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COMPUTER HARDWARE Text BookIntermediate Vocational Course - Ist YearAuthor:Smt. D FatimaM.C.A (M.Tech C.S)Assistant ProfessorDept. of Computer Science, Matrusree Institute of P.G StudiesSaidabad-Hyderabad 500059 A.P.Editor:Mr. M. Venkat DasAssociate ProfessorDept. of Computer Scxience, College of EngineeringOsmania University, Hyderabad.Year 2005

PREFACEThis book has been written according to syllabus of IntermediateVocational Course. This subject has been divided into 5 units which in turn areagain divided into chapters to present details, suitable illustrations and exercises are also included.Constructive criticism and suggestion are invited from students,teachers and readers of this book for the improvement of the standard ofthe book. I extend my thanks to Mr.B.Anjan Kumar Hardware Eng MIPGSfor his co-operation in bringing out this book

INDEX1. Hardware FundamentalsCh 1 Identifying Components & their useCh 2 Measuring Voltages at different levels2. Motherboards and their related componentsCh 1 MotherboardsCh 2 Ports3. Bios & CMOSCh 1 Bios & CMOSCh 2 Bios features & Configration4. Operating SystemsCh 1 Installing different Operating Systems likeDOS & WindowsCh 2 Troubleshooting through Software5. Antivirus SoftwareCh 1 VirusesCh 2 Intallation of Norton AntivirusCh 3 Recovery of Sytem through AntivirusPatchesPAGE 8485-88

CHAPTER 1IDENTIFYING COMPONENTS AND THEIR USEUnit 1.Chapter 11Name : Identifying components and their use1.1.1 What is a computer?The term computer is used to describe a device made up of electronic andelectro mechanical components. The computer itself cannot perform any taskand is referred to as hardware.A computer system consists of three elements.Fig 1.1.1 Components of a Computer System1. Hardware2. Software3. PeopleHardware : The physical components which you can see, touch and feel inthe computer system are called hardware Eg monitor, keyboard, mouseetc.Software : Software is used to describe the instructions that tells the computer how to perform a task. Software is categorized1) System softwares ( eg . operating systems, compilers, editors etc)2) Application softwares ( MS-word, excel, accounting packages etc)People : People who operate the computer and also create computer software instructions.1.1.2 Computer hardwareBasic components in a computer system are central processing unit (CPU),memory, the input device and output device.

2ComputerHardwareComputer systems – Micros, Minis and Mainframes.Micro computer : Micro computer is also called as personal computer or PC.It has a processor based on a single silicon chip. Personal computers come inthree different physical sizes, pocket pc’s, lap pc’s and desktop pc’s. Pocketpc’s and lap pc’s belong to portable category. Microcomputer is used in smallbusinesses.Ex : IBM compatible or IBM clone and Apple Macintosh systems.Multiuser microcomputers. Until recently microcomputers were personalcomputers for individual use only. But now days several microcomputers canbe networked together for simultaneous used by several people.Mini computers: Mini computer is simply a small mainframe computer. It is areduced version of mainframe. Attached printers are not so fast. So it has lessstorage capacity less processing speed of that of mainframe computers. Theyare usually used by small businesses. For example research groups, engineering firms, colleges etc. use mini computers.Mainframe computers: A mainframe computer is a large expensive machinewhose processing speed is very high and has large amount of secondary storage and fast printers. A large mainframe computer may be used to meet thedata processing requirements of the entire organization.Examples: airline booking systems, Railway booking systems , weather forecast etc.1.1.3 System typesWe can classify systems into the following categories :8-bit, example : 8085 microprocessor16-bit, example : 8086, 286, 386 processor32-bit , example : 48664-bit, example : Pentium - IIThis gives us two basic system types or classes of hardware.8-bit ( PC/XT) class systems16/32/64 (AT) class systems

