Service.Self-Study Programme 2091.9-ltr. TDI Engine withPump Injection SystemDesign and Function1
Something new has happened to the diesel engineThe demands on the modern diesel engine withregard to performance, fuel economy, exhaustemissions and noise levels are growingconstantly.Good mixture preparation is a key factor formeeting these requirements.This calls for efficient injection systems whichproduce high injection pressures to ensure thatfuel is atomised very finely. Also, it is necessary toprecisely control the commencement of fuelinjection and injection quantity.The pump injection system meets these toughrequirements.This is how it might have looked:In 1905, Rudolf Diesel came up with the idea of apump injector.Even Rudolf Diesel thought about combining theinjection pump and injector in one unit in order todispense with high-pressure lines and therebyachieve high injection pressures. However, he didnot have the technical means to put this idea intopractice.209 03Diesel engines with mechanically controlledpump injection systems have been in use in shipsand trucks since the 1950s.For the first time, Volkswagen, in association withRobert Bosch AG, has succeeded in developing adiesel engine with a solenoid valve controlledpump injection system suitable for use inpassenger cars.A step into the future, this engine meets the toughdemands on performance and clean emissions.At this rate, Rudolf Diesel's vision of "smokeand odour-free exhaust gases“ will one daybecome reality.NewThe Self-Study ProgrammePlease always refer to the relevant Service Literatureis not a Workshop Manual.for all inspection, adjustment and repair instructions.ImportantNote
Table of contentsIntroduction . 4SpecificationsPump injection system . 6GeneralStructural designDriving mechanismInjection cycleFuel supply . 18Diagram of fuel circuitFuel pumpDistributor pipeFuel cooling systemEngine management . 26System overviewSensorsActuatorsGlow plug systemFunction diagramSelf-diagnosisEngine mechanicals . 51Trapezoidal piston and conrodToothed belt driveService . 54Special tools3
Introduction1.9-ltr. TDI engine with pump injection systemIt was developed on the basis of the 1.9-ltr./81kW TDI engine with no intermediate shaft.Only through the injection system does it differfrom the engine fitted with a distributorinjection pump.On the following pages we will explaineverything about the design and the mode offunctioning of the pump injection system andwe will show you the necessary modificationsto the fuel system, engine management systemand engine mechanicals.209 05The diesel engine with the pump injection systemhas the following advantages over the distributorinjection pump: Low combustion noise Low fuel consumption Clean emissions High efficiencyThese advantages are attributable to: The high injection pressures of up to 2050 bar Precise control of the injection cycle The pre-injection cycle4
SpecificationsEngine code:AJMType:4-cylinder in-line engineStroke/bore:79.5mm/ 95.5mmCompression ratio:18 : 1Mixture preparationEngine management:Electronic Diesel Control,Bosch EDC 15 PFuel type:Diesel, at least 49CN,or biodiesel (RME)Exhaust gasaftertreatment:Exhaust gas recirculationand oxidation catalyticconverterOutput and torque curveTorqueNmThe engine conforms to exhaustemission level D3.Comparative torque curveTorqueNmPower outputkW30085 KW802502507020020060150150501001004080285 Nm3000100020003000400005000200040006000Engine speed (rpm)Engine speed (rpm)1.9-ltr. 85kW TDI engine209 06Thanks to the high injection pressures up to 2050bar and the favourable effect they have on thecombustion process, the engine develops 285Nmof torque at only 1900rpm.Maximum power output is 85kW at 4000rpm.1.9-ltr. 81kW TDI engine209 11From the same displacement, the engine withpump injection system develops 21% moretorque than the 1.9-ltr. 81kW TDI engine withdistributor injection pump.5
Pump injection systemGeneral informationWhat is a pump injector?A pump injector is, as the name already implies,an injection pump combined with a control unitand an injector.Each cylinder of the engine has a pump injector.This means that there is no longer any need for ahigh-pressure line or a distributor injection pump.Just like a distributor injection pump withinjectors, the pump injection system has thefollowing tasks: Generating the high injection pressuresrequired Injecting fuel in the correct quantity and atthe correct point in timePressuregeneratingpumpInjectorControl unit(solenoid valve)209 126
