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The Foundations ofDisinformation andMisinformationCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:The term Information disorder was coined by researcherdanah boydpartner researcher atMicrosoft Research,founder and presidentof Data & SocietyResearch Institute@zephoriawith misinformation and disinformation, generally on the digitalRenee DiRestatechnical researchmanager at StanfordInternet Observatory@noUpsideKolina Koltaipostdoctoral researcherat the Center for anInformed Public at theUniversity of Washington@KolinaKoltaiMeghna Mahadevandisinformationdefense strategist withUnited We DreamThomas Ridprofessor of StrategicStudies, Johns HopkinsUniversity@RidTClaire Wardleco-founder of First Draft@cward1eDr. Claire Wardle to describe the broad societal challenges associatedlandscape, that contribute to the pollution of our evolving information ecosystem. Misinformation is the unintentional spread of false ormisleading information, shared by mistake, or under a presumptionof truth. Disinformation—false or misleading information that is deliberately spread with an intent to cause harm or damage—is neithernew nor unique to the modern day.From Octavian’s propaganda campaign against Antony in AncientRome to ‘The Great Moon Hoax’ of 1835, disinformation has beena favored weapon of politicians, civic leaders and mischief makersaround the world. Yet the rise of the internet and the exponentialgrowth of social media use across cultures and communities hasdramatically increased the speed and impact of false narratives. Thetactics behind disinformation vary widely and further complicatesour understanding around source motivation and intention. Knowinghow it’s done is just as important when trying to understand why.Reading Resources:Information Disorder:Toward An InterdisciplinaryFramework For ResearchAnd Policy Making(First Draft)A short guide to thehistory of ’fake news’and disinformation(International Center forJournalists)Video: A Brief HistoryOf Disinformation, AndWhat To Do About It(Matt Tait, University ofTexas)The Long and BrutalHistory of Fake News(Jacob Soll, Politico)Podcast: Thomas Rid onactive measures and digitaldisinformation(Brookings)1The Future of Truth andMisinformation Online(Janna Anderson AndLee Rainie, Pew ResearchCenter)The MisinformationCampaign Was DistinctlyOne-Sided(Renee DiResta,The Atlantic)The long fuse: Misinformationand the 2020 election(Election IntegrityPartnership report)20/20 Vision: Lessonslearned about thechallenges of disruptingmisinformation in 2020(First Draft article series)Combatting DigitalDisinformation An EvaluationOf The William And FloraHewlett Foundation’sDisinformation Strategy(Hewlett)Digital Democracy:Accelerating A NewField Of Knowledge(Knight Foundation)Facebook: From Electionto Insurrection(Avaaz report)Tackling misinformation:What researchers could dowith social media data (HKSMisinformation Review)Addressing false informationduring the 2020 electionand lessons for the future(American Press Institute)

Regulation Modelsfrom Other Partsof the WorldCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Efforts by various European countries to address distrust andVictoria De PossonDisruptiveCompetition Projectcompanies and social media platforms is an approach the U.S. has yetEvelyn Doueklecturer atHarvard Law School@evelyndouekDr. AleksandraKuczerawySenior Fellow andResearcher at KU Leuven@AlexandraQuChristoph SchmonInternational Policydirector, ElectronicFrontier Foundation@EFFdisinformation vary across the continent. Regulating big technologyto effectively take, presenting opportunities for the American government to learn, adapt and act.Reading Resources:Social media: How do othergovernments regulate it?(BBC)The United StatesNeeds a BBC(Foreign Policy, 2021)How the EU’s new digitalservices act can helpbuild trust and tackleillegal content(Victoria De Posson,Disruptive CompetitionProject)Digital Services Act:Ensuring a trustworthy andsafe online environmentwhile allowing freedomof expression(Victoria De Posson,Disruptive CompetitionProject)Southeast Asia’sDisinformation Crisis: Wherethe State is the Biggest BadActor and Regulation is aBad Word(Jonathan Corpus Ong,Insights from the SocialSciences)Twitter, Trump, and ToughDecisions: EU Freedom ofExpression and the DigitalServices Act(Christoph Schmon,Electronic FrontierFoundation)Government Responses toDisinformation on SocialMedia Platforms: France(Library of Congress)EU Code of Practice onDisinformation: BriefingNote for the New EuropeanCommission(Carnegie Endowment)Law prohibiting electionmisinformation struck down(CBC)2Government Responses toDisinformation on SocialMedia Platforms(Library of Congress)