Chapter 1Name : Identifying components and their use3PC stands for personal computers, XT stands for eXTended PC, and AT standsfor an advance technology PC.The XT basically was a PC system that included a hard disk for storage inaddition to the floppy drive found in the basic PC system. These systems has an8-bit processor and an 8-bit INDUSTRY STANDARD ARCHITECTURE(ISA) bus for system expansion. Bus is the name given to expansion slots inwhich additional plug in circuit board can be installed.16-bit and greater systems are said to be AT class. 16-bit (and latter 32 and 64bit) processors and expansion slots are included. The first AT class systems hada 16-bit version of the ISA bus which is an extension of the original 8-bit ISAbus found in the PC/XT class systems. Afterwards several expansion slots weredeveloped for AT class systems.Example16/32 bit PS/2 microchannel architecture (MCA) bus.16-bit PC card (PCMCIA) busFig 1.1.2 ATX FormatFig 1.1.3 PS/2 Port16 bit ISA bus16/32 bit Extended ISA(EISA) bus32/64 - bit card Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus.The easiest way to identify a PC/XT system is by the 8-bit ISA expansion slotsregardless of the processor present in the system. AT systems can be similarlyidentified by having 16-bit of greater slots of any type (ISA, EISA, PCI) slots.

4Computer Hardware1.1.4 System componentsComponent needed to assemble a basic modern PC system.MotherboardProcessorMemory (Primary)Hard diskCD-ROMFloppy DriveKeyboardMouseMonitorPower SupplyCabinetMotherboard : motherboard is the important component of the computer aseverything else is connected to it. And it controls everything in the system.Motherboard are available in several different shapes.Motherboard usually contain the following individual components.Fig 1.1.4 Motherboard

Chapter 1Name : Identifying components and their use1) Processor slot2) Processor voltage regulators3) Motherboard chipset4) Level 2 cache5) Memory SIMM or DIMM sockets6) Bus slots7) ROM BIOS8) Clock / CMOS battery9) Super I/O chips5ProcessorFig 1.1.5 Processor ChipsThe processor is often thought as the engine of the computer. Then the processor reads the commands from the memory and then executes them. the processor is one of the mostexpensive parts of the computers and is also one of the smallest parts.Primary MemoryFig 1.1.6 Memory ChipsMemory : Is used to hold programs and data during execution.Primary memory is often called as RAM(Random Access Memory). It holdsall the programs and data the processor is using at a given time. RAM is volatilebecause its contents are erased when power is switched off.The other type of system memory is ROM(Read only Memory)which is permanent because it contents are not erased even when power is switched off. It isusually used to load an operating system.

6Hard disk driveComputer HardwareFig 1.1.7 Hard Disk DriveA hard drive consists of spinning platters made up of aluminum or ceramic thatis coated with magnetic media. The platters come in various sizes. The harddrive with many different storage capacities can be created depending upon thedensity, size and number of platters.This is also called as Secondary memory. There can be several programs in thesystem, which cannot be stored in RAM, so we need a very huge non-volatilememory, which can be used for storing all the programs, and data when thesystem is not in use are called as Hard disks.CD-ROM driveFig 1.1.8 CDROM DriveCD-ROM stands for compact disk read only memory. It consists of small diskssimilar to the gramophone records to hold digital information. As the name applies they are read only medium. With the advancement in technology writableCD’s are also available.Floppy Disk DriveFig 1.1.9 Floppy Disk DriveFloppy disks are the slowest and the smallest form of secondary storage. Theyprovide a simple way to carry information from one place to another, and backupsmall amount of files. In modern days floppy drive component is not as important as it was years ago. All PC’s made in the last 10 years use a standard 3 ½inch, 1.44 MB capacity floppy drive.

Chapter 1Name : Identifying components and their useKeyboard7Fig 1.1.10 KeyboardThe keyboard is the main input device for most computers. It is used to inputtext or enter commands into the PC. Nowadays keyboards with additional features are available like multimedia keyboard, wireless keyboard.MouseFig 1.1.11 MouseWith the invention of graphical user interface mouse is used to input informationinto the computer. Users simply point and click to enter information. The mainadvantage of mouse over keyboard is simplicity. And there are many operationsthat are much easier to perform with a mouse then a keyboard.MonitorFig 1.1.12 MonitorThe monitor is the specialized high-resolution screen similar to a television. Thevideo card sends the contents of its video memory to the monitor at a rate of 60or more time per second. The actual display screen is made up or red, green andblue dots that are illuminated by electron beam from behind. The video cardDAC chip controls the movement of the electron beam, which then controlswhat dots are turned on and how bright they are. Which then determines thepicture you see on the screen.

