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FAPESP-SCOPE-BIOEN-BIOTA-CLIMATECHANGE (2012/23765-0)Reporting a global assessment ofBioenergy & Sustainability137 experts from 24 countriesLand useFeedstocksTechnologiesBenefits & ImpactsPolicy779-page EbookDownload at http://bioenfapesp.org


Integrated policy for bioenergy expansionMaximizing bioenergy benefits and positive synergiesMeeting demand: biomass supplyat the scales neededHigh costs and technologicalcomplexities of developingsustainable biorefinery systemsCertificationand nsionFinancing thebioenergyeffortSouza et al., Technical Summary, Chapter 1

Liquid biofuels - over 100 Billion L – 4.2 EJ - less than 1% of our primary energy use; Biopower – 1 EJSugarcaneEthanolMaize EthanolSoy, oil palm,rape BiodieselUp to 3,900 L/haUp to 5,700 L/ha52.6 gCO2/MJ16.8 to 53.8gCO2/MJUp to 7,200 L/ha21.3 gCO2/MJWaste OilRenewableDiesel (HVO)Biopower fromsolid biomasspines, firs ,spruce,eucalyptus,poplar, willow10-18 ton/ha26 to 48 gCO2e/kWhGHG emissions76% lower thangasolineGHG emissions42% lower thangasolineGHG emissionsGHG emissionsGHG emissions40% lower thandiesel45-70% lowerthan diesel93% lower thancoalMacedo, Nassar et al.Chapter 17 Green House gas emissions, Woods et al. Chapter 9 Land Use, Long and Karp et al. Chapter 10 Feedstocks

At a global level, land is not a constraint butavailability is concentrated in two main regions, LatinAmerica and Sub-Saharan Africa.This land is being used predominantly for low intensityanimal grazing.0.4 to 1.5% of global landor5 to 20% of rainfed land (no irrigation)Woods et al. Chapter 9, Land UseConventional Ethanol83 Billion L3.1 EJ6.8 Million Ha of landBiodiesel23 Million tonne1.1 EJ6.3 Million Ha of landHVO6 Million tonne0.1 EJ 0.1 Million Ha of land

Existing pastureland could support almost four times the numbers of animals. Bringing the poorest-performingpastures up to 50% of their maximum attainable density would more than double the global stock of grazinganimals.Productivity, efficiency, reductionof waste, agriculturemodernization.Osseweijer et al. Chapter 4, Food Security

Integrated new biorefinery systems are on the way: no carbon waste!Chapter 12 – Convertion Technologies and Engines. Chum, Nigro et al.

Conservation of biodiversity is paramountJoly et al.Chapter 16 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

TRADITIONAL BIOENERGYMost of the renewable energy we use today comes from inefficient burning of biomass to produce heat30% of the biomass used isnative vegetation2.8 billion people use it forcooking and heating.Wood hauling is done mostlyby women and childrenRespiratory illnesses1.6 million deaths per year, ofmainly women and childrenMODERN BIOENERGYIn rural areas, bioenergy can bring access to energy and contribute to poverty reductionIn Kenya, 1.4 million improvedcooking stoves saved75 thousand Haof forestGenerating jobs and improving livelihoodsImproving health and educationBiogas in 5 million homes in India and 15million homes in ChinaDiaz-Chavez et al. Chapter 21, Energy Acess

Bioenergy Production NowFeedstocksLand UseConversion TechnologiesConventional EthanolEthanol and Flexible Fuel Vehicle EnginesBiodieselBiodiesel Vehicle EnginesLignocellulosic EthanolAviation BiofuelsRenewable DieselBioelectricityBiogasBiogas VehiclesHeatBioenergy ExpansionLand AvailabilityBiomass Production PotentialBioenergy CostsBiomass Supply in the Face of Climate ChangeImpacts of Bioenergy Expansion on Biodiversity andEcosystemsIndirect EffectsFinancingTradeBioenergy Added Benefits to Social and EnvironmentalDevelopmentBiomass Carbon Capture and SequestrationImprovement of Soil QualityIncreasing Soil CarbonPollution ReductionSocial Benefits

