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FRANZ AND FRANZ : New Fossil Land Tortoise in the Genus Chelonoidis47The FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY is Florida’s state museum of natural history, dedicated tounderstanding, preserving, and interpreting biological diversity and cultural heritage.The BULLETIN OF THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY is a peer-reviewed publicationthat publishes the results of original research in zoology, botany, paleontology, and archaeology. Address all inquiriesto the Managing Editor of the Bulletin. Numbers of the Bulletin are published at irregular intervals. Specific volumesare not necessarily completed in any one year. The end of a volume will be noted at the foot of the first page of thelast issue in that volume.David W. Steadman, Guest EditorRichard Franz, Managing EditorCathleen Bester, ProductionBulletin CommitteeRichard Franz, ChairpersonAnn CordellSarah FazenbakerRichard HulbertWilliam MarquardtLarry PageIrvy R. QuitmyerDavid W. Steadman, Ex officio MemberISSN: 0071-6154Publication Date: December 30, 2009Send communications concerning purchase or exchangeof the publication and manuscript queries to:Managing Editor of the BULLETINFlorida Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of FloridaPO Box 117800Gainesville, FL 32611-7800 U.S.A.Phone: 352-392-1721Fax: 352-846-0287e-mail: [email protected]

IN MEMORIUMSHELLEY ETHERIDGE FRANZ1952-2008We dedicate this issue of the Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History on Bahamian fossil tortoises toShelley E. Franz, who passed away on 1 July 2008, following a prolonged illness. Shelley worked as a volunteerresearcher since 1984 in the fields of herpetology and vertebrate paleontology at the Florida Museum of NaturalHistory. She participated in museum-sponsored research in Haiti, Cayman Islands, The Bahamas, Florida,Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming. Shelley was most recently engaged with her husband Dick in thedescriptions of fossil tortoise faunas from The Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the White River Badlandsof northwestern Nebraska.Shelley Franz was first and foremost an educator. She had taught in public schools in Florida, NorthCarolina, and Virginia for more than 15 years. Shelley received her BS in geology and teaching from EastCarolina State University in 1979 and her MA in museum education from the College of William and Mary in2004. Prior to her illness, Shelley was enrolled in a PhD program in the College of Education at the University ofFlorida.During her career, Shelley worked for Florida Sea Grant and Florida Environmental Education ServiceProject (both at the University of Florida), U.S. Geological Survey (Water Resources, Tampa), MorningsideNature Center, Samuel Harn Art Museum, Watermen’s Museum (in Yorktown, Virginia), and Synergy DesignGroup (a Tallahassee design firm developing museum exhibits). She was a volunteer researcher at the OrdwaySwisher Biological Station, conducting botanical surveys, sampling amphibians and reptiles, and participating ininterviews with local families and in searches of historic documents for a study on the environmental and culturalhistory of the station. Shelley was also a co-author on several scientific papers and abstracts on Floridacrayfishes, tortoises, and most recently fossil vertebrates associated with Bahamian blue holes, the latterappearing in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and the Bulletin of the FloridaMuseum of Natural History.Shelley was a member of the writing team with ecologists Peter Feinsinger and Maria Minno, whoproduced the Handbook to Schoolyard Plants and Animals of North Central Florida, sponsored by theBingham Environmental Education Foundation and the Nongame Wildlife Program of the Florida Game and FreshWater Fish Commission. Upon her death, Pete Feinsinger wrote, “It was a pleasure and honor to work withShelley so long ago, when we, a ragtag bunch of rebels with a cause, started the local natural history movement,which has since grown into a many pronged, pedagogically complete initiative in 14 countries, all in Latin America.Without Shelley’s enthusiasm and drive that might never have happened. I will always remember her.”Shelley Franz is survived by her husband Richard (Dick) Franz, three adult children (Jeffrey Franz, LaraHollberg, and Cooper Partin), and six grandchildren. She is missed.R. Franz