8Computer HardwarePower supplyFig 1.1.13 Power Supply(SMPS)SMPS(Switch Mode Power Supply): The power supply supplies power toevery single part in the PC. The main function of the power supply is to convertthe 230 V AC into 3.3 V, 5 V and 12 V DC power that the system requires forthe operations.In addition to supplying power to run the system, the power supply also ensuresthat the system does not run unless the power supplied is sufficient to operatethe system properly. The power supply completes internal checks and testsbefore allowing the system to start. If the tests are successful, the power supplysends a special signal to the motherboard called Power Good. If this signal isnot present continuously, the computer does not run. Therefore, when the ACvoltage dips and the power supply becomes stressed or overheated, thePower Good signal goes down and forces a system reset or complete shutdown.CabinetFig 1.1.14 CabinetThe box or outer shell that houses most of the computers. The cabinet actuallyperforms several important functions for your PC including protection to thesystem components, directing cooling airflow, and allowing installation of andaccess to the system components. The cabinet often includes a matching powersupply and must also be designed with shape of the motherboard and othersystem components in mind.

Chapter 19Name : Identifying components and their usePeripheral DevicesAny external device, which is not necessary to perform the basic operation ofcomputer, is called as peripherals. They provide additional computing capabilities. For ex : Printers, Modems, Speakers etc.ModemFig 1.1.15 ModemModem (Modulator and Demodulator) is typically used to send digital dataover a phone line. The sending modem converts digital data into analog data,which can be transmitted over telephone lines, and the receiving modemconverts the analog data back into digital form. This is used to connect toInternet.A typical arrangement is shown below in fig 1.1.16Modems are available in different capacities. 300 bps - 1960s through 1983 or so 1200 bps - Gained popularity in 1984 and 1985 2400 bps 9600 bps - First appeared in late 1990 and early 1991 19.2 kilobits per second (Kbps) 28.8 Kbps 33.6 Kbps 56 Kbps - Became the standard in 1998

10Computer HardwareADSL, with theoretical maximum of up to 8 megabits per second (Mbps)- Gained popularity in 1999Printers The capability to produce a printed version often called a hard copy of a document is the primary function of a printer.Different types of printers are 1) Laser 2) Inkjet 3) Dot-Matrix.Summary:1) A computer is made up of electromechanical and electronic components.2) Software is used to make computer usable.3) Based on the microprocessor systems are classified as PC-XT and PCAT4) Important components of a system are processor, memory, keyboard,mouse, monitor etc.5) SMPS converts AC (Alternate Current) into DC (Direct Current).Short type Questions: is a computer?Name different types of computers?Name the system components?How many types of memories are there?What is SMPS?Which type of input is given to SMPS?What is the difference between ROM and RAM?Essay type questions: 1. Name the types of system components and explain them briefly?2. What is a MODEM? What is its use?3. Discuss the use of SMPS?

CHAPTER :2MEASURING VOLTAGES AT DIFFERENT LEVELSChapter -211Name : Measuring Voltages at different levels1.2.1 What is a multimeter? A meter is a measuring instrument. An ammetermeasures current, a voltmeter measures the potential difference (voltage) between two points, and an ohmmeter measures resistance. A multimeter combines these functions, and possibly some additional ones as well, into a singleinstrument.A multimeter can serve many purposes including checking for voltage signals at different points in a system,testing the output of the power supply and checkingfor continuity in a circuit or cable.Fig 1.2.1 Digital MonitorDigital multimeter (DMM)?One simple test that you can perform on a power supply is to check the outputvoltages. This shows whether a power supply is operation correctly and whetherthe output voltages are within the correct tolerance range.You must measure all voltages with the power supplies connected to a properload. Which usually means testing while the power supply is installed in thesystem.Measuring voltage: To measure voltage on the system that is operating youmust use a technique called back probing on the connectors (These are the red,yellow, orange, black and white wires coming out of power supply). You mustmeasure the voltages when system is powered on. Nearly all the connectors youneed to probe have openings in the back where the wires enter the connector.The meter leads are narrow enough to fit into the connector beside the wire andmake contact with the metal terminal inside. The technique is called back probing because you are probing the connector from the back. You must use thisback probing technique to perform all of the following measurements.To test a power supply for the proper output, check the voltage at thePower Good pin for 3v to 6v of power. If the measurement is not within thisrange, the system never sees the Power Good signal and therefore does notstart or run properly. In most cases, the power supply is bad and must be replaced.Continue by measuring the voltage ranges of the pins on the motherboard and