Our low carbon future has started

Supply chain and environmental securityWater - Vicky Ballester, USPGHG Emissions, Isaias Macedo, UNICAMPEnvironmental Climate Security - Paulo Artaxo, USPSustainable development and innovationCase Studies - Regis Leal, CTBEFood Security - Luis Cortez, UNICAMPConversion Technologies and Engines - Francisco Nigro, USP

Vicky Ballester, CENA, USP

Opportunities to implement or improve bioenergy production to address long-termsustainable use of water and soil resourcesBioenergy systems can have positive impacts on these resources when feedstocks and conversion technologiesare matched to local conditions and planning includes holistic landscape-level assessment

Positive () and negative impacts (Water cyclecyclesWater cycle changesEvapotranspirationincreaseDown stream runoffand dischargedecreaseDry (sub and)tropical regionsGroundwaterrecharge reductionSoils salinizationNew technologies forlandscape analysisComparing totraditional cropsAverage ET (mm.y-1)Pasture: 635Annual Crops:651Sugar-cane: 760Savannah: 880Perennial Crops: 950Forest: 1150) of bioenergy production on:Carbon cycleOther nutrientSoil carbonsequestrationLess use of fertilizersLess GHGsImprove Soilproperties1 Ton of sugar-cane forethanol: 1000 L ofvinasse80 to 200 m3.ha-1adding nutrientsorganic matter 8 to 20 mm“irrigation” waterBiodigestion: biogasand bioelectricityBentes, Young, Ballester, Cantarella, Cowie, Martinelli and Neary. Soils and Water. Chap. 18 : 619-658.

Wide range of positive and negative impactsResult fromLocal/Regional CharacteristicsEnvironmental, Social, Economic,Cultural, Policies, Regulation,GovernanceTherefore Use of a single metric such asNutrient UseNutrient Use Efficiency (NUE)Soil Organic Matter/Organic CarbonWater FootprintWater UseWater Use Efficiency (WUE)Meanful and and leadto miss interpretationsArrows represent impacts, boxes and numbers (1 to 5)impacts levels. Green: positive; Red: negative

Recommendation: Landscape level assessment and management using systems base onrecommended actions and several ousAnalysis, Planning,Implementationand ReviewLandscapelevelRecommendedactions insteadof isolatedmetricsExample: Best Management Practices applied to crop lifecycle: enables feedstock production for bioenergyprograms as a sustainable part of land management andrenewable energy production, and can represent newopportunitiesBioenergyCrop LifeCycleBest Management Practices: system ofrecommended actions

Isaias Macedo, Unicamp

Evaluating GHG emissions andmitigation from bioenergy production and useThe transportation sector is the most challenging for GHG mitigation in the next decades; and,worldwide, power generation with fossil fuels is a large (and growing) source of GHG emissions.In the last years advances in technologies and in methodologies / data for better evaluation ofGHG emissions have shown the importance of bioenergy in the context of climate change. Commercial liquid biofuels produced in suitable conditions (AEZ, sustainable agriculturalpractices , modern conversion technologies and full use of co-products) already provide highlevels of GHG mitigation Commercial solid biomass fuels are increasingly substituting for coal in co-firing powergeneration Advanced biofuels (in development) indicate even better GHG mitigation potential, besidesincreasing bioenergy availability The LUC studies for better biofuels show the great improvement potential for the wholeagriculture / forest system.

