Ministry Of Environment, Government Of India

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Ministry of Environment,Forests & Climate ChangeGovernment of IndiaNATIONALBIODIVERSITYACTIONPLAN (NBAP)ADDENDUM2014TO NBAP2008

Ministry of Environment,Forests & Climate ChangeGovernment of IndiaNATIONALBIODIVERSITYACTIONPLAN (NBAP)ADDENDUM 2014TO NBAP 2008

Ministry ofEnvironment, Forests &Climate ChangeGovernment of India, 2014Material from thispublication may be usedfor educational purposesprovided due credit isgiven.Material from thispublication can be used forcommercial purposes onlywith permission from theMinistry of EnvironmentForests & Climate Change.Ministry of Environment,Forests & Climate Change,Indira Paryavaran Bhavan,Jor Bagh RoadNew Delhi - 110 003, INDIAPhone: 91-11-24695135Fax : 91-11-45660670Email: hempande@nic.in,sujata@nic.inWebsite: www.moef.nic.inEdited byMr. Hem K. PandeDr. Sujata Arora

FOREWORDIndia is a megadiverse country that harbours 7-8% of all recorded species,including over 45,000 species of plants and 91,000 species of animals, ononly 2.4% of the world's land area. Biodiversity forms the cornerstone ofecosystem functions and services that support millions of livelihoods in thecountry. India has been persevering in its efforts to conserve this vitalbiodiversity and ecosystems. As a Party to the Convention on BiologicalDiversity (CBD) that mandates parties to prepare a national biodiversitystrategy and action plan for implementing the Convention at the nationallevel, India developed a National Policy and Macrolevel Action Strategy onBiodiversity in 1999. Subsequent to the adoption of the National EnvironmentPolicy (NEP) in 2006, a National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) wasdeveloped through a comprehensive inter-ministerial process in 2008. India'sNBAP is broadly aligned to the global Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 20112020 adopted under the aegis of CBD in 2010. Using the Strategic Plan as aframework, India has now developed 12 National Biodiversity Targets throughextensive stakeholder consultations and public outreach. I am pleased to notethat India is among the select countries that have now developed their ownNational Biodiversity Targets, which now form an Addendum to the NBAP2008. This document together with the NBAP 2008 forms the blueprint forbiodiversity conservation in the country.Implementing the NBAP will be a challenging task and calls for activeinvolvement of several other Ministries. Stewardship at the highest level ofgovernance will be a key ingredient to success. People's participation willremain central to its successful implementation with active support at theindividual level of citizens throughout the country.I congratulate all those who were involved in this task which has beenundertaken with support from a Global Environment Facility projectimplemented by the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA). I wish to place onthe record my deep appreciation for the overall supervision provided by Dr R.Rajagopalan, Secretary, the guidance and support of Shri Hem Pande,Additional Secretary and Chairman, NBA, and the diligent efforts put in by DrSujata Arora, Director, Ministry of Environment, Forests, & Climate Change, inthis endeavor. I also appreciate the efforts put in by Dr V.B. Mathur, Director,Wildlife Institute of India (WII) and his project team in preparing thisdocument during India's Presidency of the eleventh Conference of the Partiesto the CBD.Minister of State (Independent Charge)Environment, Forests and Climate ChangeGovernment of India

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWe would like to take this opportunity to express oursincere gratitude to the Secretaries of the 23Ministries/Departments of the Government of India,namely, Department of Space, Ministry of Agriculture,Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Ministry of Coal,Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Ministry ofCommunications and Information Technology, Ministryof Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of EarthSciences, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry ofNew and Renewable Energy, Ministry of Panchayati Raj,Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Ministry ofPower, Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry ofScience and Technology, Ministry of Shipping, Ministryof Statistics and Programme Implementation, Ministry ofTourism, Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Ministry of UrbanDevelopment, Ministry of Water Resources and Ministryof Youth Affairs and Sports, and Ministry of Environment,Forests & Climate Change for providing informationrelevant to biodiversity conservation and enabling us tocompile data regarding investment being made inconservation of biodiversity in the country.This exercise would have been incomplete if the fundsallocated to States and Union Territories for biodiversityconservation was not looked into. We thank the PlanningCommission for providing us detailed informationregarding the funds allocated for the States and UnionTerritories for activities related to biodiversityconservation.We are also grateful to all the State Biodiversity Boardswho have participated with great enthusiasm in all thenational stakeholder consultations and contributed byproviding relevant information and suggestions.The NBAP teamV.B. Mathur,K. Sivakumar,Malvika Onial,C. Ramesh,Yashaswi Singh,Biba Jasmine Kaur,Anant Pande

