Grade 7 Social Studies - Prince Edward Island

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ACKNOWLEGEMENTSAcknowledgementsThe Departments of Education of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundlandand Labrador gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the following groups and individuals to thedevelopment of this social studies curriculum.Prince Edward IslandBethany Doiron, Social Studies Consultant (2003–present)Allan MacRae, Social Studies Consultant (2000–2003)Frank Hennessey, Social Studies Consultant (1999–2000)New BrunswickJohn Hildebrand, Social Studies Consultant (2004-present)Kim Evans, Social Studies Consultant (2003-2004)Sandra Mitchell, Social Studies Consultant (2003–2004)Bev Loker-French, Social Studies Consultant (2004)Avis Fitton, Social Studies Consultant (1999–2003)Nova ScotiaBruce Fisher, Social Studies Consultant (2003–present)Mary Fedorchuk, Program Co-ordinator P–12 (2002–2003)Rick MacDonald, Social Studies Consultant (1999–2002)Newfoundland and LabradorVictor Kendall, Social Studies Consultant (2001–2005)Smita Joshi, Social Studies Consultant (1999–2001)Regional Social Studies Committee Grades 7–9Greer Coe, Prince Edward IslandKim Evans, New BrunswickPat Rhodenizer, Nova ScotiaATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7i

iiATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

CONTENTSContentsIntroductionBackground . 1Aims of Social Studies . 1Purpose of Curriculum Guide . 2Guiding Principles . 2Program Design and OutcomesOverview . 3Essential Graduation Learnings (EGLs) . 4General Curriculum Outcomes (GCOs) . 5Processes . 6Attitudes, Values, and Perspectives . 7Contexts for Learning and TeachingAdolescent Learners: Characteristics and Needs . 9Physical Development . 9Equity and Diversity . 11Principles Underlying the Social Studies Curriculum . 11The Social Studies Learning Environment . 12Assessing and Evaluating Student Learning . 18Curriculum OverviewEntry–9 Social Studies Program .Grade 7: Empowerment Conceptual Organizers .Grade 7 Specific Curriculum Outcomes .How to Use the Four-Column Curriculum Layout .Grade 7 CurriculumGrade 7 Year Overview . 31Unit 1: Introduction to Empowerment . 33Unit 2: Economic Empowerment . 43Unit 3: Political Empowerment . 61Unit 4: Cultural Empowerment . 81Unit 5: Societal Empowerment . 99Unit 6: National Empowerment . 121Unit 7: Reflection . 143AppendicesAppendix A: Concepts in Entry–9 Social Studies . 151Appendix B: Process-Skills Matrix . 153Appendix C: Graphic Organizers . 159Appendix D: Studying Local History . 161Appendix E: Using Primary Sources in the Classroom 165Appendix F: Examining Issues in History . 169Appendix G: Student Response Journals . 171Appendix H: Portfolio Assessment . 173Appendix I: Using Rubrics in Assessment . 177Appendix J: Rubrics for Writing, Reading/Viewing, .Listening, and Speaking . 179ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 721212227iii

ivATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

INTRODUCTIONIntroductionBackgroundThe Atlantic Canada social studies curriculum was planned anddeveloped by regional committees whose deliberations wereguided by considerations of the learners and input from teachers.The regional committees consisted of teachers, other educators,and consultants with diverse experiences in education. Eachcurriculum level was strongly influenced by current social studiesresearch and developmentally-appropriate pedagogy.Aims of SocialStudiesThe vision for the Atlantic Canada social studies curriculum is forit to enable and encourage students to examine issues, respondcritically and creatively, and make informed decisions asindividuals and as citizens of Canada and an increasinglyinterdependent world.An effective social studies curriculum prepares students to achieveall essential graduation learnings. In particular, social studies,more than any other curriculum area, is vital to developingcitizenship. Social studies embodies the main principles ofdemocracy, including freedom, equality, human dignity, justice,rule of law, and civic rights and responsibilities. The social studiescurriculum promotes students’ growth. It provides opportunitiesfor students to explore multiple approaches to analysing andinterpreting their own world and the worlds of others. Socialstudies presents unique and particular ways for students to viewthe interrelationships among the earth, its people, and itssystems. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes developed throughthe social studies curriculum empower students to be informed,responsible citizens of Canada and the world and to participate inthe democratic process to improve society.In particular, the social studies curriculum integrates the concepts, processes, and ways of thinkingdrawn from history and the social sciences, includinggeography, economics, political science, sociology, andanthropology. It also draws from the humanities and the puresciences. provides the multidisciplinary lens through which studentsexamine issues that affect their lives from personal, provincial,national, academic, pluralistic, and global perspectives.ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 71