FRANZ AND FRANZ : New Fossil Land Tortoise in the Genus Chelonoidis1A NEW FOSSIL LAND TORTOISE IN THE GENUS CHELONOIDIS (TESTUDINES:TESTUDINIDAE) FROM THE NORTHERN BAHAMAS, WITH ANOSTEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF OTHER NEOTROPICAL TORTOISESRichard Franz and Shelley E. Franz1ABSTRACTAn extinct tortoise, Chelonoidis alburyorum n. sp., is described from nearly complete, beautifully preserved fossils from Sawmill Sink, adeep inland blue hole and cave system, on Great Abaco Island, Little Bahama Bank, in the northern Bahamas. This tortoise is part of anextensive fossil fauna in peat deposits associated with an immense debris cone in the entry shaft of this water-filled cave. The peat fauna alsoincludes intact skeletons, skulls, and isolated bones of Cuban crocodiles (Crocodylus rhombifer), large birds, native rodents (Geocapromysingrahami), and bats. The turtle remains include the first complete skull, first intact shells, and first associated vertebrae and appendicularskeletons of a tortoise from The Bahamas and/or West Indies. A morphological assessment of this tortoise and other Neotropical tortoisesshows greater similarity of this new species with modern Chelonoidis nigra from the Galápagos Islands and fossils from the greaterCaribbean area, than with the Cuban Chelonoidis cubensis or living and fossil continental Chelonoidis.AMS radiocarbon dates obtained from bones from the holotype and female paratype of the new tortoise, and from three Cubancrocodiles from Sawmill Sink, indicate a late Holocene age (2,580-3,820 yrs BP) for the peat deposits that produced the fossils of Chelonoidisalburyorum. Two other fossil faunas from this sink are thought to be older, possibly Pleistocene in age. These older fossils lack sufficientcarbon to permit reliable radiometric dating. Chelonoidis alburyorum is one of a series of tortoise fossils recently found in blue holes, caves, andarchaeological sites in the Bahamian archipelago, including the Turks and Caicos Islands, BWI. Two other fossil species from Abaco and theTurks and Caicos Islands, both in the genus Chelonoidis, are also new to science and will be described elsewhere. Affinities of the fossils fromother Bahamian banks remain unstudied. A morphological asssessment of Neotropical tortoises shows greater similiarities between the newspecies, modern Cheolonoidis nigra, and to a lesser degree fossils from the greater Caribbean than with the Cuban Chelonoidis cubensis andcontinental Chelonoidis.Key Words: new fossil tortoise, Testudinidae, Chelonoidis, inland blue holes, Abaco, The Bahamas, late Holocene.TABLE OF CONTENTSIntroduction.2Bahamian and West Indian Tortoise Fossils.3History of New World Genera. 4Methods and Materials.4Systematic Paleontology.5Chelonoidis alburyorum n. sp. 5Description.11General Shell Features.11Shell Wounds and Penetrations. 13Shell Bones and Scutes.13The Sawmill Sink Skull. 15Vertebrae. 17Limbs and Girdles. 18Preserved Foods. 19Descriptions of Other Species of Chelonoidis.19Fossil Tortoises.19Osteology of Living Chelonoidis.24Comparisons With Chelonoidis alburyorum n. sp. 29Discussion. 32Acknowledgements.33Literature Cited. 33Appendix I. 36Appendix II. 38Appendix III.40Appendix IV. 42Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville, FL 32611-7800Franz, Richard and Shelley E. Franz. A New Fossil Land Tortoise in the Genus Chelonoidis (Testudines: Testudinidae) From the Northern Bahamas,With an Osteological Assessment of Other Neotropical Tortoises. Bull. Florida Museum Nat. Hist. 49(1):1-44.1