Fitting locationThe pump injector is directlyintegrated in the cylinder head.209 86FixingIt is attached to the cylinder head by a clamping block.It is important to ensure that the pump injector isinstalled in the correct position.If the pump injector is not perpendicular to thecylinder head, the fastening bolt can comeundone. The pump injector and/or the cylinderhead may be damaged as a result. Pleaseobserve the instructions given in the WorkshopManual.209 877
Pump injection systemDesignRoller-typerocker armBall pinPump pistonPiston springInjection camSolenoid valveneedleInjectorsolenoid valveHigh-pressure chamberFuel return lineRetraction pistonFuel supply lineO-ringsInjectorspringInjector needledamping elementHeatinsulating sealInjectorneedle209 23Cylinder head8
Drive mechanismThe camshaft has four additionalcams for driving the pump injector.They activate the pump pistons ofthe pump injector via roller-typerocker arms.Injection camValve camRoller-typerocker arm209 15The injection cam has asteep leading edge. . . . . and a flat trailing edge.As a result, the pump piston is pushed down athigh velocity and a high injection pressure isattained quickly.As a result, the pump piston moves up and downslowly and evenly, allowing fuel to flow free ofair bubbles into the high-pressure chamber ofthe pump injector.Roller-type rocker armRoller-type rocker armPumppistonPumppistonInjection camInjection cam209 16209 179
Pump injection systemRequirements relating to mixture formation and combustionGood mixture formation is a vital factor to ensureefficient combustion.Accordingly, fuel must be injected in the correctquantity at the right time and at high pressure. Evenminimal deviations can lead to higher levels ofpollutant emission, noisy combustion or high fuelconsumption.A short firing delay is important for the combustionsequence of a diesel engine. The firing delay is theperiod between the start of fuel injection and the startof pressure rise in the combustion chamber. If a largefuel quantity is injected during this period, thepressure will rise suddenly and cause loudcombustion noise.Pre-injection cycleTo ensure the combustion process is as soft aspossible, a small amount of fuel is injected at a lowpressure before the start of the main injection cycle.This injection process is known as the pre-injectioncycle. Combustion of this small quantity of fuel causesthe pressure and temperature in the combustionchamber to rise.This meets the requirements for quick ignition of themain injection quantity, thus reducing the firing delay.The pre-injection cycle and the "injection interval"between the pre-injection cycle and the main injectioncycle produce a gradual rise in pressure within thecombustion chamber, not a sudden pressure build-up.The effects of this are low combustion noise levels andlower nitrogen oxide emission.Main injection cycleEnd of injectionThe key requirement for the main injection cycle is theformation of a good mixture, the aim being to burnthe fuel completely if possible. The high injectionpressure finely atomises the fuel in such a way that thefuel and air can mix well with one another. Completecombustion reduces pollutant emission and ensureshigh engine efficiency.At the end of the injection process, it is important thatthe injection pressure drops quickly and the injectorneedle closes quickly. This prevents fuel at a lowinjection pressure and with a large droplet diameterfrom entering the combustion chamber. The fuel doesnot combust completely, giving rise to higher pollutantemissions.Engine demandPump injectorInjectionpressureThe injection curve of the pump injection system largelymatches the engine's demands, with low pressuresduring the pre-injection cycle, followed by an "injectioninterval", then a rise pressure during the main injectioncycle. The injection cycle ends abruptly.Time10
The injection cycleDuring the filling cycle, the pump piston movesupwards under the force of the piston spring andthus increases the volume of the high-pressurechamber.The injector solenoid valve is not activated.The solenoid valve needle is in its resting positionand opens up the path from the fuel supply lineto the high-pressure chamber. The fuel pressurein the supply line causes the fuel to flow into thehigh-pressure chamber.The high-pressure chamber is filledRoller-type rocker armPump pistonPiston springSolenoid valve needleInjectorsolenoid valveHigh-pressurechamberFuel supply line209 2411