First Amendmentand Section 230Commissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Section 230 has become a political football in terms of platformDr. Mary Anne FranksPresident of the CyberCivil Rights Initiative andProfessor of Law at theUniversity of Miami@ma franksand disinformation. “One highly influential piece of misinformationEric Goldmaninternet law professor,Santa Clara UniversityLaw School@ericgoldmanJeff Kosseffassistant professor ofcybersecurity law atthe United StatesNaval Academy, authorof “The Twenty-SixWords That Createdthe Internet”@jkosseffMike Masnickfounder and CEO ofthe Copia Institute@mmasnickaccountability and responsibility regarding the spread of online misis that the tech industry is biased against conservative figures andconservative content,” shared Dr. Mary Anne Franks, president ofthe Cyber Civil Rights Initiative as part of a question for Facebook,Twitter and Google CEOs. “Conservative figures and content actually perform very well on social media sites such as Facebook, eventhough they disproportionately violate companies’ policies againstmisinformation and other abuse.” With members of Congress introducing the SAFE TECH Act to address Section 230 concerns, questions are being raised about how this could affect rights protected bythe First Amendment.Reading Resources:The history of Section 230(60 Minutes, with JeffKosseff)Speech on the internet:The First Amendment andSection 230 are different(Marketplace)Section 230: Everything YouNeed to Know—Tweets,Free Speech, Beyond(Mike Masnick, podcast)Hello! You’ve Been ReferredHere Because You’reWrong About Section 230Of The CommunicationsDecency Act(Mike Masnick, Techdirtblog)How Section 230 Enhancesthe First Amendment(Eric Goldman, AmericanConstitution Society)3Six Constitutional HurdlesFor Platform SpeechRegulation(Daphne Keller, Centerfor Internet and Society)Mapping WorldwideInitiatives to CounterInfluence Operations(Carnegie Endowment forInternational Peace)

Cognitive Scienceand BehavioralEconomicsCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Social media may have provided a space for mis and disinformationMeredith Broussardresearch director at theNYU Alliance for PublicInterest Technology@merbroussardcontent and how they became radicalized must be addressed as well.Panayiota (Pani)KendeouEducational Psychology,co-author of theDebunking Handbook@KendeouEric SaundResearch scientistin Cognitive Scienceand AIJason Stanleyphilosophy@jasonintrator4to spread, but questions around why people believe and share falseWhat roles do cognitive biases and mental shortcuts, as described bybehavioral economics, and the development of algorithms affect oreven degrade our information ecosystem?Reading Resources:‘Exit Counselors’ Strain ToPull Americans Out Of AWeb Of False Conspiracies(Tovia Smith, NPR)COVID lies, conspiracytheories build on boredom,beliefs (Kathrin Wesolowski,Deutsche Welle)Political psychology in thedigital (mis)information age:A model of news beliefand sharing(Preprint)How Cybersecurity ExpertsCan Nudge Users To MakeSafer Choices(Perry Carpenter, Forbes)How Facebook gotaddicted to spreadingmisinformation(Karen Hao, Tech Review)Fake News andAnthropology: AConversation on Technology,Trust, and Publics in an Ageof Mass Disinformation(Journal of the Associationfor Political and LegalAnthropology)

