Journal of Management & TechnologyVoi. 13, Number 2, July 2018, 1-9Customer Satisfaction Level towards thè Food and Beverage Outlets inthè Punjab RegionAbstractSanjeev Rumar *Rashidur Rahman**This paper analyses thè factors that influence level of customer satisfaction in region of Punjab. Ibis research paper finds out somenew factors that are important to satisfy thè customers of food outlets. Customer prefers one food outlet to another based on theirpreferences of quality of food, Service quality, environment and price. Some customers consider food as an important factor inselecting food outlets while some prefer Service quality and don't care of thè high price. The Service aspects of each of these dimensionswere discussed and recommendations were made for food outlets to improve their Service to ensure higher levels of customersatisfaction. A sample of food outlets in Punjab were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Results prove that some of thè factorsplay cruciai role for customer satisfaction. The data was collected from respondents through questionnaires based on five point likertscale. There are total 150 questionnaires filled from thè respondents. Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality,environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create apositive impact through word of mouth.Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment of food outlets, priceIntroductionThis pari introduces Food and Beverage Industry, which consists of multiple activities such as purchasing of raw material, preparationand maintaining best Service consistently. Normally, we too expect that food outlet should be clean and hygienically good andstandards of food and beverage should be high. The quality of food and beverage should satisfy thè guest's requirement to attract thèpeople due to quality and best Service. Ultimately, this will increase thè yield of business. Methodologies used in this research paperare factor analysis, correlation and multiple regressions to find out which factor has strong impact on customer satisfaction. The datacollected was analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. The respondents are from thè region of Punjab who visited food outletssituated on thè Jalandhar - Amritsar National Highway. Questionnaires were distributed and responses were received from thèrespondents. The 5 point Likert Scale was used for measuring thè performance of all factors for customer satisfaction. In this researchpaper, quantitative methods were used. Food Service is one of thè major department producing thè revenue in hospitality industry andto maintain thè quality in these outlets is not so easy therefore while designing such outlets one should consider factors whichcontribute to thè smooth execution from raw material purchasing, sorting and food preparation, dish presentation, serving etc.Commercial approach is important while designing thè outlet. Few points are considerable such as identifying our customer segment,type of food expected by individuai segments, method of food distribution and finally to serve there should be skilled staff.*Assistant Professor and HOD, School of Hotel Management, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, IndiaEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org** Rashidur Rahman, Assistant Professor, School of Hotel Management, Lovely Professional University Phagwara, IndiaEmail:email@example.com
2Apeejay Journal of Management & TechnologyJulyHospitality plays an important role in business and sustaining in competitive world. In travel, everyone needs food outlets andtherefore most of thè highways in India are full of Dhabas. Nowadays, branded restaurants, fast food outlet, coffee shop and take awayoutlets etc. are very popular. Hence, maintaining thè hygiene, cleanliness, good food quality and best Service are thè pillars of thisindustry else, it will become diflicult to attract thè customer. This is thè reason that most of thè customer who was earlier used to dine indhabas has shifted to branded restaurant, fast food outlet and coffee shops. All thè factors discussed above gives room for thè fast foodoutlets and branded F &B outlets to grow on thè highways. The demand for quality product and Service has increased in thè recent yearsin terms of adding new innovative practices in food Service industry.Review of LiteratureAccording to thè Adediran (2003), most of thè travelers consider food quality, Service