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSASEANAssociation of Southeast Asian NetworkAYUSHDepartment of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and HomeopathyBHSBiodiversity Heritage SiteBMCsBiodiversity Management CommitteesBNHSBombay Natural History SocietyBSIBotanical Survey of IndiaCAsChartered AccountantsCBDConvention on Biological DiversityCEECentre for Environment EducationCMFRICentral Marine Fisheries Research InstituteCMLRECentre For Marine Living Resources & EcologyCMSCentre for Media StudiesCoPConference of PartiesCPCBCentral Pollution Control BoardCPREECC.P.R. Environmental Education CentreCSIRCouncil for Scientific and Industrial ResearchDNADeoxyribonucleic AcidDoSDepartment of SpaceEIAEnvironment Impact AssessmentESCAPEconomic and Social Commission for Asia and the PacificFRAForest Right ActFRCsForest Right CommitteesFRIForest Research InstituteFSIForest Survey of India / Fishery Survey of IndiaGEFGlobal Environment FacilityGIMGreen India MissionGoIGovernment of IndiaGSPCGlobal Strategy for Plant ProtectionIBAsImportant Bird AreasICARIndian Council of Agriculture ResearchICFREIndian Council of Forest Research and EducationIEGInstitute for Economic GrowthIGIDRIndira Gandhi Institute for Development ResearchIIFMIndian Institute of Forest ManagementIUCNInternational Union for Conservation of NatureJFMJoint Forest Management

JFMCsJoint Forest Management CommitteesLMOsLiving Modified OrganismMDFModerately Dense ForestsMDGsMillennium Development GoalsMLAsMember of Legislative AssemblyMoAMinistry of AgricultureMoCMinistry of CoalMoCFMinistry of Chemical and FertilizersMoCIMinistry of Commerce and IndustryMoCITMinistry of Communications and Information TechnologyMoDWSMinistry of Drinking Water and SanitationMoEF/ MoEFCCMinistry of Environment and Forests/ Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate ChangeMoESMinistry of Earth ScienceMoHFWMinistry of Health and Family WelfareMoHRDMinistry of Human Resources DepartmentMoNREMinistry of New and Renewable EnergyMoPMinistry of PowerMoPNGMinistry of Petroleum and Natural GasMoPRMinistry of Panchayati RajMoRDMinistry of Rural DevelopmentMoSMinistry of ShippingMoSPIMinistry of Statistics and Programme ImplementationMoSTMinistry of Science and TechnologyMoTMinistry of TourismMoTAMinistry of Tribal AffairsMoUDMinistry of Urban DevelopmentMoWRMinistry of Water ResourcesMoYASMinistry of Youth Affairs and SportsMPsMember of ParliamentNBANational Biodiversity AuthorityNBAGRNational Bureau of Animal Genetic ResourcesNBAIINational Bureau of Agriculturally Important InsectsNBAIMNational Bureau of Agriculturally Important MicroorganismsNBAPNational Biodiversity Action PlanNBFGRNational Bureau of Fish Genetic ResourcesNBPGRNational Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources

NBSAPNational Biodiversity Strategic and Action PlanNBSS&LUPNational Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use PlanningNBTsNational Biodiversity TargetsNEPNational Environment PolicyNFDBNational Forest Development BoardNGONon-Government OrganizationNMPBNational Medicinal Plant BoardNR5Fifth National ReportNTFPsNon Timber Forest ProduceOFOpen ForestPAProtected AreaPBRPeople's Biodiversity RegisterPoWPAProgramme of Work on Protected AreasPRIsPanchayati Raj InstitutionsR&DResearch and DevelopmentRFDResult Framework DocumentSAARCSouth Asian Association for Regional CooperationSACONSálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural HistorySBAPsState Biodiversity Action PlanSBBsState Biodiversity BoardsSFDsState Forest DepartmentsSPStrategic Plan for BiodiversitySPCBsState Pollution Control BoardsTKTraditional KnowledgeTKDLTraditional Knowledge Digital LibraryUNUnited NationsUNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUSDUnited States DollarUTUnion TerritoryVDFVery Dense ForestVEDCsVillage Eco-development CommitteesWIIWildlife Institute of IndiaWWFWorld- Wide Fund for NatureZSIZoological Survey of India Indian Rupee