12ComputerHardwareHard Disk power connectors. If you are measuring voltages for testing purposesany reading within 10 % of the specified voltage is considered acceptable,although most manufactures of high quality power supplies specifies a tighter 5%tolerance. For ATX power supplies,the specification requires that voltages must be within 5% of the rating , exceptfor the 3.3v current which must be within 4%.DesiredVoltage 3.3v /- 5.0v /- 12.0vLoose tolearanceMin (-10%) Max( 8%)2.97v4.5v10.8v3.63v5.4v12.9vTight toleranceMin (-5%) Max( 5%)3.135v4.75v11.4v3.465v5.25v12.6vPower Good signal has tolerances that are different from the other signals, although it is nominally a 5v signal in most systems. The trigger point forPower Good is about 2.5v, but most systems require the signal voltage to bewithin the tolerances listed.SignalMinimumMaximumPower good 5v 3.0v6.0vReplace the power supply if the voltages are measured out of these ranges.Again, it is worth noting that any and all power supply tests and measurementsmust be made with the power supply properly loaded, which usually means thatit must be installed in a system and the system must be running.2.1.2 MetersThe DMM has a pair of wires called test leads or probes. The test leads makethe connections so that you can take readings, depending on the meters setting;the probes measure electrical resistance, direct current (DC) voltage, or alternating Current (AC) voltage.Usually, each system-unit measurement settings has several ranges of operations. DC voltage, for example, usually can be read in several scales, to a maximum of 200mv, 2v, 20v, 200v and 1000v. Because computers use both 5vand 12v for various operations you should use the 20v maximum scale formaking your measurements. Making these measurements on the 200mv or 2vscale would possibly damage the meter because the voltage would be much

Chapter -2Name : Measuring Voltages at different levels13higher then expected.Using the 200v or 1000v scale works, but the readings at 5v and 12v are sosmall in proportion to the maximum that accuracy is low.If you are taking a measurement and are unsure of the actual voltage, start at thehighest stage and work your way down.Using Multimeter to measure voltages:Initially you have to check if the current from wall socket is 230 V or not. Forthis go through the following steps:1) Adjust the multimeter by roatating the knob of the multimeter and set it to anyAC voltage higher than 230 V.2) Now put the positive lead(Red) of the mutlimeter into phase( ve terminal)andNegative lead (Black) into neutral(-ve teminal) of the wall socket.3)Note down the readings. Which has to be 230 V. But practically anythingbetween 210and 230 V is acceptable.Follow the steps which are given below to check the power in Hard Disk Drive.1) Adjust the multimeter by roatating the knob of the multimeter and set itto any DC voltage higher than 12 v and maximum can be 20v.2) Switch on the system.3) Now put the positive lead (Red) of the mutlimeter into Red wire fromthe back of the power connecter which goes to Hard disk and Negativelead (Black) into the black wire of the power connector of Hard disk.4) Note down the readings. Which has to be 5 volts. Where as tolerancelevels you can find from the above tables 2.1 and 2.2.5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the yellow and black wires of Hard disk powerconnector.And follow the above procedure to measure the power in the motherboard,CPU fan, Floppy dirve, CD ROM etc.

14Computer HardwareSummary:1. Digital multimeters are used to measure power supply in computer.2. Power Good signal is necessary to start the system.Short questions: is a Multimeter?What is the difference between multimeter and digital multimeter?What is back probing?]What is Power Good Signal?Essay type questions: 1. How is multimenter used to measure voltages?

Unit II Chapter -1Name : Motherboard152.1.1 What is a Motherboard?Motherboard is the most important component in any personal computer. Itcontains almost every important elements of the computer.Sometimes instead of the calling it “motherboard”, IBM refers to is as “systemBoard” or “ Planner Board” , some other manufacturer refer to this as the “Logic Board”.The motherboard is the main circuit board inside the PC which holds theprocessor, memory and expansion slots and connects directly or indirectlyto every part of the PC. It’s made up of a chipset(known as the “glue logic”),some code in ROM and the various interconnections or buses.2.1.2 EvolutionThe original PC had a minimum of integrated devices, just ports for a keyboardand a cassette deck (for storage). Everything else, including a display adapterand floppy or hard disk controllers, were add-in components, connected viaexpansion slots.Over time, more devices have been integrated into the motherboard. It’s a slowtrend though, as I/O ports and disk controllers were often mounted on expansion cards as recently as 1995. Other components - typically graphics, networking, SCSI and sound - usually remain separate. Many manufacturers haveexperimented with different levels of integration, building in some or even all ofthese components. However, there are drawbacks. It’s harder to upgrade thespecification if integrated components can’t be removed, and highly integratedmotherboards often require non-standard cases. Furthermore, replacing a singlefaulty component may mean buying an entire new motherboard.Consequently, those parts of the system whose specification changes fastest RAM, CPU and graphics - tend to remain in sockets or slots for easy replacement. Similarly, parts that not all users need, such as networking or SCSI, areusually left out of the base specification to keep costs down.The basic changes in motherboard form factors over the years are covered laterin this section - the diagrams below provide a detailed look at the various components on two motherboards. The first a Baby AT design, sporting the ubiquitous Socket 7 processor connector, circa 1995. The second is an ATX design,with a Pentium II Slot 1 type processor connector, typical of motherboards onthe market in late 1998.