Platform Responseand AccountabilityCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Social media platforms and Big Tech play a pivotal role in bothEmily Bellfounder, director,Tow Center for DigitalJournalism at ColumbiaUniversity@Emilybellregarding transparency, responsibility and accountability have risenErin Gallaghersocial media researcher@3r1nGTimnit Gebrucomputer scientist andco-founder, Black in AI@timnitGebruIfeoma OzomaFounder and Principalof Earthseed@IfeomaOzomaNicol Turner LeeSenior Fellow—Governance Studies,Director—Centerfor TechnologyInnovation, Brookings@drturnerlee5the spread and response to online mis and disinformation. Questionsas independent researchers and technologists work to understandhow to approach studying platform impact when data and accessare restricted. Platform-led efforts, policies and research have beendeveloped internally and with nonprofit organizations, but questionsstill remain over their effectiveness.Reading Resources:All Change No Fix: How BigTech’s “Self regulation” failsour democracy(Decode Democracy)A Dozen Experts withQuestions CongressShould Ask the Tech CEOs— On Disinformation andExtremism(Just Security)Can “Inoculation” BuildBroad-Based Resistance toMisinformation?(Jigsaw)Why content moderationcosts billions and is sotricky for Facebook, Twitter,YouTube and others(CNBC)Facebook’s Oversight Boardmakes an imperfect casefor private governance(Brookings)Can an OversightBoard Created by FacebookActually Fix the Company’sFailings?(Mother Jones)You and the Algorithm: ItTakes Two to Tango(Nick Clegg, Medium)Distraction HelpsMisinformation Spread.Thinking About AccuracyCan Reduce it(Jigsaw)We need to know moreabout political ads. But cantransparency be a trap?(Madelyn Webb, BethanJohn, NiemanLab)Platform Interventions: HowSocial Media CountersInfluence Operations(Partnership for CounteringInfluence Operations,Carnegie Endowment forInternational Peace)Bringing Truth to theInternet(Democracy Journal)Social Media andDemocracy: The State of theField, Prospects for Reform(Social Science ResearchCouncil)Improving Social Media:The People, Organizationsand Ideas for a BetterTech Future(All Tech is Human)

Intersection of Disinformation and MarginalizedCommunitiesCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Communities of color and other marginalized groups haveNora BenavidezPEN America@AttorneyNoraand disinformation. According to a report by the Senate IntelligenceFarai ChideyaFord Foundation@faraiBrandi-Collins DexterShorenstein Center@BrandingBrandiClaudia Flores-SaviagaFellow at FacebookResearch, Ph.D.candidate in theHCI Lab at WestVirginia University@saviagaSherrilyn IfillPresident, NAACPLegal Defense Fund@Sifill LDFJacquelyn Masonspecial projectsmanager, First Draft@JacquieSMasonShireen Mitchellfounder, StopOnline ViolenceAgainst Women@digitalsistaOlivier SylvainProfessor of Law atFordham University@oliviersylvainBridget Toddcommunications directorat UltraViolet@BridgetMarieKhuram ZamanAdjunct Professor atGeorgetown University@zamandigital6consistently been disproportionately affected and targeted by misCommittee on Russian interference in 2016, “no single group ofAmericans was targeted by IRA information operatives more thanAfrican Americans. By far, race and related issues were the preferredtarget of the information warfare campaign designed to divide thecountry.” In 2020, these tactics focused on suppressing voter turnout and spreading medical distrust in minority communities, creating societal harm and individual risk. Understanding the history oftargeted disinformation campaigns is critical when trying to developwhole-of-society solutions.Reading Resources:Failure to understand Blackand Latinx communitieswill result in a criticalmisunderstanding of theimpact of disinformation(Jacquelyn Mason, FirstDraft)From vote to virus,misinformation campaigntargets Latinos(Will Weissert, AP)Michael Tubbs ondisinformation, racism,and news deserts(Akintunde Ahmad,Columbia JournalismReview)COVID-19 infodemicexacerbates existingreligious and racialprejudices(Harrison Mantas, Poynter)‘An unquestionable truth’:Religious misinformation inthe coronavirus pandemic(Jaime Longoria, DanielAcosta Ramos and MadelynWebb, First Draft)The challenge ofcombating fake newsin Asian Americancommunities(Terry Nguyen, Vox)How a racializeddisinformationcampaign ties itself toThe 1619 Project(Joan Donovan, BrandiCollins Dexter, ColumbiaJournalism Review)