INTRODUCTIONPurpose ofCurriculum GuideThe overall purpose of this curriculum guide is to advance socialstudies education and social studies teaching and learning, and,at the same time, recognize and validate effective practices thatalready exist in many classrooms.More specifically, this curriculum provides detailed curriculum outcomes to which educatorsand others can refer when making decisions about learningexperiences, instructional techniques, and assessmentstrategies in the grade 7 social studies program informs both educators and members of the general publicabout the philosophy and scope of social studies educationfor the intermediate level in the Atlantic provinces promotes effective social studies learning and teaching forstudents in grade 7 classroomsGuiding Principals2All entry to grade 9 curriculum and resources should reflect theprinciples, rationale, philosophy, and content of the Foundationfor the Atlantic Canada Social Studies Curriculum (1999) by being meaningful, significant, challenging, active,integrative, and issues-based being consistent with current research on how children learn incorporating multiple perspectives promoting the achievement of essential graduation learnings(EGLs), general curriculum outcomes (GCOs), and key-stagecurriculum outcomes (KSCOs) reflecting a balance of local, national, and global content promoting achievement of the processes of communication,inquiry, and participation promoting literacy through the social studies developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes for lifelonglearning promoting the development of informed and active citizens contributing to the achievement of equity and supportdiversity supporting the realization of an effective learning environment promoting opportunities for cross-curricular connections promoting resource-based learning promoting the integration of technology in learning andteaching social studies promoting the use of diverse teaching, learning, andassessment strategiesATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

PROGRAM DESIGN AND OUTCOMESProgram Design and OutcomesOverviewThis social studies curriculum is based on The Foundation for theAtlantic Canada Social Studies Curriculum (1999). Specificcurriculum outcomes (SCOs) were developed to be congruentwith key-stage curriculum outcomes (KSCOs), general curriculum outcomes (GCOs), and essential graduation learnings(EGLs). In addition, the processes, attitudes, values, andperspectives of social studies are embedded in the SCOs.Essential GraduationLearningsProcesses communication inquiry participationCitizenship,Power, andGovernanceCultureandDiversityGeneral esPeople,Place, andEnvironmentTime,Continuity,and ChangeKey-Stage Curriculum OutcomesSpecific Curriculum OutcomesATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 73

PROGRAM DESIGN AND OUTCOMESEssentialGraduationLearningsThe Atlantic provinces worked together to identify abilities andareas of knowledge considered essential for students graduatingfrom high school. These are referred to as essential graduationlearnings (EGLs). Given below are some examples of key stagecurriculum outcomes (KSOss) in social studies that help studentsattain the essential graduation learnings.Aesthetic ExpressionGraduates will be able to respond with critical awareness tovarious forms of the arts and be able to express themselvesthrough the arts.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to Citizenshipcompare and analyse how culture is preserved, modified, andtransmittedGraduates will be able to assess social, cultural, economic andenvironmental interdependence in a local and global context.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to Communicationexplain the origins and main features of the Canadianconstitutional systemGraduates will be able to use the listening, viewing, speaking,reading, and writing modes of language(s) as well as mathematicaland scientific concepts and symbols to think, learn, andcommunicate effectively.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to Personal Developmentidentify and use concepts associated with time, continuity,and changeGraduates will be able to continue to learn and to pursue anactive, healthy lifestyle.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to Problem Solvingexplain how economic factors affect people’s incomesGraduates will be able to use the strategies and processes neededto solve a wide variety of problems, including those requiringlanguage, mathematical, and scientific concepts.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to 4analyse how the movement of people, goods, and ideas haveshaped and continue to shape political, cultural, andeconomic activityATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