Pump injection systemThe injection cycleThe pre-injection cycle commencesThe injection cam pushes the pump piston downvia the roller-type rocker arm and thus displacesfuel out of the high-pressure chamber into thefuel supply line.The engine control unit initiates the injectioncycle by activating the injector solenoid valve. Inthe process, the solenoid valve needle is presseddown into the valve seat and closes off the pathfrom the high-pressure chamber to the fuelsupply line. This initiates a pressure build-up inthe high-pressure chamber. At 180 bar, thepressure is greater than the force of the injectorspring. The injector needle is lifted and the preinjection cycle commences.Pump pistonSolenoid valveseatInjection camSolenoid valve needleHigh-pressurechamberFuel supply lineInjector needle209 2512
The pre-injection cycle commencesInjector needle dampingDuring the pre-injection cycle, the stroke of the injectorneedle is dampened by a hydraulic 'cushion'. As a result, it ispossible to meter the injection quantity exactly.This is how it works:In the first third of the total stroke, the injector needle isopened undamped. The pre-injection quantity is injected intothe combustion chamber.Undampedstroke209 35As soon as the damping piston plunges into the bore in theinjector housing, the fuel above the injector needle can onlybe displaced into the injector spring chamber through aleakage gap. This creates a hydraulic 'cushion' which limitsthe injector needle stroke during the pre-injection cycle.Injector springchamberInjector housingLeakage gapHydrauliccushionDamping piston209 3613
Pump injection systemThe injection cycleThe pre-injection cycle ends straight after theinjector needle opens. The rising pressure causesthe retraction piston to move downwards, thusincreasing the volume of the high-pressurechamber.The pressure drops momentarily as a result, andthe injector needle closes.This pre-injection cycle now ends.The downward movement of the retraction pistonpre-loads the injector spring to a greater extent.To re-open the injector needle during thesubsequent main injection cycle, therefore, thefuel pressure has to be higher than during thepre-injection cycle.End of pre-injection cyclePump pistonHigh-pressurechamberInjectorsolenoid valveRetractionpistonInjectorspringInjector needle209 2614
The injection cycleThe pressure in the high-pressure chamber risesagain shortly after the injector needle closes.The injector solenoid valve remains closed andthe pump piston moves downwards.At approx. 300 bar, the fuel pressure is greaterthan the force exerted by the pre-loaded injectorspring. The injector needle is again lifted and themain injection quantity is injected.The pressure rises to 2050 bar, because morefuel is displaced in the high-pressure chamberthan can escape through the nozzle holes.Maximum. fuel pressure is at max. engine output,i.e. at a high engine speed with a large quantityof fuel being injected at the same time.The main injection cycle commencesPump pistonHigh-pressurechamberInjectorsolenoid valveInjectorspringInjector needle209 2715
Pump injection systemThe injection cycleThe injection cycle ends when the engine controlunit stops activating the injector solenoid valve.The solenoid valve spring opens the solenoidvalve needle, and the fuel displaced by thepump piston can enter the fuel supply line. Thepressure drops. The injector needle closes andthe injector spring presses the bypass piston intoits starting position.The main injection cycle now ends.The main injection cycle endsPump pistonSolenoid valve needleSolenoid valve springInjectorsolenoid valveRetractionpistonFuel supply lineInjector needle209 2816
Fuel return in the pump injectorThe fuel return line in the pump injector has thefollowing task: Cool the pump injector. For this purpose, fuelfrom the fuel supply line is flushed throughthe pump injector ducts into the fuel returnline. Discharge leaking fuel at the pump piston. Separate vapour bubbles from the fuelsupply line via the restrictors in the fuel returnline.Leaking fuelPump pistonRestrictorsFuel return lineFuel supply line209 9617
Fuel supplyThe fuel systemA mechanical fuel pump sucks the fuel out of thefuel tank through the fuel filter and pumps italong the supply line in the cylinder head to thepump injector units.The fuel which is not required for injection isreturned to the fuel tank via the return line in thecylinder head, a fuel temperature sensor and afuel cooler.The fuel temperature sensordetermines the temperature of the fuel inthe fuel return line and sends acorresponding signal to the engine controlunit.The fuel coolercools the returning fuel to protect thefuel tank against excessively hot fuel.The fuel tank209 18The fuel filterThe non-return valveprotects the injection systemagainst contamination and wearcaused by particles and water.18prevents fuel from the fuel pumpflowing back into the fuel tank whilethe engine is not running (openingpressure 0.2 bar).