2INTRODUCTIONFossil reptiles from the Bahamian archipelago have beenreported from Banana Hole sinkhole on New ProvidenceIsland, caves on north Andros, both on the Great BahamaBank (Auffenberg 1967, Pregill 1982), a cave on SanSalvador (Olson, Pregill, & Hilgartner 1990), and anarcheological site and a cave from the Turks and CaicosIslands (Carlson 1999, Franz, et al. 2001). The firstreports of vertebrate fossils from Bahamian inland blueholes were two specimens of Cuban crocodiles(Crocodylus rhombifer) from Dan’s Cave, nearSawmill Sink, on Abaco, collected by divers in 1994(Franz, et al. 1995). This was the first report of C.rhombifer from the Bahamian archipelago. FossilCuban crocodiles were previously known from Cuba(Leidy 1868, Varona 1966, 1984) and Grand Cayman(Morgan & Patton 1979, Morgan, et al. 1993, Morgan1994). Natural populations still exist in southwesternCuba (Varona 1966, Morgan, et al. 1993).Cave diver Brian Kakuk made the initial discoveries of vertebrate fossils at Sawmill Sink on Great AbacoIsland, Little Bahama Bank, The Bahamas, in December 2004 (Fig.1). The first tortoise fossils were recov-BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(1)ered in the sink by Kakuk in February 2005. Physicaldescriptions of Dan’s Cave and Sawmill Sink have beenpublished elsewhere (Franz, et al. 1995, Steadman, etal. 2007).Extensive bone accumulations, partially exposedin plant-rich peat deposits, were revealed by intense divingefforts in Sawmill Sink between 2005 and 2008. Thepeat fauna consists of tortoises, Cuban crocodiles, native rodents (Geocapromys ingrahami abaconis), andbirds (Steadman, et al. 2007). Radiocarbon dates reveal a late Holocene age (2,580-3,820 yrs BP) for twotortoises and three crocodiles (Steadman, et al. 2007).Peat forms a thick mantle over a massive debriscone that nearly fills the flooded entrance shaft of Sawmill Sink. The peat consists of well-preserved wood,leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, pollen, and insects. FloridaMuseum paleobotanists have identified 40 taxa of fungi,spike mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, monocots, and dicots from three cores and several grab samples collected at three different water depths in Sawmill Sink(Steadman, et al. 2007). Pine fossils dominated the upper core, but were absent from the two deeper cores.Plant species of the coppice (tropical dry forest) wereFigure 1. Map of the Bahamas, showing the location of Abaco Island.

FRANZ AND FRANZ : New Fossil Land Tortoise in the Genus Chelonoidisabundant in all samples. This suggests an abrupt changein plant communities from hardwoods to more open pinedominated forests in the vicinity of Sawmill Sink duringthe late Holocene. No radiocarbon dates are availablefor the plant macrofossils in the peat at this time.A second, presumably older fauna, rich in microfossils, occurs as yellow-colored bone layers on rockledges at the bottom of the sink at water depths between 27-29 m. This fauna consists of individual bonesfrom birds, native rodents, bats, lizards, snakes, and smallfishes (Steadman, et al. 2007). Tortoises, crocodiles,large birds, or plant material are not associated with thisdeposit. We believe this fauna was deposited by roosting predatory birds, probably barn owls (Tyto sp.). Theunidentified fish component may have been added byAudubon shearwaters (Puffinus lherminieri) or otherpiscivorous birds. Both owls and shearwaters are knownto roost and nest in caves of The Bahamas. We suspectthat the bones of the yellow layer accumulated whensea levels stood at least 29 m lower than present-daylevels, based on the location and structural nature of thedeposit. Samples of bones from this layer lack sufficient carbon for radiocarbon analysis to substantiate thisproposed late