PROGRAM DESIGN AND OUTCOMESTechnologicalCompetenciesGraduates will be able to use a variety of technologies, demonstrate an understanding of technological applications, and applyappropriate technologies for solving problems.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to explain how values and perspectives influence interactionsamong people, technology, and the environmentGeneral CurriculumOutcomes (ConceptualStrands)The general curriculum outcomes (GCOs) for the social studiescurriculum are six conceptual strands that identify what studentsare expected to know and be able to do after completing study insocial studies. Each strand includes specific social studiesconcepts. (See Appendix A.) For each general curriculumoutcome, examples are given below of key-stage curriculumoutcomes (KSCOs) to be attained by the end of grade 9.Citizenship, Power, andGovernanceStudents will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of therights and responsibilities of citizenship and the origins,functions, and sources of power, authority, and governance.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to Cultural Diversityanalyse the distribution of power and privilege in society andthe sources of authority in the lives of citizensexplain the origins and continuing influence of the mainprinciples of Canadian democracyStudents will be expected to demonstrate an understanding ofculture, diversity, and world view, recognizing the similarities anddifferences reflected in various personal, cultural, racial, andethnic perspectives.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to Individuals, Societies,and Economic Decisionscompare the ways cultures meet human needs and wantsexplain how and why perspectives influence the ways inwhich experiences are interpretedStudents will be expected to demonstrate the ability to makeresponsible economic decisions as individuals and as members ofsociety.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to explain how government policies, expenditures, regulations,and trade agreements influence productivity and livingstandardsexplain how consumer decisions affect the economyATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 75

PROGRAM DESIGN AND OUTCOMESInterdependenceStudents will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of theinterdependent relationships among individuals, societies, and theenvironment—locally, nationally, and globally—and theimplications for a sustainable future.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to People, Place, andEnvironmentexplain the complexity that arises from the interdependentnature of relationships among individuals, nations, humanorganizations, and natural systemsanalyse selected issues to illustrate interdependenceStudents will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of theinteractions among people, places, and the environment.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to Time, Continuity, andChangeuse geographic tools, technologies, and representations tointerpret, pose, and answer questions about natural andhuman systemsanalyse ways in which social, political, economic, and culturalsystems develop in response to the physical environmentStudents will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of thepast and how it affects the present and the future.By the end of grade 9, students will be expected to identify and analyse trends that could shape the futuredemonstrate an understanding that the interpretation ofhistory reflects perspectives, frames of reference, and biasesProcessesThe social studies curriculum consists of three major processes:communication, inquiry, and participation. (See Appendix B for aProcess-Skills Matrix.) The processes are reflected in the “Suggestion for Learning and Teaching”, and the “Suggestions forAssessment” found in social studies curriculum guides. Theseprocesses constitute many skills; some are responsibilities sharedacross curriculum areas, whereas others are specific to socialstudies.CommunicationCommunication requires that students listen, read, interpret,translate, and express ideas and information.InquiryInquiry requires that students formulate and clarify questions,investigate problems, analyse relevant information, and developrational conclusions supported by evidence.PaticipationParticipation requires that students act both independently andcollaboratively in order to solve problems, make decisions, andnegotiate and enact plans for action in ways that respect and valuethe customs, beliefs, and practices of others.6ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

PROGRAM DESIGN AND OUTCOMESAttitudes, Values,and PerspectivesListed below are major attitudes, values and perspectives studentsare expected to develop in intermediate social studies, organizedaccording to the six conceptual strands and the three processes.Some attitudes, values, and perspectives are embedded in morethan one strand or process. This is consistent with the integrativenature of social studies.By Conceptual StrandCitizenshipowerovernanceCitizenshipenship,, PPoer,, and GGo appreciate the varying perspectives on the effects of power,privilege, and authority on Canadian citizens develop attitudes that balance rights with responsibilities value decision-making that results in positive changeCulture and Diversity recognize and respond in appropriate ways to stereotypingand discrimination appreciate that there are different world views appreciate the different approaches of cultures to meetingneeds and wantsIndividuals, Societies, and Economic Decisions appreciate the wide range of economic decisions that theymake and their effects recognize the varying impact of economic decisions onindividuals and groups recognize the role that economics plays in empowerment anddisempowermentInterdependence appreciate and value the struggle to attain universal humanrights recognize the varying perspectives on the interdependenceamong society, the economy, and the environment appreciate the impact of technological change on individualsand societyPeople, Place, and the EnvironmentPlace,Envirnvironment appreciate the varying perspectives of regions value maps, globes, and other geographic representations asvaluable sources of information and learning appreciate the relationship between attributes of place andcultural valuesTime, ContinuityContinuity,, and Change value their society’s heritage appreciate that there are varying perspectives on any historicalissue recognize the contribution of the past to present-day societyATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 77