GHG emissions / mitigation for commercial biofuelsThere are different regional regulations for GHG emissions evaluation: EU-RED, UK-RTFO,California-LCFS, US-EPA/RFS, etc. Results bellow use the same procedures, for comparison.Commercial Liquid BiofuelsSugar Cane Ethanol, BrazilCorn Ethanol, USARapeseed biodiesel, EUSolid Biomass (power 10MWe)Wood waste, residues, SR crops* No LUC; includes co-products creditsAverageGHG emissions *GHG mitigation,% (fossil fuel)21,3 gCO2e/MJ52,6 gCO2e/MJ53,8 gCO2e/MJ76424026 – 48 gCO2e/kWh 93

Bioenergy can make a substantial (and much needed) contribution toreduce GHG emissions, even beyond the results achieved until nowAdvanced biofuels (cellulosic ethanol, BtL processes) , full use of co-products and continuousimprovements lead the wayLUC (and iLUC) emissions are found to be much smaller than previously estimated, whenappropriate measures are taken (AEZ, reducing deforestation and native land conversion, higherproductivities, pasture integration and intensification)Land use changes, inagriculture, forestry andpastures, may producebenefits towards reducingGHG emissionsGaps in knowledge include datagathering for soil conditions ,SOM stock changes and N2Oemissions; and impacts ofalbedo, aerosols and emissionstiming on climate.

Paulo Artaxo, IF, USP

Environmental and climate securityPressing questions Which are the potential climate change mitigation of bioenergy? Which are the barriers to large scale deployment of bioenergy? Which are the potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions from land,food security, water resources, biodiversity conservation and livelihoods?Many bioenergy cropping systems bring multiple environmental benefits that can offsetthe negative consequences of intensive food productionIntensive food productionIntegrated food and energy productionThis will be crucial for meeting the vision of a “mature sustainable bioeconomy” that“will help deliver global food security, improve nutrition and health, create smart bio-based productsand biofuels, and help agriculture, forestry, aquaculture and other ecosystems to adapt to climatechange “ (from The European Bioeconomy in 2030)

Perennial cropping systems and sustainable management should be strongly encouragedUse marginal/degraded landAvoid land productive forfood cropsIntegrate differentcropping systems at thelandscape scale tobalance ecosystemservicesOver 900 Mha of verysuitable and suitable land(FAO classification) could beavailable for better food andbioenergy cropping globally.(Chp 9, Land and bioenergy)In the UK estimates ofavailable land are typically inthe 1 -2 Mha rangeIncreasing soilcarbon andreducingerosionRemove annual soilcultivationHarvest withoutburning;Maintain sufficientcrop residues andrecycle nutrientsImprovingwater qualityand availabilityConserve primary forest.Use minimalagrochemical inputswherever possibleUse perennial crops toprovide stable habitats,attractive to biodiversity.Avoid irrigationDiversify e.g. provide toadditional pollensources, naturalbiocontrol agentsSite energy crops nearrivers/on slopes toprevent run-off anderosionEnhancingbiodiversityHarmonize bioenergy,agricultural and forestrygovernance policiesIs there a figure for Csavings?Karp et al Chapter 5 Environmental and Climate Security

Negative impacts of bioenergy can be avoided by: promoting bioenergy crops with positive environmental attributes(regarding water, soil, biodiversity, habitat) integrating bioenergy production with food production increasing crop land productivity deploying marginal /degraded lands. Water qualityWater availabilitySoil amelioration;BiodiversityHabitat provision Soil degradationWater pollutionWater scarcityBiodiversity lossHabitat LossRecommendationWe need secure and prolonged support to improve cropproductivity (bioenergy and food crops) and policies thatrecognise the full environmental (as well as economic)benefits of bioenergy cropping systems

Issues on environmental and climate security Whilst some bioenergy cropping systems can result in negative consequences this is not truefor all bioenergy production systems We can produce sufficient bioenergy sustainably - fulfilling it’s much needed role inmitigating climate change whilst bringing environmental benefits that offset the negativeimpacts of intensive food production We need strong governance systems that link bioenergy-agriculture-forestry and stable,simple policies that recognise multiple environmental benefits and not just economic ones Achieving high level of deployment of bioenergy requires extensive use of agriculturalresidues and second-generation biofuels to mitigate the adverse impacts and land use andfood production, and co-processing of biomass with CCS to produce low net GHG emittingtransportation fuels and/or electricity Bioenergy can play a critical role for mitigation, but there are issues to consider, such as thesustainability of practices and the efficiency of bioenergy systems. Barriers to large-scaledeployment of bioenergy include concerns about GHG emissions from land, food security,water resources, biodiversity conservation and livelihoods