16Computer HardwareFig 2.1.1 Baby AT DesignFig 2.1.2 ATX Design

Chapter -1Name : Motherboard17Motherboard development consists largely of isolating performance-critical components from slower ones. As higher speed devices become available, they arelinked by faster buses - and the lower-speed buses are relegated to supportingroles. In the late 1990s there was also trend towards putting peripherals designed as integrated chips directly onto the motherboard. Initially this was confined to audio and video chips - obviating the need for separate sound or graphics adapter cards - but in time the peripherals integrated in this way becamemore diverse and included items such as SCSI, LAN and even RAID controllers. While there are cost benefits to this approach the biggest downside is therestriction of future upgrade options.2.1.2 Motherboard Form FactorsEarly PCs used the AT form factor and 12in wide motherboards. The sheersize of an AT motherboard caused problems for upgrading PCs and did notallow use of the increasingly popular slimline desktop cases. These problemswere largely addressed by the smaller version of the full AT form factor, theBaby AT, introduced in 1989. Whilstthis remains a common form factor, there have been several improvements since.All designs are open standards and as such don’t require certification. A consequence is that there can be some quite wide variation in design detail betweendifferent manufacturers’ motherboardsThere are several common form factors used for PC motherboards. The formfactors refer to the physical dimensions and size of the board, and dictates whattype case is motherboard will fit into. The PC motherboard form factors generally available include the following.Baby – ATNLXLPXBackplane systemsATXProprietary designsBAT(Baby –AT)The Baby AT (BAT) format reduced the dimensions of the motherboard to atypical 9in wide by 10in long, and BAT motherboards are generally characterisedby their shape, an AT-style keyboard connector soldered to the board and serial and parallel port connectors which are attached using cables between thephysical ports mounted on the system case and corresponding connectors located on the motherboard.

18Computer HardwareWith the BAT design the processor socket is located at the front of the motherboard, and fulllength expansion cards are intended to extendover it. This means that removing the processorrequires the removal of some or all expansioncards first. Problems were exacerbated by theincreasing speeds of Pentium-class processors.Fig 2.1.3 Baby –AT MotherboardSystem cooling relied on the AT power supply blowing air out of the chassisenclosure and, due to the distance between the power supply and the CPU, anadditional chassis fan or active heatsink became a necessity to maintain goodairflow across the CPU. AT power supplies only provide 12V and 5V outputsto the motherboard, requiring additional regulators on the motherboard if 3.3Vcomponents (PCI cards or CPUs) are used. Sometimes a second heatsink wasalso required on these voltage regulators and together the various additional heatdissipation components caused serious obstruction for expansion slots.Some BAT designs allow the use of either AT or ATX power supplies, andsome ATX cases might allow the use of a Baby-AT motherboard.ATXThe Intel Advanced/ML motherboard, launched in 1996, was designed to solvethese issues and marked the beginning of a new era in motherboard design. Itssize and layout are completely different to the BAT format, following a newscheme known as ATX. The dimensions of a standard ATX board are 12in wideby 9.6in long; the mini ATX variant is typically of the order 11.2in by 8.2in.The ATX design gets round the problem by moving theCPU socket and the voltage regulator to the right-handside of the expansion bus. Room is made for the CPUby making the card slightly wider, and shrinking or integrating components such as the Flash BIOS, I/O logicand keyboard controller. This means the board needonly be half as deep as a full size Baby AT, andFig 2.1.5 ATX Motherboardthere’s no obstruction whatsoever to the six expansion slots (two ISA, oneISA/PCI, three PCI).