Cults, ConspiracyTheories and ThwartingOnline RadicalizationCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Mis- and disinformation has driven individuals to embrace fringe,Becca LewisPh.D researcher atStanford and Dataand Society@beccalewbetween public curiosity and the media and entertainment industryDaniel KoehlerResearch Fellow atthe Polarization andExtremism Research andInnovation Lab at the“Center for UniversityExcellence (CUE)” ofAmerican UniversityJanja LalichPh.D., a researcher,author, and educatorspecializing in cults andextremist groupsSander van der LindenProfessor of SocialPsychology in Societyin the Departmentof Psychology at theUniversity of Cambridgeand Director of theCambridge SocialDecision-Making Lab@Sander vdLindenDr. AlexanderMeleagrou-HitchensResearch Director of theProgram on Extremismat The GeorgeWashington University@amhitchensPeter Neumannfounding director,International Centrefor the Study ofRadicalisation (ICSR) atKing’s College London@PeterRNeumannTravis ViewQAnonymouspodcast host@travis view7radical views. Its roots go back decades as a cyclical relationshiphave led to the dramatization and amplification of cults and conspiracy theories. The advent of social media and tech platforms gave riseto algorithmic targeting and private online groups, driving peopledeeper into partisan camps and fabricated belief networks resultingin dangerous, disinfo-fueled events around the world.Reading Resources:I Escaped the Cult. But ICouldn’t Escape the CultMentality(Narratively, Daniella Young)What we can learn fromconspiracy theories(BBC, Zaria Gorvett)How to talk to conspiracytheorists—and still be kind(Technology Review, TanyaBasu)Why Countering ViolentExtremism Programs AreBad Policy(The Brennan Center forJustice)Online Extremism: ResearchTrends in Internet Activism,Radicalization, and CounterStrategies(International Journal ofConflict and Violence)Could One of YourFacebook Friends Be TheNext QAnon Shaman?(John Semley, The Nation)Facebook’s Militia Mess(Tech Transparency Project)7 Insights From InterviewingConspiracy Theory Believers(Jigsaw)

Decline of Trustin InstitutionsCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:A decline in trust in American institutions is both a contributingMartin Gurria former mediaanalyst at the CIA@mgurriResearch study showed that the public’s trust in both the federal gov-Richard EdelmanCEO of Edelman,Edelman Trust Index@richardwedelmantrusted medical doctors, researchers and scientists, but trust in scien-Rebecca StavickCEO, CommunityInformation Trust@RebeccaStavickEthan ZuckermanUMass Amherst; formerdirector of the MITCenter for Civic Media.Author of “Howdo we Regain Trustin Institutions?”@EthanZfactor in and a victim of information disorder. In 2019, a Pewernment, news media, and in their personal circles have decreased.Prior to the pandemic, a majority of the respondents said theytists and medical researchers declined. In an essay published in 2020,Richard Edelman, CEO of the communications firm Edelman, said“every institution must play its part in restoring facts to their rightfulplace at the center of public discourse as the essential step to emerging from information bankruptcy.”Reading Resources:The elites have failed(Vox)How to Put OutDemocracy’s Dumpster Fire(The Atlantic)Outgoing WashingtonPost editor Marty Baronreflects on the state ofAmerican journalism(PBS Newshour)8‘An Epidemic ofMisinformation.’ NewReport Finds Trust inSocial InstitutionsDiminished Further in 2020(Time)The ongoing fight againstracism in newsrooms(Jon Allsop, ColumbiaJournalism Review)Americans have lostfaith in institutions.That’s not because ofTrump or ‘fake news’(Bill Bishop,Washington Post)Crisis in Democracy:Renewing Trust in America(Knight Commissionon Trust, Media andDemocracy)2021 Edelman TrustBarometer(Report)Most Americans—especiallyMillennials—say librariescan help them find reliable,trustworthy information(Pew Research Center)The Global Trust Crisis(Foreign Policy)