Pleistocene time interval (Steadman, etal. 2007).A third fauna also exists at Sawmill Sink. Thisfauna consists of a series of isolated, highly mineralizedbones that represent very large individuals of a sea turtle(Chelonia mydas), tortoise (Chelonoidis n. sp.), andcrocodile (Crocodylus sp.). A tortoise humerus has anaccumulation of what appears to be limestone attachedto its distal end. The provenance of this group of fossilsis unclear at this time.Recent collections at Nancy’s Cave near SawmillSink have revealed the first sample of fossil rock iguanas (Cyclura sp.) (ID by D.W. Steadman) to a growinglist of vertebrates found in inland blue holes on the LittleBahama Bank. Cyclura fossils are also known from adry cave at Hole-in-the-Wall on the south end of Abaco(Franz, et al. 1996, G.S. Morgan, pers. comm.). Theirages are unknown. Cyclura no longer occurs on islands of the Little Bahama Bank and probably disappeared prior to human occupation. We suspect that thelist of fossil species will continue to grow as more blueholes are explored.The Sawmill Sink study is designated as an officialproject of the Bahamian government under the directionof The Antiquities, Monuments, and Museums Corporation and the National Museum of The Bahamas. Thesink has been declared an important archaeological/ paleontological site by the Bahamian government becauseof the site’s well-preserved fossils, and visitation is re-3stricted. The exceptional fossils are currently under studyby a team of researchers from the University of Floridaand other institutions. The ultimate goals of the projectare to describe the Sawmill fossil biotas and reconstructthe environmental history of the northern Bahamas asrecorded by these specimens and fossil materials fromother blue holes on the Little Bahama Bank.BAHAMIAN AND WEST INDIAN TORTOISE FOSSILSFossil tortoises are reported from springs, inlandblue holes, caves, cow wells, fissures, and archaeological sites in the Bahama Islands, the Greater Antilles,and the Lesser Antilles. Specific Records: THE BAHAMAS: (Great Bahama Bank) Andros, New Providence (Auffenberg 1967), Eleuthera (unpublishedrecords); (Little Bahama Bank) Abaco (this paper),Moore’s Island (formerly known as Mores Island) (unpublished records); (Crooked-Acklins Bank) Aklins (unpublished records); (Mayaguana Bank) Mayaguana (unpublished records); and (San Salvador Bank) San Salvador (Olson, et al. 1982). TURKS AND CAICOSISLANDS, BWI: (Caicos Bank) Middle Caicos (Franz,et al. 2001); (Turks Bank) Grand Turk (Carlson 1999).GREATER ANTILLES: Cuba (Leidy 1868, Williams1950a, Auffenberg 1967), Mona Island between PuertoRico and Hispaniola (Williams 1952), Navassa Islandoff the west coast of Haiti (Auffenberg 1967), and eastern Dominican Republic (Franz & Woods 1982).LESSER ANTILLES: Sombrero Island in the AnegadaPassage between the Leeward and Virgin islands (Leidy1868, Williams 1950a, Auffenberg 1967), Barbados (Ray1964), and Anguilla (Lazell 1993). COASTAL VENEZUELA: Curacao (Hooijer 1963). EXTRALIMITALRECORD: Bermuda (Meylan & Sterrer 2000).Three names are available in the literature fortortoise fossils from the Bahamas and the West Indies:Testudo cubensis Leidy (1868) for the Cuban species,Emys sombrerensis Leidy (1868) for the SombreroIsland species, and Testudo monensis Williams (1952)for the Mona Island species. The Anguilla fossils werereported as the living species Geochelone carbonariaby Lazell (1993).Most fossil tortoise specimens from the BahamaIslands and the Antilles are fragmentary and difficult todiagnosis. Conversely, the Sawmill Sink fossils are wellpreserved and essentially complete. They provide thefirst opportunity in more than 140 years of paleontologicalexploration and research in the West Indian region tostudy complete skeletons of extinct tortoises.The Pleistocene land tortoise (Hesperotestudobermudae) from Bermuda is considered to haveoriginated in North America (Meylan and Sterrer 2000).