The bypassThe pressure limiting valveIf there is air in the fuel system, for examplewhen the fuel tank is empty, the pressurelimiting valve remains closed. The air isexpelled from the system by the fuel flowinginto the tank.keeps the pressure in the fuelreturn line at 1 bar. A forceequilibrium is thereby maintainedat the solenoid valve needle.The cylinder headThe restrictor bore from the fuel supply line to the fuel return lineVapour bubbles in the fuel supply line are separated in the fuel returnline through the restrictor bore.The fuel pumpThe pressure limiting valveregulates the fuel pressure in the fuelsupply line. The valve opens when thefuel pressure exceeds 7.5 bar,and fuel is fed to the suction side ofthe fuel pump.pumps the fuel from the fuel tank via thefuel filter to the pump injector.The strainerhas the task of collecting vapour bubbles fromthe fuel supply line. These vapour bubbles arethen separated through the restrictor bore andreturn line.19
Fuel supplyThe fuel pumpThe fuel pump is located directlybehind the vacuum pump at thecylinder head. It has the task ofconveying the fuel from the fuel tankto the pump injector.Both pumps are driven jointly by thecamshaft, which is why they arecollectively known as a tandempump.VacuumpumpFuel pumpFuel return lineFuel supply lineConnectionfor pressuregauge209 49There is a connection for pressure gauge V.A.S. 5187 on the fuel pump for checking the fuelpressure in the supply line. Please observe the instructions in the Workshop Manual.The fuel pump is a blocking vane-cellpump. With this type of pump, theblocking vanes are pressed againstthe rotor by the spring pressure. Theadvantage of this is that the pumpdelivers fuel even at low enginespeeds. Rotary vane pumps do notprime until the engine is running sofast that the vane cells are pressedagainst the stator by centrifugal force.The fuel ducting system within thepump is designed so that the rotoralways remains wetted with fuel evenif the tank has been run dry. Thismakes automatic priming possible.Pressure regulatingvalve for fuel supplylineBlocking vanesConnection forfuel supply lineFrom the returnline in thecylinder headRotorRestrictorStrainerIn the supply linein the cylinderheadConnection for fuelreturn linePressure regulatingvalve for fuel returnline209 5020
This is how it works:The fuel pump operates by intaking when thevolume increases and delivering when thevolume reduces.The fuel is drawn and pumped into twochambers. The intake chambers and feedchamber are separated from one another by theblocking vanes.In this figure, fuel is drawn out of chamber 1 andpumped out of chamber 4. The rotationalmovement of the rotor increases the volume ofchamber 1 while the volume of chamber 4reduces.Chamber 4Chamber 1Rotor209 52In this figure, the other two chambers are inaction. The fuel is pumped out of chamber 2 anddrawn out of chamber 3.Chamber 3Chamber 2209 5121
Fuel supplyThe distributor pipeA distributor pipe is integrated in thesupply line in the cylinder head. It hasthe task of distributing fuel evenly to the pumpinjectors.209 40Cylinder1Cylinder2Cylinder3Cylinder4Cylinder headAnnulargapDistributor pipeCross holes209 39This is how it works:The fuel pump conveys the fuel into the supplyline in the cylinder head.In the supply line, the fuel flows along the innerside of the distributor pipe towards cylinder 1. Thefuel enters the annular gap between thedistributor pipe and the cylinder head wallthrough cross-holes. Here, the fuel mixes with thehot fuel forced back into the supply line by thepump injectors. As a result, the fuel in the supplyline running to all cylinders has a uniformtemperature. All pump injectors are supplied withthe same fuel mass, and the engine runssmoothly.Mixingof the fuelin the annulargapFuel to pumpinjectorCross bores22Fuel from pumpinjector209 29
Without a distributor pipe, the fuel temperatureat the pump injector would not be uniform.The hot fuel forced back into the supply line bythe pump injector is pushed from cylinder 4towards cylinder 1 by the flowing fuel into thesupply line.Cylinder1Cylinder2As a result, the fuel temperature rises fromcylinder 4 to cylinder 1 and the pump injectorsare supplied with different fuel masses. Theeffects of this would make the engine runirregularly and would cause an excessively hightemperature in the front cylinders.Cylinder3Cylinder4Cylinder headAnnulargap209 10223
Fuel supplyThe fuel cooling systemThe high pressure in the pump injector heats upthe fuel so intensively that it has to be cooleddown before it flows back into the fuel tank.Fuel coolerFuel pumpA fuel cooler is located on the fuel filter.It cools the returning fuel and thus protects thefuel tank and the fuel level sender againstexcessively hot fuel.Coolant senderExpansion tank209 42Auxiliary water cooler24Fuel cooling pump