Crisis in Local Newsand MediaCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Elizabeth GreenCo-founder &CEO, Chalkbeat,@elizwgreenLocal news, in crisis before the pandemic, is now facing a cataclysm.Ad revenue has been decimated and consolidation has driven recordjob cuts. Access to critical trustworthy information for millionsof Americans is declining at alarming rates across the country. Intothat void has entered partisan information sources, often riddlesGraciela MochkofskyExecutive Director forCenter for CommunityMedia and SpanishLanguage programdirector, Craig NewmarkGraduate School ofJournalism at CUNY@gmochkofskywith falsehoods. Local reporters were unprepared to address theTracie Powellfounder of AllDigitocracy and a JohnS. Knight JournalismFellow at Stanford,Program Officer,Borealis Philanthropy@TMPowellLosing The News: TheDecimation of Local Newsand the Search for Solutions(PEN America—Full report)Jim Steyerfounder, Common SenseMedia, @jimsteyer@CommonSenseMargaret SullivanWashington Post@SulliviewSteven WaldmanPresident & Co-founder,Report for America@stevenwaldman9onslaught of misleading and false content that spread on social mediaand via word-of-mouth accounts on testing, masks and vaccines,complicating the information ecosystem even more.Reading Resources:A New Tool To MeasureThe Health Of Local NewsEcosystems(Knight Foundation)Give local journalism afighting chance by creatinga demand for it(Alan Miller, Poynter)It’s Bigger than Fox News:Time for MainstreamJournalism to Reckon withMonetizing Disinformationand Eroding Truth(Farai Chideya, Medium)How the government canhelp save local news withoutendangering its editorialindependence(Poynter, Steven Waldman,Report for America)Watch Author MargaretSullivan Explain How theDecline of Local JournalismUndermines AmericanDemocracy(Margaret Sullivan, Time)News And America’s Kids:How Young People PerceiveAnd Are Impacted ByThe News(Common Sense Media)

Political Polarizationand DisinformationCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Joan DonovanResearch Director ofthe Shorenstein Centeron Media, Politics andPublic Policy at HarvardKennedy School@BostonJoanBrian GuayPh.D. Candidate,Duke University@BrianMGuayYoung Mie Kimprofessor, University ofWisconsin–madisonDave RandProfessor ofManagement Scienceand Brain and CognitiveSciences at MIT@DG RandCraig Silvermanmedia editor atBuzzfeed@CraigSilvermanWhitney Phillipsprofessor, Comm &Rhetorical Studies,Syracuse University@wphillips4910Social media has both evolved and complicated the informationlandscape. Algorithmic targeting and private groups have driven usfurther into partisan camps and deepend mistrust into alternativeviewpoints. Many legacy and digital media are operating in seeminglydifferent realities, dependent more so on either political influence oraudience demands. Disinformation campaigns, reaching a crescendoin the last year demonized officials at all levels of government andexpanded into areas of public health. Americans were exposed tocontent that depicted elected leaders and candidates as active dangers to their livelihoods and values, with January 6 a consequentialoutcome. This level of polarization is a critical fracture in the democratic fundamental of political discourse.Reading Resources:Social media is making abad political situation worse(Rani Molla, Vox)Fake News GetsMore Engagement onFacebook—But Only If It’sRight-Wing(WIRED)Whose Anger Counts?(Whitney Phillips,Boston Review)Disinformation Fuels DistrustAnd Even Violence At AllLevels Of Government(Sarah McCammon, NPR)How shared partisanshipleads to social mediaconnections(Peter Dizikes, MIT News)Facebook Is aDoomsday Machine(Adrienne LaFrance,The Atlantic)Political sectarianism inAmerica (Science)

Brands, theCommercial Sectorand DisinformationCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Areas of concern regarding mis and disinformation are not limitedSteven BrillCo-CEO, NewsGuardcorporations and financial markets can be greatly affected by false orMichelle FerrierExecutive Directorat Media mediaghostsmanipulate stock prices, damage brand reputations or target con-Chris PerryGlobal ChiefInnovation Officer,Weber Shandwick@cperry248John PoulosCEO, DominionVoting Systems (livedexperience expert)to social media platforms and political discourse. Businesses,misleading information, intentional and otherwise. Whether it’s tosumer confidence, disinformation has become a dangerous tactic thatmarketing and public relations firms may not be prepared to effectively counter. It’s important to understand how brands, businessesand companies are currently being targeted and how they respond toattacks such as deepfakes on an organizational level.Reading Resources:Trust, Misinformation AndWhy Brands Need To BeMore Careful Than Ever(Marian Salzman, Forbes)Brands Face A NewOnline Threat:Disinformation Attacks(Robert Mcmillan,The Wall Street Journal)Business mustcombat fake news(Edelman, 2019)Fake news can cause‘irreversible damage’ tocompanies—and sinktheir stock price(Claire Atkinson, NBC News)Disinformation: Companiesin the crosshairs(James Blake, SecurityMagazine)Fake news threatens ourbusinesses, not just ourpolitics(Matthew F. Ferraro,Jason C. Chipman,Washington Post)Disinformation attacks arespreading. Here are 4 keysto protecting your company(Lisa Kaplan, Fortune)11What Comes After TheCoherence Crash?(Chris Perry, Medium)Mergers: Commissionfines Facebook 110 millionfor providing misleadinginformation aboutWhatsApp takeover(2017)Dominion vs. Fox NewsDefamation Filing(2020)Dominion Voting SystemsCEO John Poulos talkselections, death threatsand lawsuits(Axios, 2021)