LIST OF TABLESTable 1National Biodiversity Targets: Indicators and MonitoringFrameworkTable 2Linkages between Actionable Points of NBAP 2008 andNational Biodiversity TargetsTable 3Core, non-core and peripheral funding for biodiversityconservation in 2013–2014Table 4Indicative list of Ministries/Departments and NationalBiodiversity Targets for implementation of the NationalBiodiversity Action PlanTable 5Linkages between India's action points for PoWPAimplementation and action points of NBAP 2008Table 6Linkages between India's action points for PoWPAimplementation and 12 National Biodiversity TargetsTable 7Linkages between GSPC Targets and NBAP 2008 actionpointsTable 8Linkages between GSPC Targets and 12 NationalBiodiversity Targets.LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1MoEF budget allocation (2013-2014) that contributestowards National Biodiversity TargetsFigure 2Budget allocations (2013-2014) of 21 Ministries of GoI(excluding MoRD and MoDWS) that contribute towardsNational Biodiversity TargetsFigure 3Combined allocation of funds (2013-2014) of MoEF and23 Ministries/Department of GoI that contributetowards National Biodiversity TargetsFigure 4Implementation plan for NBAPLIST OF APPENDICESAppendix IThe Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020Appendix IIGlobal Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC):Objectives and Targets

TABLE OF CONTENTSI.ForewordII.AcknowledgementsIII. List of AbbreviationsIV.List of TablesV.List of FiguresVI. List of Appendices1.1Background011.2Process of Updating National Biodiversity Action Plan 2008031.3Action Points of India's National Biodiversity Action Plan 2008041.4Action Points of India's Programme of Work on Protected Areas 2012191.5National Biodiversity Targets201.6Linkages between actionable points of National Biodiversity ActionPlan 2008 and the 12 National Biodiversity Targets331.7Funding for biodiversity conservation and allocations contributingtowards achievement of National Biodiversity Targets561.7.1 Core and non-core funding for biodiversity conservation:MoEF budget allocation vis-à-vis National Biodiversity Targets571.7.2 Peripheral funding for biodiversity conservation:23 Ministries vis-à-vis National Biodiversity Targets581.7.3 Combined allocations for biodiversity conservation:MoEF and 23 Ministries vis-à-vis National Biodiversity Targets601.8Programme of Work on Protected Areas: Linkages withNational Biodiversity Action Plan and National Biodiversity Targets611.9Linkages between National Biodiversity Action Plan, NationalBiodiversity Targets and Global Strategy for Plant Conservation641.10Implementation of National Biodiversity Action Plan66References68

BACKGROUNDNATIONAL BIODIVERSITYACTION PLAN (NBAP)India, a megadiverse country with only 2.4% of the world's land area, accounts for 78% of all recorded species, including over 45,000 species of plants and 91,000species of animals. India's biodiversity underpins ecosystem functions and servicesthat are of great human value. For millions of Indians, biodiversity supports their verylivelihoods and ways of life.The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) mandates each Party to prepare aNational Biodiversity Strategy and Action Alan (NBSAP) or an equivalent instrument,and to ensure that this strategy is mainstreamed into relevant sectoral or crosssectoral plans, programmes and policies. NBSAPs are the principal instruments forimplementing the Convention at the national level. Accordingly, the Government ofIndia developed a National Policy and Macrolevel Action Strategy on Biodiversity in1999 (MoEF 1999) within five years of ratifying the CBD. This document, preparedthrough an extensive consultative process involving various stakeholders, is a macrolevel statement of policies and strategies needed for conservation and sustainableuse of biological diversity. Subsequently, the Ministry of Environment and Forests1(MoEF) implemented an externally-aided project, the NBSAP, from 2000 to 2004.Following India's adoption of the National Environment Policy (NEP) in 2006, aNational Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) was prepared by updating the 1999document (MoEF 1999), and by using the final technical report of the NBSAP project,in order to achieve consonance between the NBAP and the NEP 2006. India's NBAP,formulated through a comprehensive interministerial process, was approved byGovernment of India (GoI) in 2008 (MoEF a/NBAP.pdf). The NBAP draws fromthe principle in the NEP that human beings are at the centre of concerns forsustainable development and they are entitled to a healthy and productive life inharmony with nature. The NBAP 2008 identifies threats and constraints in biodiversityconservation taking into cognizance the existing legislations, implementationmechanisms, strategies, plans and programmes, based on which action points havebeen designed.1The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) has been renamed as Ministry ofEnvironment, Forests & Climate Change (MoEFCC) in June, 2014. The terms havebeen used interchangeably in the document.01BACKGROUND