Luiz Cortez, Unicamp

Bioenergy and Food securitySome pressing questions:- Is there enough land available for substantial production of bioenergy and foodfor a growing world population?- Can biomass use provide energy and food security, while at the same time helpalleviate climate change?There is enough land for both food and bioenergy production, however food andenergy insecurities still affects nearly one billion people , roughly 20-30% in urbanareas and 70-80% in rural areas. This leads to perceptions:

While sustainable bioenergy production can improve food and energy securities!Biomass utilization for other products than food provides employment and cansimultaneously provide better infrastructure, energy security and socialdevelopment, leading to better food security, especially important for rural areas!Some examples: Sugarcane ethanol helping decrease fossil fuel dependence and boost Brazilianagriculture, providing jobs and rural development Positive effects of jatropha curcas on food security in Africa Use of agricultural wastes (2nd generation) for ethanol/fuels, e.g. in the US (DSMPOET)

Examples of sustainable biofuels for different countries to improve food and energy securities with bioenergyIn the 70s Brazilwas fundamentallyan exporter ofcoffee and becamea large exporter ofgrains, meat, sugar,pulp and paper,and orange juiceJatropha,unpalatable forlivestock, isusually planted inrows aroundcrops. Oil fromseeds is used as adiesel substitutein AfricaThe US initiativehelped toalleviate oilimports andabsorbed cornsurplus, helpingstabilize pricesSugarcane bioenergy 20% of Brazilian energymatrixBrazilian agribusiness is responsible for US 100billion in 2013Appropriated for smallfarmers in Africa 40% of US cornis used to produce 50 billionliters of ethanolSugarcaneEthanol:helpedBrazil toachieve oilselfsufficiencyPresent use ofresidues!Osseweijer et al. Chapter 4, Food Security, boxes 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3

FindingsConclusionsGlobal scale food and energyproduction is enoughHunger and malnutrition areprimarily problems ofdistribution/accessThere is enough landFuture food and part of energydemands and be satisfiedCare must be taken onexpanding land usePlanning expansion of land useover degradaded areasRecommendationsOsseweijer et al. Chapter 4, Food Security, boxes 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3Productivity, efficiency, reduction of waste, agriculture modernization play a centralrole.Lack of land is not one of the main concerning points. Degraded land can be improvedIntegration Food and Energy Production and promoting advanced biofuelsGood governance and supporting policies are crucial, both local, national and globalscales

There is enough land available for substantial production of bioenergy and food fora growing world population, expansion will be predominantly in Sub SaharanAfrica and Latin America There is no inherent causal relation between bioenergy production and foodinsecurity Bioenergy can improve food production systems and rural economic development Bioenergy can stimulate investments in agricultural production in poor areas andprovide a dynamic switch system to produce energy or food whenever necessary It is our ethical duty to develop and evaluate practices of combined bioenergy andfood production in poor areas aptersSouza, G. M., Victoria, R., Joly, C., & Verdade, L. (Eds.). (2015). Bioenergy & Sustainability: bridging the gaps(p. 779). SCOPE Volume 72. Paris: SCOPE. ISBN 978-2-9545557-0-6Osseweijer, P., Watson, H. K. et al. (2015). Bioenergy and Food Security in Bioenergy & Sustainability:bridging the gaps (p. 90-136). SCOPE Volume 72. Paris: SCOPE. ISBN 978-2-9545557-0-6

Regis Leal, CTBE

Challenge: Lessons LearnedCurrent status:There are a plenitude of examples of bioenergy project successes and failures, but these valuableexperiences normally go without proper analyses or even register.Examples that illustrate solutions for the challenge: Surplus power generation in sugar/ethanol mills,large scale use of biogas, cassava for large scale ethanol distilleries, jatropha as feedstock for biodiesel,large scale vs small scale use of biomass for energy, MSW and biomass combine for heat and power, etcLarge-scale displacement is possible within major markets Apparently similar cases had different outcomes in different countries Public policies seems to make the big difference in these stories