The fuel cooling circuitThe fuel returning from the pump injector flowsthrough the fuel cooler and transfers its hightemperature to the coolant in the fuel coolingcircuit.The fuel cooling circuit is separate from theengine cooling circuit. This is necessary since thetemperature of the coolant is too high to cooldown the fuel when the engine is at operatingtemperature engine.The fuel cooling circuit is connected to the enginecooling circuit in the vicinity of the expansiontank. The fuel cooling circuit can thus be filledand changes in volume due to temperaturefluctuation can be compensated. The fuel coolingcircuit is connected so that the hotter enginecooling circuit does not have a detrimental effecton the fuel cooling circuit.The fuel coolerFueltemperature senderThe fuel and coolant flows through the fuelcooler. The temperature of the fuel istransferred to the coolant.Fuel pumpFuel tankExpansion tank209 48The auxiliary water coolerThe fuel cooling pumpreduces the temperature of the coolantin the coolant circuit. It dissipates theheat of the coolant to the ambient air.is an electrical recirculation pump which circulates thecoolant in the fuel cooling circuit. It is switched on bythe engine control unit via the fuel cooling pump relayat a fuel temperature of 70 C.Engine coolingcircuit25
Engine managementSystem overviewAir-mass flow meterG70Altitude sender F96Engine speed sender G28Hall sender G40Accelerator position sender G79Kick-down switch F8Idling speed switch F60Diagnosis wireand immobiliser wireCoolant temperature sender G62Intake manifold pressure sender G71Intake manifold temperature sensor G72CAN databusClutch pedal switch F36Brake light switch Fand brake pedal switch F47Fuel temperaturesender G81ABS control unit J104Auxiliary signals:Road speed signalAir conditioner compressor readyCCS switch3-phase AC alternator terminal DF26
Glow plugs Q6Glow plug relayJ52Control unitfor diesel directinjection system J248Pumpinjector valves,Cylinders 1-4N240 - N243Glow periodwarning lampK29EGR valve N18Solenoid valvefor charge pressure control N75Change-over valvefor intake manifold flapN239Pump relay,fuel cooling J445Automatic gearbox controlunit J217Fuel coolingpumpV 166Auxiliary signals:Coolant auxiliary heaterEngine speedCooling fan run-onAir conditioner compressor cut-offFuel consumption signal209 5327
Engine managementSensorsHall sender G40Camshaft senderwheelThe Hall sender is attached to the toothed beltguard below the camshaft gear. It scans seventeeth on the camshaft sender wheel attached tothe camshaft gear.Hallsender209 54Signal utilisationThe engine control unit uses the signal which the Hall sendergenerates to recognise the cylinders when starting the engine.Effects of signal failureIn the event of signal failure, the control unit utilises the signalwhich the engine speed sender G28 generates.Electrical circuitJ 317SJ248G40209 5528
Cylinder recognition when starting the engineWhen starting the engine, the engine control unitmust know what cylinder is in the compressionstroke in order to activate the correct pumpinjector valve. For this purpose, it evaluates thesignal generated by the Hall sender, which scansthe teeth of the camshaft sender wheel and thusdetermines the camshaft position.The camshaft sender wheelSince the camshaft executes one 360 revolutionper working cycle, there is a tooth for eachindividual cylinder on the sender wheel; theseteeth are spaced 90 apart.To enable the teeth to be assigned to thecylinders, the sender wheel has an additionaltooth for cylinders 1, 2 and 3 with differentspacings.Cylinder 3Cylinder 4Cylinder 1 90Cylinder 2209 94This is how it works:Each time a tooth passes the Hall sender, a Hallvoltage is induced and transmitted to the enginecontrol unit. Because the teeth are spaced atdifferent distances apart, the Hall voltages occurat different time intervals.From this, the engine control unit recognises thecylinder and can control the correct injectorsolenoid valve.Signal pattern, Hall sender90 Cylinder 1Cylinder 390 Cylinder 490 Cylinder 290 Cylinder 1209 9529
Engine management systemEngine speed sender G28The engine speed sender is an inductive sender. It is attached tothe cylinder block.209 56Engine speed sender wheelThe engine speed sender scans a 60-2-2 sender wheel attachedto the crankshaft. The sender wheel has 56 teeth and 2 gaps of 2teeth on its circumference. The gaps are offset by 180 and serveas a reference mark for determining the crankshaft position.209 85Signal utilisationThe signal generated by the engine speed sender records theengine speed and the exact position of the crankshaft. Theinjection point and the injection quantity are calculated usingthis information.Effects of signal failureIf the signal of the engine speed sender fails, the engine isturned off.Electrical circuitJ248G2830209 57
FunctionQuick start recognitionTo allow the engine to be started quickly, the engine control unitevaluates the signals generated by the Hall sender and theengine speed sender.The engine control unit recognises the cylinder from the signalgenerated by the Hall sender which scans the camshaft senderwheel. Due to the 2 gaps on the crankshaft sender wheel, theengine control unit receives a reference signal after only half aturn of the crankshaft. In this way, the engine control unit canrecognise the position of the crankshaft in relation to thecylinders at an early stage and activate the correct solenoidvalve to initiate the injection cycle.Signal pattern, Hall sender and engine speed sender1 camshaft revolutionCylinder 1Cylinder 31 crankshaft rotationCylinder 4Cylinder 2Signal generatedby Hall senderSignal generatedby engine speedsender209 9531