1.1ADDENDUM 2014TO NBAP 2008Even though the NBAP 2008 was prepared prior to the adoption of the Strategic Plan forBiodiversity (SP) 2011-2020 and its 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets by the Conference ofParties (CoP) to the CBD in 2010 at Nagoya, Japan (Appendix 1), the NBAP is broadly alignedwith the five Strategic Goals and the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets of SP. The CoP-10 to theCBD has urged Parties to develop national and regional targets, using SP and its targets as aflexible framework, in accordance with national priorities and capacities. Parties are alsorequired to review, and as appropriate update and revise, their NBSAPs or equivalentinstruments with the SP, by integrating their National Biodiversity Targets (NBTs) into theirNBSAPs, and report thereon to CoP-12. Since India has prepared her second generation ofNBAP in 2008, it was decided that the NBAP need not be completely overhauled or revised,but an exercise be undertaken of updating the NBAP by developing NBTs (Table 1), keepingin view the Aichi Biodiversity Targets as a framework. Accordingly, in pursuance to thedecision of CoP-10, India has prepared 12 NBTs using the SP for Biodiversity 2011-2020 asthe broad framework. These National Biodiversity Targets prepared through an extensiveconsultative process with all stakeholders, have also been included in India's Fifth NationalReport (NR5) to the CBD (MoEF 2014, hese 12 NBTs along with indicators and monitoringframework developed for these targets, are presentedin this document, which is an Addendum to NBAP 2008.In addition, an exercise has been undertaken tohighlight the synergies between NBAP 2008, 12 NBTs,Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA), andGlobal Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). With aview to provide ready reference and continuity withNBAP 2008, the action points of India's NBAP 2008along with action points of India's PoWPA have beenreproduced in Sections 1.3 and 1.4, respectively.BACKGROUND02

PROCESS OF UPDATING NATIONALBIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN 2008NATIONAL BIODIVERSITYACTION PLAN (NBAP)Considering the aforementioned need for updating the NBAP, 12 NBTs and associated indicators andmonitoring framework (Table 1) that provide a road map for achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets havebeen developed. These NBTs are based on consultations with a range of stakeholders and a review of theprogrammes and activities being undertaken by Ministries/Departments in the GoI and by State BiodiversityBoards (SBBs). Icons for the NBTs have also been developed with a view to enhance their recall value andoutreach (Table 1).The process of preparing NBTs was initiated through a high level meeting with concernedMinistries/Departments in November 2011. This was followed by a series of inter-ministerial meetings andstakeholders consultations organized in April 2012 and July 2012. Thereafter, under the Global EnvironmentalFacility (GEF) Direct Access project on 'Strengthening the Enabling Environment for BiodiversityConservation and Management in India', consultations with stakeholders for preparation of NR5 and updatingof NBAP were continued. A National Stakeholder Consultation for discussing the contents of NR5 and theproposed NBTs was held on 30 July 2013. Following further discussions, the revised draft was reviewed by aTechnical Review Committee set up by MoEF for this purpose. The NBTs were identified based on an extensivereview of Result Framework Documents (RFDs) of the 52 Ministries/Departments of the GoI, informationavailable in annual reports/websites of Ministries/Departments and institutions, as well as discussions andwritten submissions provided by officials, scientists and other stakeholders at the individual level and arange of organizations in the country.The NBTs were also discussed and communicated through an outreach and communication programme as partof the seventh CMS Vatavaran International Environment and Wildlife Film Festival and Forum, held between30 January 2014 and 3 February 2014 at New Delhi, supported by the MoEF. Twelve sessions were conductedfor each target over the period, wherein panel discussions and public outreach programmes were conductedto create awareness, deliberate upon and communicate to the public about the development of India's NBTs inharmony with the CBD's SP 2011-2020 and Aichi Biodiversity Targets.While the 12 NBTs have been conceptualized now, the country hasa long history of working for conservation of its uniquebiodiversity with multi-stakeholder participation. The fact thatIndia harbours 7-8% of the world's known biological diversity inabout 2.4% of the land area while supporting 18% of the humanand 18% of the cattle population, is an eloquent testimony to herconservation ethos and commitment to conserving biodiversityand to realizing the vision of living in harmony with nature.03PROCESS OF UPDATING NATIONALBIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN 20081.2