Nation-StateThreatsCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Nation-state actors have carried out influence operations duringAnne ApplebaumAtlantic Staff writer@anneapplebaumtics such as network operations, provocations and the coordinatedGraham Brookiedirector of the AtlanticCouncil’s DigitalForensic ResearchLab (DFRLab)@GrahamBrookieRon Deibertdirector of Citizen LabCamille Francoischief innovationofficer, Graphika@camillefrancoisJohn KellyCEO, Graphika@apidictionistAlicia Wanlessdirector of thePartnership forCountering InfluenceOperations, CarnegieEndowment forInternational Peace@lageneralistaClint Wattssenior fellow at theCenter for Cyber andHomeland Securityat George WashingtonUniversity and aForeign Policy ResearchInstitute fellow,@selectedwisdom12elections in both Europe and the United States. Even though tacspreading of disinformation have been revealed, this has notdeterred the activity from Russia and China. Disinformation effortshave increased during the pandemic and concerns about futurethreats and targets have increased.Reading Resources:Tackling disinformation isnational security issue saysformer NSA general counsel(CBS News, Michael Morellspeaks with former NSAgeneral counsel GlennGerstell)The Norwegian IntelligenceService’s assessment ofcurrent security challenges(2021)Germany is main targetof Russian disinformation,EU says(Reuters)Don’t Wait for Them toFind You: What You Needto Know Today AboutNation-State Threat Actors(Podcast, blog, SecureWorks)The changing landscapeof disinformation andcybersecurity threats: Arecap from Verify 2019(Hewlett)The Fake News Machine:How Propagandists Abusethe Internet and Manipulatethe Public(Trend Micro)Chinese hackerstargeted Uyghurs living inUS, Facebook securityteam finds(CNN)Mapping WorldwideInitiatives to CounterInfluence Operations(Carnegie Endowment forInternational Peace)

EmergingDisinformationThreatsCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:The Capitol siege by white nationalists, Trump supporters andRenee DiRestatechnical researchmanager at StanfordInternet Observatory@noUpsidedisinformation campaign has revealed new concerns from internetCameron HickeyProgram Directorfor AlgorithmicTransparency@cameronhickeySiwei LyuSUNY EmpireInnovation ProfessorGiorgio PatriniCEO of Deeptrace LabsDeborah Rajicomputer scientist inAI accountability@rajiinioMelissa Ryandigital researcheron Alt-right forCARD Strategies@MelissaRyan13militia groups on January 6 that was grown out of a social media-ledexperts, threat researchers and more. How will tactics evolve,what sites will bad actors migrate to and what types of digitaltechnology will be used to disrupt society in the weeks, monthsand years to come?Reading Resources:What will misinformationlook like in 2030 (and will webe better at spotting it bythen)?(Laura Hazard Owen,NiemanLab)The Supply ofDisinformation Will SoonBe Infinite(Renee DiResta,The Atlantic)How to deal with AIenabled disinformation(John Villasenor, Brookings)Survey XII: Digital NewNormal 2025—After theOutbreak—Hopes andworries for the evolution ofhumans and digital life inthe wake of the arrival ofthe COVID-19 pandemic(Report, Elon University)Assessing The Real ThreatPosed By DeepfakeTechnology(International Banker)Deepfake master behindthose viral Tom Cruisevideos says the technologyshould be regulated(Fortune)