Chapter -1Name : Motherboard19The ATX uses a new specification of power supply that can be powered onor off by a signal from the motherboard. This allows notebook-style powermanagement and software-controlled shutdown and power-up. A 3.3V output is also provided directly from the power supply. Accessibility of the processor and memory modules is improved dramatically, and relocation of theperipheral connectors allows shorter cables to be used. This also helps reduce electromagnetic interference. The ATX power supply has a side ventthat blows air from the outside directly across the processor and memorymodules, allowing passive heatsinks to be used in most cases, thereby reducing system noise.Mini-ATX is simply a smaller version of a full-sized ATX board. On bothdesigns, parallel, serial, PS/2 keyboard and mouse ports are located on adouble-height I/O shield at the rear. Being soldered directly onto the boardgenerally means no need for cable interconnects to the on-board I/O ports. Aconsequence of this, however, is that the ATX needs a newly designed case,with correctly positioned cut-outs for the ports, and neither ATX no MiniATX boards can be used in AT-style cases.NLXIntel’s NLX design, introduced in 1997, is an improvement on the LPXdesign for low-profile systems, with an emphasis on ease of maintenance.The NLX format is smaller, typically 8.8in wide by 13in long, so well suitedfor low-profile desktop cases.All expansion slots, power cables andperipheral connectors are located on anedge-mounted riser card, allowing simpleremoval of the main motherboard, which ismounted on rails in the chassis. It uses a fullwidth I/O shield to allow for differentcombinations of rear-panel I/O. The designallows for use of anFig 2.1.6 NLX MotherboardAGP card, but the slot must be on the motherboard, which reduces theease of maintenance when such a card is implemented.AGP card, but the slot must be on the motherboard, which reduces theease of maintenance when such a card is implemented.Proprietary designs motherboards that are not one of the standard formfactors such as Fullsized –AT, Baby- AT, ATX or NLX are called asproprietary.

20Computer HardwareBackplane systems: One type of proprietary design is the backplanesystem. These systems donot have a motherboard, the components normallyfound on the motherboard are located on an expansion adapter card pluggedinto a slot. In these systems, the board with the slots is called a backplanerather than a motherboard. Systems using this type of constructions are calledbackplane systems.2.1.3 Motherboard componentsA conventional motherboard comprises of various components such as Expansion slotsCPU(Main Processor)CoprocessorMemoryBIOS andSupport circuits of chipset for interrupt, DMA etc.Expansion SlotsWhat is expansion slot?The expansion slots are long thin connectors on the motherboard, near the backsideof the computer. Various expansion cards are connected to the motherboardsthrough data, address and control lines/buses on these slots.One can connect various expansion cards such as display card, hard drive controller, sound card, network card, modem card etc. on these slots.When an adapter card is connected to the expansion slot, it is actually connected to the data, address and control bus on the motherboard.What is a Bus?A bus is an electronic path on which signals are sent from one part of thecomputer to another.These buses are categorizes according to the number of BINARY DIGITS(bits) that thety can transfer at a time. If the data bus is 8 bit wide then it can transfer 8 bits of information ata time and called an 8 bit bus. On a 8 bit data bus transferring 16 bit data requires two data transfers

Chapter -1Name : Motherboard21Another very common term while talking about bus is , its “ bandwidth”. The bandwidth of a bus is the measure of data that can fit in the bus ata given time.You can increase the data movement through a bus either by increasing thebus width( from 8 bit to 16 bit) of by increasing the bus bandwidth (8 Mhz to20 Mhz).This is similar to the way you can increase water output from a pipe, eitheryou can increase the pipe diameter or you can increase the water flow.Data Bus : Is a set of wires or tracks on the motherboard. Data bus is used totransfer data from one part of the computer to another part.Address Bus : is a set of wires or tracks on the motherboard Printed CircuitBoard(PCB) which is used to specify address of a memory locationDepending on the width and the technology, the expansion slot bus can bedivided into the following categories.8 bit ISA16 bit ISAMCAEISAVESA local bus or VL busPCI local BusCPU (Main Processor)The main component of any motherboard is the main processor chip whichcontrols all the inner functions of the system. The CENTRAL PROCESSINGUNIT(CPU) functions as the brain of every PC.It is

and is referred to as hardware. A computer system consists of three elements. Fig 1.1.1 Components of a Computer System 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. People Hardware : The physical components which you can see, touch and feel in the computer system are called hardware Eg monitor, keyboard, mouse etc.

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