ACTION POINTS OF NATIONALBIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN 20081.3ADDENDUM 2014TO NBAP 2008Strengthening and integration ofin situ, on-farm and ex situ conservationIIn situ conservation1.Expand the Protected Area (PA) network of the country including Conservation and CommunityReserves, to give fair representation to all biogeographic zones of the country. In doing so, developnorms for delineation of PAs in terms of the objectives and principles of the National EnvironmentPolicy, in particular, participation of local communities, concerned public agencies, and otherstakeholders, who have direct and tangible stake in protection and conservation of wildlife, toharmonize ecological and physical features with needs of socio-economic development.2.Establish self-sustaining monitoring system for overseeing the activities and effectiveness of the PAnetwork.3.Ensure that human activities on the fringe areas of PAs do not degrade the habitat or otherwisesignificantly disturb wildlife.4.Mitigate man-animal conflicts.5.Promote site-specific eco-development programmes in fringe areas of PAs, to restore livelihoods andaccess to forest produce by local communities, owing to access restrictions in PAs.6.Promote voluntary relocation of villagers from critical habitats of PAs.7.Devise effective management and conservation techniques for the forest preservation plots to ensureconservation of representative areas of different forest types.8.Strengthen research work on PAs, biosphere reserves and fragile ecosystems by involving localresearch institutions and universities, so as to develop baseline data on biological and managerialparameters, and functional properties of ecosystems.9.Strengthen the protection of areas of high endemism of genetic resources (biodiversity hotspots),while providing alternative livelihoods and access to resources to local communities who may beaffected thereby.10.Continue to promote inter-sectoral consultations and partnerships in strengthening biodiversityconservation activities.11.Strengthen capacities and implement measures for captive breeding and release into the wild ofidentified endangered species.12.Reintroduction and establishment of viable populations of threatened plant species.13.Control poaching and illegal trade in wild animals and plant species.ACTION POINTS OF NATIONALBIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN 200804

NATIONAL BIODIVERSITYACTION PLAN (NBAP)14.Periodically revisit the norms, criteria and needs of data for placing particular species in differentschedules of the Wildlife (Protection) Act.15.Promote ecological and socially sensitive tourism and pilgrimage activities with emphasis onregulated and low impact tourism on a sustainable basis through adoption of best practice norms.16.Formulate and implement partnerships for enhancement of wildlife habitat in Conservation Reservesand Community Reserves, on the lines of multi-stakeholder partnerships for afforestation, to deriveboth environmental and eco-tourism benefits.17.Promote conservation of biodiversity outside the PA network, on private property, on common lands,water bodies and urban areas.18.Formulate and implement programmes for conservation of endangered species outside PAs.19.Ensure conservation of ecologically sensitive areas, which are prone to high risk of loss ofbiodiversity due to natural or anthropogenic factors.20.Ensure that survey and bioprospecting of native economically important biological resources isundertaken on a priority basis.21.Integrate conservation and wise use of wetlands and river basins involving all stakeholders, inparticular local communities, to ensure maintenance of hydrological regimes and conservation ofbiodiversity.22.Consider particular unique wetlands as entities of incomparable values, in developing strategies fortheir protection and formulate conservation and prudent use strategies for the identified wetlandswith participation of local communities and other stakeholders.On-farm conservation0523.Identify hotspots of agro-biodiversity under different agro-ecozones and cropping systems andpromote on-farm conservation.24.Provide economically feasible and socially acceptable incentives such as value addition and directmarket access in the face of replacement by other economically remunerative cultivars.25.Develop appropriate models for on-farm conservation of livestock herds maintained by differentinstitutions and local communities.26.Develop mutually supportive linkages between in situ, on-farm and ex situ conservationprogrammes.ACTION POINTS OF NATIONALBIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN 2008