quality, physical environment of food outlets,hygienic and cleanliness as prime factors to select food outlet while travelling. Sanitation is a key component to food Service safety,and it is a responsibility that you accept as a food Service provider for your customers. From allergen management to contaminationreduction, sanitation promotes thè well-being of your equipment, your workers, and your customers. Now days, there are so manyother factors like physical environment, entertainment facility, hygiene and cleanliness has become more popular than thè foodquality. Quality of food depends upon thè taste, texture, color, foundation of ingredients, sauce, flavor, and aroma, method of cooking,nutritional aspects and gamish. Henson & Trail (1993) mentioned in their study that food outlets focus on quality of food and quality ofService. Outlets must focus on improving thè quality of product and Service through this ways food outlet can maintain healthyrelationship with guest in term of guest satisfaction. According to Pecotic (2014), physical environment and surrounding of thèrestaurant also has a great influence on image of restaurant. Wong (2013), discussed that cleanliness and hygienic of restaurant is oneof thè important factors which influence thè choices of customer to remain loyal towards food outlets. The cleanliness in food outletsattract more number of customers and it also effect on thè sale of thè outlets, where customers recommend thè same outlets for theirfriends and relatives. Haghighi, M. et al. (2012) discussed about thè increasing competition between restaurant and food outlets,attracting new customers to generate more profit, but retaining existing customers is more important. It has a direct impact onorganization profitability and long relationship; author identified thè different factors for satisfaction of customers that are Servicequality, Service features and future intention. If organization improves thè Service standard it will help to increase thè profitability andrun organization successful. Many researchers apply thè model SERVQUAL for measuring thè Service quality for customersatisfaction and another model used is SERVPERF model.Objective of Study To measure thè Customer Satisfaction level among selected Food & Beverage Outlets in Punjab.Research MethodologyResearch Design and SamplingProcedureThe sample of this study consists of travelers who are travelling on Jalandhar - Amritsar National Highway Punjab. Conveniencesampling technique was used for collection of data from thè respondents. A total o f200 questionnaires were distributed, out of which150 are received form thè respondents. The 5 points Likert Scale was used to measuring thè performance of customer satisfaction. Datawas collected from traveler who avail thè Services in thè food outlets which were situated on thè National Highway.Research ModelA qualitative approach is applied to find out thè factors that effect on customer satisfaction in food & beverage outlets on highways.Figure 2 : Research Model of thè StudySource: Authors' own Construction
20183Sanjeev Kumar & Rashidur RahmanParameters AppliedFood Quality of a product should be very good in conditimi and as good as its packaging. When we think about thè food and beverageoutlets, every item must be tightly (airtight) sealed (if it is for packaging) and stored at thè correct temperature to maximize life. Foodquality is one of thè product where it help to satisfied thè customer and make food outlet profitable in future. Personal hygiene inrestaurants is very important in order to maintain food health standards as it directly relates with thè customers.Table 1 : Variables used in thè StudyF oo dw as palatableFood w as freshThe crispness and flavor o f thè foodO verall dining experienceFood QualityW illingness o f guestsA ttitude and behavior o f staffQ uality and efficiency o f staffFood served on tim eLayout & design outletsSeating arrangem ent and Them e o f restaurantFlooring, ceiling and w ood w orkService QualityPhysical EnvironmentHygienic CleanlinessStandard o f Groom ing and personal hygieneCleanliness o f thè food outlets and ancillary sectionCustomer SatisfactionSatisfaction towards food outletsRecom m end outlets to friends and relativeChoose againSource: Authors' ownDemographicAnalysisThe results show that thè different age groups of respondents choose their food outlets different according to their age group. The resultdepict that when customers travell on thè national highway, 15.3% of respondent choose branded restaurant, 23.3% fast food outletsrather than branded restaurant because traveler has no time to spend in food outlets, 27.3 % customers choose take away outlets andonly 19% of customer choose other categories of food outlets like dhabas.Table 2 : Demographic Characteristics of thè RespondentsTypes of food e Shoptake awayOtherTotalSource: Primary Data from QuestionnaireFrequency35Percent23.3Valid Percent23.3Cumulative Percent23.33825.325.348.744151815029.329.378.01 0 .01 2 .01 0 0 .01 0 .01 2 .01 0 0 .08 8 .01 0 0 .0