PROGRAM DESIGN AND OUTCOMESBy ProcessCommunication read critically respect other points of view use various forms of group and interpersonal communicationInquiry recognize that there are various perspectives in the area ofinquiry recognize bias in others and in themselves appreciate the value of critical and creative thinkingParticipationarticipation take responsibility for individual and group work respond to class, school, community, or national public issues value the importance of taking action to support responsiblecitizenship8ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHINGContexts for Learning and TeachingAdolescent Learners:Characteristics andNeedsThe adolescent years, between the ages of 10 and 14, representthe developmental stage that leads to maturity or adulthood.During these years, the adolescent learner experiences rapid andsignificant physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and moraldevelopment. Because these changes are often intense and varied,and because educators have an import role in directing andfostering adolescents’ development and learning, they need toknow and appreciate adolescent characteristics.While some general characteristics for adolescents have beenidentified, these characteristics vary at each grade and age. Eachadolescent is unique and any attempt to classify must be regardedas extremely general. Nonetheless, the following schemehighlights some characteristics of young adolescents for theeducator and outlines their implications for learning.Physical DevelopmentAdolescent development is marked by accelerated and variablegrowth rates. Strength, energy levels, stamina, and sexualmaturity occur at different times and rates. Physical changes alterthe way young adolescents perceive themselves, but theseperceptions differ for boys and girls. Accelerated growth andrelated physical changes make demands of early adolescents’energy. In learning how to adjust to their “new body,” theyexperience periods of over-activity and listlessness—fluctuationsthat overtire them until they learn to moderate their activity.Early adolescents need experiences that help them understandtheir own physical development. School should provide opportunities for constructive social interaction and establish a healthy,stable classroom To channel their energy, young adolescentsrequire a variety of physical activities that stress skill-improvementand accommodate differences in size, weight, strength, andendurance. Because of the wide ranges in physical developmentbetween boys and girls, what is taught and how it is taughtshould reflect the range of students’ needs and interests.Social DevelopmentYoung adolescents are searching for greater independence fromthe family unit as they attempt to define themselves. As theybecome more socially interactive, family allegiance diminishes,and peer relationships take on increased importance. Manyengage in risk-taking behaviours, and conformity to the dress,speech, and behaviour of their peer group is quite common.Young adolescents appear to fluctuate between a demand forindependence and a desire for guidance and direction.At this time, authority still remains primarily with the family,and parental involvement in the lives of young adolescents is stillcrucial and should be encouraged. However, the adolescents willATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 79

CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHINGexercise the right to question or reject suggestions from adults. Asa result, young adolescents need many positive social interactionswith adults and peers.Since a tremendous amount of their learning occurs in a socialcontext, young adolescents benefit from opportunities to workwith peers in collaborative and small-group learning activities.Yet, they require structure and clear limits as well as opportunitiesto set standards for behaviour and establish realistic goals.Activities such as role-playing and sociodramas allow them toexplore ways of dealing with situations that may arise.Emotional DevelopmentYoung adolescents display widely different and often conflictingemotions. Their moods, temperaments, and behaviours areprofound and intense. They seem to change unpredictably fromone moment to the next and their feelings tend to shift betweensuperiority and inferiority. Appraisals of self are often overlycritical and negative, as they frequently make comparisons and seethemselves deficient in many ways. Youth in this age group areextremely sensitive to criticism of any kind and are easilyoffended. Feelings of inadequacy and fear of rejection by their peergroup contribute to low self-esteem. Adolescents see theirproblems as unique, and they often exaggerate simple occurrences.To develop emotional confidence, adolescents need opportunitiesto release emotional stress and develop decision-making skills.Learning activities should be designed to enhance self-esteem, torecognize student accomplishments, and to encourage development of positive attitudes. Young adolescents need opportunitiesto test their strengths and weaknesses as they explore issues andlearning activities that concern them.Intellectual DevelopmentIntellectual development varies tremendously among earlyadolescents. While some are learning to handle more abstract andhypothetical concepts and to apply problem-solving approachesto complex issues, a great many are still in the stage of concreteoperations. Adolescents focus on the present as opposed to thefuture. During this stage they retain a certain egocentrism, whichleads them to believe that they are unique, special, and eveninvulnerable. Adolescents may be unaware of the consequences ofrisk-taking behaviour. As their ability to process and relateinformation increases, they tend to seek to understand rules andconventions and to question the relevance of what is taught.If they are to move from concrete to abstract thinking, youngadolescents need opportunities to develop their formal thinkingskills and strategies. To develop critical analysis and decisionmaking skills, young adolescents should be exposed to experientiallearning in which they can apply skills to solve real-life problemsand question and analyse significant issues.10ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHINGEquity andDiversityThe Atlantic Canada social studies curriculum is designed to meetthe needs and interests of all students. The curriculum shouldprovide for including the interests, values, experiences, andlanguages of each student and of the many groups within ourlocal, regional, national, and global communities.The society of Atlantic Canada, like that of all of Canada, reflectsa diversity of race, ethnicity, gender, ability, values, lifestyles, andlanguages. Schools should foster the understanding of suchdiversity. Social studies curriculum promotes a commitment toequity by valuing, appreciating, and accepting the diverse andmulticultural nature of our society and by fostering awareness andcritical analysis of individual and systemic discrimination.All students are entitled to be respected and valued and, in turn,are responsible for respecting and valuing all other people. Theyare entitled to a school setting characterized by mutual trust,acceptance, and respect and to an educational system that affirmsdiverse gender, racial, ethnic, and cultural identity and promotesthe development of a positive self-image. Educators should ensurethat classroom practices and resources positively and accuratelyreflect diverse perspectives and reject prejudiced attitudes anddiscriminatory behaviours.Principles Underlyingthe Social StudiesCurriculumEmpowering and effective social studies is meaningful, significant,challenging, active, integrative, and issues-based. Meaningful social studies encourages students to learnthrough purposeful experiences designed around stimulatingideas, social issues and themes, and discourages the memorization of disconnected pieces of information.Significant social studies is student-centred and ageappropriate. Superficial coverage of topics is replaced byemphasis on the truly significant events, concepts, andprinciples that students need to know and be able to apply intheir lives.ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 711

CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHING Challenging social studies occurs when teachers model highexpectations for their students and themselves, promote athoughtful approach to inquiry, and demand well-reasonedarguments.Active social studies encourages students to assume increasingresponsibility for managing their own learning. Exploration,investigation, critical and creative thinking, problem solving,discussion and debate, decision making, and reflection areessential elements of this principle. This active process ofconstructing meaning encourages lifelong learning.Integrative social studies crosses disciplinary borders to exploreissues and events, while using and reinforcing informational,technological, and application skills. This approach facilitatesthe study of the physical and cultural environment by makingappropriate, meaningful, and evident connections to thehuman disciplines and to the concepts of time, space,continuity, and change.Issues-based social studies considers the ethical dimensions ofissues and addresses controversial topics. It encouragesconsideration of opposing points of view, respect for wellsupported positions, sensitivity to cultural similarities anddifferences, and a commitment to social responsibility andaction.The Social StudiesLearningEnvironmentThe Effective SocialStudies ClassroomWith the accelerating pace and scope of change, today’s studentscannot prepare for life by merely learning isolated facts. Problemsolving, critical and creative thinking, and informed decisionmaking are essential for success in the future. The social studieslearning environment can contribute significantly to thedevelopment of these essential attributes.An effective instructional environment incorporates principles andstrategies that recognize and accommodate varied learning styles,multiple intelligences, and diverse abilities that students bring tothe classroom. Teaching approaches and strategies foster a widevariety of experiences to actively engage all students in thelearning process. The nature and scope of social studies provideunique opportunities to do this.To meet these challenges, the social studies program reflects awide range of characteristics:12ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7

CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING AND TEACHINGRespectful of diversityStudents come to the classroom from backgrounds that representCanada’s diversity in terms of social identity, economic context,race, ethnicity, and gender. The social studies learning environment attempts to affirm the positive aspects of this diversity andfoster an understanding and appreciation of the multipleperspectives that this diversity can lend to the classroom.Regardless of their backgrounds, students should be given equalaccess to educational opportunities and can be successful at them.Inclusive and invitingThe social studies classroom should be a psychologically safe placein which to learn. It should be free from bias and unfair practicesthat may arise from perceptions related to ability, race, ethnicity,culture, gender, or socio-economic status. Students do come withdifferent attitudes, levels of knowledge, and points of view, butrather than be obstacles, these differences should be opportunitiesto rise above stereotypes and to develop positive self-images.Students should be provided collaborative learning contexts inwhich they can become aware of and transcend their ownstereotypical attitudes and behaviours.Engaging and interactiveIf classrooms are to be places where there is respect for diversityand where learning is engaging and interactive, then students willbe expected to participate in inquiry and problem-solvingsituations. Students will be provided with direct and vicariousexperiences in which they can apply social studies skills,strategies, and processes purposefully. Rather than assumingpassive roles, students bring their critical faculties to informationand knowledge to sh

ATLANTIC CANADA SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM: GRADE 7 3 Program Design and Outcomes Overview This social studies curriculum is based on The Foundation for the Atlantic Canada Social Studies Curriculum (1999). Specific curriculum outcomes (SCOs) were developed to be congruent with key-stage curriculum outcomes (KSCOs), general curricu-

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