Some relevant numbers when considering the issue, challenge or question, with illustrations1. Brazil sugarcaneethanol: a 0: 40 tc/ha and87 kg ATR/tc2010: 85 tc/ha and147 kg ATR/tc 600 commercialvarieties available2. Sugarcanecogeneration3. Jatrophabiodiesel ProjectsSimilar conditions,but differentcontexts: fullysuccessful inMauritius and verylimited results inBrazilTwo projects, a smallscale one in Malawiand a medium/largescale in MozambiqueBagasse in 2012:3% of totalelectricity in Braziland 16% od theelectricity inMauritiusDifferent impacts onlocal communitiesand it is clear that aminimum yield forJatropha is necessary4. Ethanol inThailand:sugarcane andcassavaThe very successfulbioetanol program inThailand is based insugarcane molasses(60%) and cassavachips (40%). Thecountry is the 4thsugarcane producerand 2nd cassavaproducerChapter 14 Case Studies

Some relevant numbers when considering the issue, challenge or question, with illustrations5. Oil palmresidues: thequestion of scale6. Agriculture andforest residuescollectionThere is a generalunderstanding thatprocessing biomassfor bioenergy thelarge scale plantsThe case studied hasshown an oppositeresult due to the highlogistics costsThese residues areconsidered to be one ofthe most sustainablefeedstocks for bioenergy.However, when left onthe ground the bringseveral benefits to soil.The amount that can beharvested sustainablymust be carefullyassessed.This is the case of cornstover in USA andsugarcane straw in Brazil7. BiogasThis is anotherbioenergy alternativethat is considered tobe highly sustainableYet, it more spreaduse has notmaterialize except invery specific cases.The cases ofGermany, UK andCalifornia has shownwhy it works inGermany, but not inUK and CaliforniaChapter 14 Case Studies4. MSW and otherbiomass combinedMSW is a veryattractive feedstockfor bioenergy, buthas a somedifficulties toimplement.Its combination withwood chips or pelletssolves this problem,as shown in the casein Scandinavia.

Illustration that easily conveys the messageConclusionApparently similar cases have seen failure and success depending on the local condition andcontextAdequate public policies are a must for successThe use of traditional crops in the country such as sugarcane in Brazil, Thailand an Mauritius andcassava in ThailandJatropha is not a fully developed crop to be receiving so much attention before demonstrating itsperformanceRecommendationThe lessons learned with successful crops like sugarcane and failures with poorly tested cropssuch as Jatropha must be organized and disseminated to enhance the chances of success andavoid repetition of failures

Francisco Nigro, Escola Politécnica, USP

Chapter 12* - Conversion Technologies for Biofuels and Their UseHow are we progressing about the efficient conversion and use of bioenergy?Parameters for Sustainability AssessmentPC – Production CostsMU – Material UtilizationECE – Energy ConversionEfficiencyWC – Water ConsumptionGHG – GHG EmissionsCD – Community DevelopmentES – Energy SecurityTM – Technical MaturityCC – Capital Costs(Yang et al. 2013)REN21, 2014* Souza, G. M., Victoria, R., Joly, C., & Verdade, L. (Eds.). (2015). Bioenergy & Sustainability:bridging the gaps (p. 779). SCOPE Volume 72. Paris: SCOPE. ISBN 978-2-9545557-0-6Comparative Toxic UnitsHuman Carcinogenic Toxicity for E85(Yang Y. 2013)

Examples of identified pathways for producing “drop-in” biofuels for Jet or elseModified from FAPESP 2013 - “Flightpath to Aviation Biofuels in Brazil - Results of Project: Sustainable Aviation Biofuels for Brazil“