Apeejay Journal of Management & Technology4JulyGender andAge wiseAnalysisThe preference of F&B outlet across different age and income group, Demographic Findings are as follows:Table3 : Gender WiseAnalysisAge GroupValidF req uen cyP ercen tag 5-5455and aboveTotalV alidP ercen tag e15.323.321.327.312.71 0 0 .01 0 0 .0Percent58.741.3Valid Percent58.741.31 0 0 .01 0 0 .0C u m u lativeP ercen t15.338.760.087.31 0 0 tive Percent58.71 0 0 .0Summary OutputRegression StatisticsM ultiple R0.945478376R SquareAdjusted R SquareStandard ErrorObservationsSource: Authors' ownR Square is 89.39 %, which is very good, fit andhence above will help to decide thè age wise ion between Food Quality & OtherParametersThe food qualities, Service quality, physical environment, hygiene and cleanliness of F&B outlets for customer satisfaction. In order tocalculate thè most significant factor that has significant impact on customer satisfaction; therefore four factors are studied (foodquality, Service quality, physical environment, hygiene & cleanliness) to find out thè association with customer satisfaction.Table 4 : Correlation between Various ParametersDependent VariablesIndependent VariablesFood VariablesFood PalatableFood was freshPearsonCorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearsonCorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NCustomerRecommendSatisfaction Rate to their friends& relativeChoose againOverall Satisfaction.522**.694**.647**.584**.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0150.518**150150.681**150150.550**150150.486**150
.505**.643**.601**.584**.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.766**.645**.657**.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0150.403**150Service VariablesWillingness to help guests Pearson Correlation .561**Attitude & behavior ofService staffQuality & efficiency ofService staffFood Delivered on timePhysical EnvironmentLayout & designof food outletsSeating arrangementTheme of thè restaurantFlooring, ceiling andwood workHygienic & CleanlinessStandard of hygieneGrooming & personalhygieneSig. (2-tailed).0 0 0N150Pearson Correlation .503**Sig. (2-tailed).0 0 0N150Pearson Correlation .517**Sig. (2-tailed).0 0 0N150Pearson Correlation .552**Sig. (2-tailed).0 0 0N150Pearson Correlation .392**Sig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearson CorrelationSig. (2-tailed)N.0 0 0150.351**Surrounding areas offood outletsSource: Authors' own150.616**150.612**150.698**150150Sig. (2-tailed).0 0 0N150Pearson Correlation .600**.0 0 650**150.632**150.484**.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 01504 4 4 **.0 0 0.0 0 0150150.578**.537**.0 0 0150.284**150.475**.511**.0 0 0150.457**Pearson Correlation .445**Sig. (2-tailed).0 0 0N150Pearson Correlation .582**Sig. (2-tailed)N150.0 0 0Sig. (2-tailed).0 0 0N150Cleanliness of food outlets Pearson Correlation .566**& ancillary **.0 0 0150.336**150.350**150.526**.0 0 0150.386**.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.620**.559**.561**.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0150150.653**150150.660**150.703**150.677**.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0150.678**150150150150.624****Overall DiningPerformancePearsonCorrelationSig. (2-tailed)NPearsonCorrelationSig. (2-tailed)N5O00Crispiness &Flavor of foodSanjeev Kumar & Rashidur RahmanOs2018150.654**150150.684**150
Apeejay Journal of Management & Technology6JulyRegression analysisFollowing table depicts, how customers are rating thè food outlets based on cleanliness, grooming and surroundingSignificance F is 0.000435168.Table 5. Regression Analysis of Different 245544445455523544545443444444444Source: Authors' 4554455444211