ADDENDUM 2014TO NBAP 2008Ex situ conservation27.Promote ex situ conservation of rare, endangered, endemic and insufficiently known floristic andfaunal components of natural habitats, through appropriate institutionalization and human resourcecapacity building. For example, pay immediate attention to conservation and multiplication of rare,endangered and endemic tree species through institutions such as Institute of Forest Genetics andTree Breeding.28.Focus on conservation of genetic diversity (in situ, ex situ, in vitro) of cultivated plants,domesticated animals and their wild relatives to support breeding programmes.29.Strengthen national ex situ conservation system for crop and livestock diversity, including poultry,linking national gene banks, clonal repositories and field collections maintained by differentresearch centres and universities.30.Develop cost effective and situation specific technologies for medium and long term storage of seedsamples collected by different institutions and organizations.31.Undertake DNA profiling for assessment of genetic diversity in rare, endangered and endemic speciesto assist in developing their conservation programmes.32.Develop a unified national database covering all ex situ conservation sites.33.Consolidate, augment and strengthen the network of zoos, aquaria, etc., for ex situ conservation.34.Develop networking of botanic gardens and consider establishing a 'Central Authority for BotanicGardens' to secure their better management on the lines of Central Zoo Authority.35.Provide for training of personnel and mobilize financial resources to strengthen captive breedingprojects for endangered species of wild animals.36.Strengthen basic research on reproduction biology of rare, endangered and endemic species tosupport reintroduction programmes.37.Encourage cultivation of plants of economic value presently gathered from their natural populationsto prevent their decline.38.Promote inter-sectoral linkages and synergies to develop and realize full economic potential of exsitu conserved materials in crop and livestock improvement programmes.ACTION POINTS OF NATIONALBIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN 200806

NATIONAL BIODIVERSITYACTION PLAN (NBAP)II07Augmentation of natural resource base and its sustainableutilization: Ensuring inter-and intra-generational equity39.Secure integration of biodiversity concerns into inter-sectoral policies and programmes to identifyelements having adverse impact on biodiversity and design policy guidelines to address such issues.Make valuation of biodiversity an integral part of pre-appraisal of projects and programmes tominimize adverse impacts on biodiversity.40.Promote decentralized management of biological resources with emphasis on communityparticipation.41.Promote sustainable use of biodiversity in sectors such as agriculture, animal husbandry, dairydevelopment, fisheries, apiculture, sericulture, forestry and industry.42.Promote conservation, management and sustainable utilization of bamboos and canes, and establishbambusetum and canetum for maintaining species diversity and elite germplasm lines.43.Promote best practices based on traditional sustainable uses of biodiversity and devise mechanismsfor providing benefits to local communities.44.Build and regularly update a database on NTFPs, monitor and rationalize use of NTFPs ensuring theirsustainable availability to local communities.45.Promote sustainable use of biological resources by supporting studies on traditional utilization ofnatural resources in selected areas to identify incentives and disincentives, and promote bestpractices.46.Encourage cultivation of medicinal plants and culture of marine organisms exploited for drugs toprevent their unsustainable extraction from the wild.47.Promote capacity building at grassroot level for participatory decision-making to ensure ecofriendlyand sustainable use of natural resources.48.Develop sui generis system for protection of traditional knowledge and related rights includingintellectual property rights.49.Encourage adoption of science-based, and traditional sustainable land use practices, throughresearch and development, extension of knowledge, pilot scale demonstrations, and large scaledissemination including farmer's training, and where necessary, access to institutional finance.50.Promote reclamation of wasteland and degraded forest land through formulation and adoption ofmulti-stakeholder partnerships involving the land owning agency, local communities, and investors.51.Promote sustainable alternatives to shifting cultivation where it is no longer ecologically viable,ensuring that the culture and social fabric of the local people are not disrupted.52.Encourage agro-forestry, organic farming, environmentally sustainable cropping patterns, andACTION POINTS OF NATIONALBIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN 2008

ADDENDUM 2014TO NBAP 2008adoption of efficient irrigation techniques.53.Incorporate a special component in afforestation programmes for afforestation on the banks andcatchments of rivers and reservoirs to prevent soil erosion and improve green cover.54.Integrate wetland conservation, including conservation of village ponds and tanks, into sectoraldevelopment plans for poverty alleviation and livelihood improvement, and link efforts forconservation and sustainable use of wetlands with the ongoing rural infrastructure development andemployment generation programmes.55.Promote traditional techniques and practices for conserving village ponds.56.Mainstream the sustainable management of mangroves into the forestry sector regulatory regime soas to ensure the protection of coastal belts and conservation of flora and fauna in those areas.57.Disseminate available techniques for regeneration of coral reefs and support activities based onapplication of such techniques.58.Adopt a comprehensive approach to integrated coastal management by addressing linkages betweencoastal areas, wetlands, and river systems, in relevant policies, regulations and programmes.Regulation of introduction of invasive alien species and theirmanagement59.Develop a unified national system for regulation of all introductions and carrying out rigorousquarantine checks.60.Strengthen domestic quarantine

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