Engine managementFuel temperature sender G81The fuel temperature sender is a temperature sensor with anegative temperature coefficient (NTC). This means that thesensor resistance decreases with increasing fuel temperature.This sensor is located in the fuel return line running from the fuelpump to the fuel cooler and determines the current fueltemperature.209 43Signal utilisationThe signal generated by the fuel temperature sender is used torecognise the fuel temperature.The engine control unit requires this signal to calculate thecommencement of injection point and the injection quantity sothat it can make allowance for the density of the fuel at differenttemperatures. In addition, the signal is utilised as information forswitching on the fuel cooling pump.Effects of signal failureIn the event of signal failure, the engine control unit calculates asubstitute value from the signal generated by coolanttemperature sender G62.Electrical circuitJ248G81209 5832
The following sensors have previously been described in other Self-Study Programmes relating to the TDIengine. For this reason, they are not explained in as much detail as the preceding sensors.Air-mass flow meter G70The air-mass flow meter with reverse flow recognitiondetermines the intake air mass. It is located in the intake pipe.The opening and closing actions of the valve produce reverseflows in the induced air mass in the intake pipe.The hot-film air mass meter with reverse flow recognitionrecognises the returning air mass and makes allowance for thisin the signal it sends to the engine control unit. The air mass isthus measured with high accuracy.209 44Signal utilisationThe engine control unit utilises the measured values to calculatethe injection quantity and the exhaust gas recirculation rate.Effects of signal failureIf the signal from the air-mass flow meter fails, the enginecontrol unit uses a fixed substitute value.Coolant temperature sender G62The coolant temperature sender is located at the coolantconnection on the cylinder head. It sends information about thecurrent coolant temperature to the engine control unit.209 60Signal utilisationThe engine control unit uses the coolant temperature as acorrection value for calculating the injection quantity.Effects of signal failureIf the signal fails, the engine control unit uses the signalgenerated by the fuel temperature sender to calculate theinjection quantity.33
Engine management systemAccelerator position sender G79Kick-down switch F8Idling speed switch F60The accelerator position sender is located at the foot controls.The idling speed switch and the kick-down switch are alsointegrated in the sender.209 5934Signal utilisationThe engine control unit can recognise the position of theaccelerator pedal from this signal. In vehicles with an automaticgearbox, the kick-down switch indicates to the engine controlunit when the driver wants to accelerate.Effects of signal failureWithout this signal, the engine control unit is unable to recognisethe accelerator pedal position. The engine runs on at a higheridling speed to enable the driver to reach the next workshop.
Intake manifold pressure sender G71Intake manifold temperature sensor G72The intake manifold pressure sender and the intake manifoldtemperature sensor are integrated in the intake pipe in one unit.209 45Intake manifold pressure sender G71Signal utilisationThe signal which the intake manifold pressure sender supplies isrequired to check the charge pressure. The engine control unitcompares the actual measured value with the setpoint from thecharge pressure map. If the actual value deviates from thesetpoint, then the engine control unit adjusts the charge pressurevia the solenoid valve for charge pressure control.Effects of signal failureThe charge pressure can no longer be regulated. Engineperformance drops.Intake manifold temperature sensor G72Signal utilisationThe engine control unit requires the signal generated by theintake pipe temperature sender as a correction value forcomputing the charge pressure. It can then make allowance forthe effect of temperature on the density of the charge air.Effects of signal failureIf the signal fails, the engine control unit uses a fixed substitutevalue to calculate the charge pressure. This can result in a dropin engine performance.35
Engine management systemAltitude sender F96The altitude sender is located in the engine control unit.Altitude sender209 61Signal utilisationThe altitude sender sends the momentary ambient air pressureto the engine control unit; this value is dependent on thevehicle's geographical altitude.With this signal the engine control unit can carry out an altitudecorrection for charge pressure control and exhaust gasrecirculation.Effects of signal failureBlack smoke occurs at altitude.Clutch pedal switch F36The clutch pedal switch is located at the foot controls.209 6236Signal utilisationThe engine control unit recognises from this signal whether theclutch is engaged or disengaged.
TDI engine with pump injection system The diesel engine with the pump injection system has the following advantages over the distributor injection pump: It was developed on the basis of the 1.9-ltr./ 81kW TDI engine with no intermediate shaft. Only through the injection system does it differ from the engine fitted with a distributor injection pump.
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