20187Sanjeev Kumar & Rashidur RahmanTable 6: Summary Output of Regression StatisticsSummary outputRegression StatisticsMultiple RR SquareAdjusted R SquareStandard 8ANOVARegressionResiduaiTotalDfSSMSFSignificance 95.0%CoefficientsStandardErrart StatIntercept2.4595860.3814086.4486937.38E-08 1.690907554 3.2282641.690908 3.22826440.0359620.1763030.2039810.839309 -0.31935232 0.391277-0.31935 0.39127750.1373030.1541880.890487 0.378048 -0.17344338 0.448049-0.17344 0.44804940.2217060.1294311.712926 0.093765 -0.03914537 0.482557-0.03915 0.482557Source: Authors' ownF ollowing table describes customer satisfaction, whether he/she is willing to visit again, and will refer to his/her friends etc.Table 7: Different Variable of Customer SatisfactionCustomer oose again444445554454444Performance455555445454545
Apeejay Journal of Management & Technology8555544552July444521445444454455Source: Authors' ownTable 7: Summary Output for Regression Analysis for Different Variable of Customer Satisfaction445434454Summary OutputRegression StatisticsMultiple RR SquareAdjusted R SquareStandard 208020.227411Total22Coefficients11.21739t StatStandardErrar0.811254 1.795175F10.10886P-valueLower 54318 -0.24163 3.1543180.527773 -0.34326 0.527773Intercept1.45634350.0922570.208080.443376 0.662501-0.343258140.6337690.1670843.793105 0.0012290.2840569540.044310.2152950.205809 0.839129-0.4063077Source: Authors' ownSignificance F0.000337750.98348 0.2840570.983480.494927 -0.40631 0.494927
2018Sanjeev Kumar & Rashidur Rahman9Figure 3 : Normal Probability PlotSource: Authors' ownFindings of thè StudyAmong thè different variables identified to fulfill thè expectation of thè customers, price is also one of thè major constrain factor,which should be according to thè spending power of thè customers. The study identifies thè relationship of thè variables towards thècustomer satisfaction and their revisit plans in thè food outlets. The results of Pearson Correlation Analysis and Multiple RegressionAnalysis showed that all independent variables (food quality, Service quality environment & price) have positive significantrelationship with thè customer loyalty i.e. thè dependent variable. Customers are important for every organization to provide business,but satisfied customers always provide repeat sales, increased market shares, referrals and competitive advantage. Some of thèrestaurant maintained their image based on quality of food and Service offered by thè restaurant.ConclusionThe current research work States that food and beverages outlets must pay attention in terms of Services, quality of food in order toretain thè customer flow and fulfill thè expectations of thè customers. Customers are more conscious with few factors such as hygienicand cleanliness. Customers are expecting healthy food rather than Service quality. This study proved Service quality is also veryimportant factor for customer satisfaction. Thus, physical environment - ambience is also considerable factor for customersatisfaction. Proper layout of food outlets, seating arrangement especially for family members, theme and interior also create thèpositive impact on customer behavior. Food outlets should pay more attention to thè physical environment. We strongly believe thisstudy will enhance thè qualities and future of food andbeverage outlets.ReferencesAdediran, D. (2003). Improving Hygiene and sanitation Standards in medium class Hotels in Bauchi State of Nigeria. Nigeria: TheF ederal Polytechnic Bauchi state Nigeria.Henson, S., & Trail, B. (1993). The demand for food safety: Market imperfections and thè role of govemment. Food Policy, 18(2), 152-162.Haghighi, M., Dorosti, A., Rahnama, A., & Hoseinpour, A. (2012). Evaluation of factors affecting customer loyalty in thè restaurantindustry. Afrìcan Journal of Business Management, 6(14), 5039-5046.Pecoti?, M., Bazdin, V., & Samardzija, J. (2014). Interior design in restaurants as a factor influencing customer satisfaction. RIThink,4,10-14.Wong, C. Y. (2013). Effect of restaurant image on customer satisfaction and repatronage intention towards fast food restaurants: Themoderating role of brand choice (Doctoral dissertation, University Malaysia Sabah).Copyright ofApeejay Instìtute ofManagement Technìcal Campus, All rights reserved. Contents may not be emailed, posted or otherwisetransmitted without thè copyright holder's express writtenpermission. Users mayprint or email articlesfor individuai use only.
Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality, environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create a positive impact through word ofmouth. Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment off ood outlets .
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