Civic Educationand Media LiteracyCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterSelected Expertson the Topic:Increasing the public’s media literacy and civic educationalDanielle Allen,Stephen B. Heintz,and Eric P. Liuchairs, Commissionon the Practice ofDemocratic Citizenshipand disinformation problem American society is facing. Studies byMichael Caulfielddigital informationliteracy expert workingat Washington StateUniversity Vancouver@holdenFrancela Chi deChinchillaVIP of Partnershipsat EquisLabsPatrisse Cullorsco-founder, Black LivesMatter Movement@OsopePatrisseDan GillmorArizona StateUniversity, News Co/Lab@dangillmorMyaisha HayesCampaign strategiesdirector withMedia Justice@MyaishaAyannaAlan MillerFounder and CEO of theNews Literacy ProjectTerry Ao MinnisSenior Director ofCensus and VotingPrograms withAsian AmericansAdvancing Justice,@Tao Minnis14understanding has been viewed as a critical solution to the misresearch institutions and programs by schools and libraries havereflected an increasing demand for civic engagement and digitalmedia literacy, and hopes that it can push back against politicalpolarization and online radicalization.Reading Resources:Media and InformationLiteracy: ReinforcingHuman Rights,Countering Radicalizationand Extremism(UNESCO report)Media Literacy &Misinformation:Getting Started(MonmouthUniversity resource)Massive investment insocial studies and civicseducation proposed toaddress eroding trust indemocratic institutionsJoe Heim, Washington Post)Alan Miller says NationalNews Literacy Weekis about solving themisinformation “pandemic”(Jan 2020, CNN’s ReliableSources podcast)Why Civic Education Is Keyto Protecting Democracy(Douglas F. Challenger, NewEngland Board of HigherEducation)Want to Stop the NextCrisis? Teaching CyberCitizenship Must Become aNational Priority(Time)

AppendixCommissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterRecommended readings and resources not shared as materialsfor commissioners but useful for all those interested in the worksurrounding information disorder.Digital ResourcesDisinformationAnnotated Bibliography(The Citizen Lab)@EUvsDisinfo(EU East StratcomTask Force)Untangle misinformationusing predictive mediaintelligence(Newswhip)Political Polarization(Pew Research Center)Media & Migration Lab(University of CentralFlorida)Misinformation,Disinformation and WhatGovernment Can DoAbout Them(Governing.com)Case Studies, Reportsand ExamplesShifting attention toaccuracy can reducemisinformation online(Nature)Birtherism of a Nation(The Atlantic)Butterfly Attack: TheOrigins Of Fake AntifaSocial Media Accounts(Media Manipulation)Fake news victims areusing lawsuits to shut downthe lies. Can courts curethis plague?(USA Today)15Exploring Media LiteracyEducation as a Tool forMitigating Truth Decay(Rand.org)Media Literacy Educationin Libraries for AdultAudiences(American LibraryAssociation)Joan Donovan’s MediaManipulation Case StudyDatabaseWhat Americans Know andDon’t Know about Facebookand Google(Center for MediaEngagement, UT-Austin)How disinformationevolved in 2020(Brookings)“This is Our House!” APreliminary Assessmentof the Capitol Hill SiegeParticipants(Program on Extremism,George WashingtonUniversity)Exploring New Waysto Build Resilience toMisinformation(Jigsaw)European Digital MediaObservatoryHow Social Media HasHarmed the Growth ofDemocratic Culture byDesign(Berkley Center)The Infodemic Cleanse:How to detoxify yourinformation diet(Marc Ambinder)Online Extremism: ResearchTrends in Internet Activism,Radicalization, and CounterStrategies(International Journal ofConflict and Violence)Do we need a ParisAgreement for tech? Here’swhat world leaders and techchiefs say(World Economic Forum)Collaborative Models forUnderstanding InfluenceOperations: LessonsFrom Defense Research(Carnegie Endowment forInternational Development)

Commissionon InformationDisorderKnowledgeCenterInformation DisorderAcademicsAlice MarwickAssociate Professor ofCommunication andPrincipal Researcher at theCenter for Information,Technology and Public Life@alicetiaraMarc-André ArgentinoResearch Fellow,International Centre forthe Study of

The Foundations of Disinformation and Misinformation Reading Resources: Information Disorder: Toward An Interdisciplinary Framework For Research And Policy Making (First Draft) A short guide to the history of Õfake newsÕ and disinformation (International Center for Journalists) Video: A Brief History Of Disinformation, And

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