Which are the main issues for competitive deployment of bioenergy? Production costs, distribution logistics and end-use efficiency. Some forms of bioenergycarriers can be more competitive than others depending on regional conditions.Globally, liquid hydrocarbon “drop-in” biofuels are very helpful in terms of distributionlogistics and existing equipment for end-use, but their energy cost is higher than that oftheir oxygenated precursors.Local X GlobalStrengths & Weaknessesshall mold biofuelsevolutionNils-Olof Nylund 2014Ethanol (1.8 EJ)Biodiesel(0.9 EJ)75% low-level blend10% E10 EX E4015% E85 & E100hFatty Acids MethylEsters - (B2 to B20)Biogas (1.7EJ)Pellets (0.42 EJ)Power & HeatCogenerationBio- Jet FuelDrop-in biofuel used inover 1500 flights; notyet cost competitive

Conclusions Commercial biomass conversion technologies are improving, with respect to efficiency ofresource use, environmental impact mitigation and economic performance.Processes are evolving from single-output towards biorefinery, with multiple productsincreasing the economic returns: electricity from sugarcane in Brazil; animal feed and cornoil for biodiesel from corn ethanol, halving ethanol carbon intensity in U.S.; forestproducts biorefineries diversified into biofuels from co-product oil streams to biodieseland renewable diesel, in partnership with oil companies.A new application market is being assessed - aviation biofuels; 3 families of hydrocarbonbio-jet fuels passed stringent standards certification with complete infrastructure andaircrafts compatibility, allowing up to 50% blends to be flown commercially.Recommendations To improve efficiency, decrease environmental impact, and enhance economic viability ofadvanced biofuel processes, address R&D key issues listed in Chapter 12.To build overall capacity, invest in Knowledge Mobilization programs to: public reception;local governments capability in economic development based on biomass; workforcetraining; improve awareness of environment, safety and health implications.Enhance collaboration between countries and industries to share lessons learned.Public policies should continue to address biofuels production and efficiency improvementwithout ignoring adjustments of final use equipments, for instance, vehicles.The suitability of biofuels for specific countries should be evaluated against otherbioenergy and biorefinery options to achieve social, environmental, and economic goals,as part of an integrated land use and rural development strategy.

Additional info for discussion

DISPONIBILIDADE FUTURA DE ETANOLApresentação do Ministro Eduardo Braga à Comissão de Serviços de Infraestrutura do Senado Federal “PanoramaGeral dos Setores de Energia e Mineração” – Brasília 08/04/2015Nigro, F.E.B.- “Eficiência de Veículos com Etanol” – Simpósio de Eficiência Energética: Emissões e Combustíveis – AEA, São Paulo, 21/05/2015

ONDE ESTAMOS NO INOVAR-AUTONigro, F.E.B.- “Eficiência de Veículos com Etanol” – Simpósio de Eficiência Energética: Emissões e Combustíveis – AEA, São Paulo, 21/05/2015

DESAFIOS TECNOLÓGICOSPBEV2015Nigro, F.E.B.- “Eficiência de Veículos com Etanol” – Simpósio de Eficiência Energética: Emissões e Combustíveis – AEA, São Paulo, 21/05/2015

OPORTUNIDADES DE DESENVOLVIMENTO DEVEÍCULOS FLEXÍVEIS EFICIENTES Economia de combustível desempenho dos veículos temlevado a “downsizing & turbocharging” Etanol reúne propriedades excelentes para atender a essascondições: queima pobre maior torque se aproveitado para redução de rotação resfriamento da câmara em altas cargas e potências Necessidade de programa governamental para incentivaro desenvolvimento de veículos flexíveis mais eficientesquando operando com etanol, por exemplo para:[ConsetH (L/km) (4/3)·ConsgasC (L/km)]Nigro, F.E.B.- “Eficiência de Veículos com Etanol” – Simpósio de Eficiência Energética: Emissões e Combustíveis – AEA, São Paulo, 21/05/2015

We need secure and prolonged support to improve crop productivity (bioenergy and food crops) and policies that recognise the full environmental (as well as economic) benefits of bioenergy cropping systems Negative impacts of bioenergy can be avoided by: promoting bioenergy crops with positive environmental attributes

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