4Bermuda is an oceanic island in the Atlantic Ocean thatlies approximately 1,500 km northeast of Abaco. Abacois considered the most northern point in the West Indianregion of the Neotropics.Recent fossil discoveries in inland blue holes onthe Bahamian archipelago include undescribed tortoisepopulations from Abaco, Moore’s Island, Eleuthera,Mayaguana, Middle Caicos, and Grand Turk. One ofthem, from Sawmill Sink, Lost Reel Cave, and othercaves on Abaco, attained a much larger size than thelate Holocene species from Sawmill Sink described here.We believe that this larger species may be geologicallyolder, although we have been unable to verify its agewith radiocarbon dates because of insufficient bonecollagen. Until these new discoveries are studied, wefeel that a general review of the region’s fossil tortoiseswould be premature; therefore, we limit the currentdiscussion to the similarities among the late HoloceneSawmill Sink population, its living and fossil SouthAmerican relatives, and the Cuban, Hispaniola, and Monafossils, and refrain from conducting a phylogeneticanalysis. In any case, because of their completenessand superb preservation, the Sawmill Sink specimensprovide a morphological data set against which all otherBahamian and West Indian tortoise fossils will becompared.HISTORY OF NEW WORLD GENERALoveridge & Williams (1957) placed many of theworld’s fossil and living land tortoises in the genusGeochelone and divided this genus into subgenera.Auffenberg (1974) embraced their concept, but modified their subgeneric arrangement. Bramble (1971) suggested that Geochelone, as conceived by Loveridge &Williams (1957) and by inference Auffenberg (1974),did not represent “a natural, phyletic unit.”Loveridge & Williams (1957) and Auffenberg(1974) included all fossil and living West Indian and SouthAmerican tortoises in the subgenera Chelonoidis andMonachelys in the genus Geochelone. Bramble (1971)regrouped them in the genus Chelonoidis. He furtherasserted that Nearctic and Neotropical tortoises weremonophyletic with origins in nuclear Central America.Meylan & Sterrer (2000) kept the generic concept ofChelonoidis for all South American tortoises. Theyconsidered Chelonoidis to be the sister group to certainOld World tortoises and did not find evidence formonophyly of living and extinct North and SouthAmerican land tortoises.A recent molecular assessment of the phylogenyof living tortoises includes a basal lineage with the AsianManouria and North American Gopherus, a secondBULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(1)clade with Indotestudo Malacochersus Testudo,and a diverse third clade with Pyxis, Aldabrachelys,Homopus, Chersina, Psammobates, Kinixys, andGeochelone (including Chelonoidis) (Le, et al. 2006).Further, Geochelone was found to be polyphyletic withfour independent clades, and the hypothesis of SouthAmerican tortoises originating in North America wasrejected (Le, et al. 2006). Thus, we follow recentpublications and consider Chelonoidis as the preferredgeneric name for Neotropical tortoises. We also applythis name to the Abaco fossils and by implication to allBahamian and West Indian tortoises.Williams (1952) erected the subgenus Monachelysto accommodate his Mona Island fossil, Testudomonensis. Auffenberg (1974) considered Monachelysto be an endemic West Indian subgenus within the genus Geochelone. The Abaco and Mona specimensshare some shell features, but differ in aspects of theskull and the configuration of the first dorsal vertebra.We consider the subgenus Monachelys to be part ofthe genus Chelonoidis, although its phylogenetic position within this group needs further clarification.METHODS AND MATERIALSThe tortoise fossils described below were recovered byprofessional divers from the salt water zone below ahydrogen sulfide layer and halocline in the entrance shaftof Sawmill Sink (Steadman, et al. 2007). The boneswere lifted by divers to the surface in plastic recoveryboxes that were filled with water and sediment fromthe site of collection. Lids were sealed on the recoveryboxes immediately following the collection to preventcontamination of the bones as they were brought to thesurface through layers of water with different waterqualities. At the surface, the water in the boxes wasremoved and stored in plastic bags. The shells and boneswere wrapped in wet cloth towels to immobilize themduring transport. Towels were removed at thepreparation facility and the original water wasreintroduced to the containers following cleansing ofloose sediment. Care was taken to insure the shells andbones were fully immersed.The original salt water was gradually replacedwith freshwater over the course of the next 11 days.The freshwater bath was then changed daily for anadditional 14 days to insure that shells and bones werecompletely leached of their remaining salt content.Following this process, water was drained from thespecimens, and the bones were allowed to air dry slowlyfor the next 28 days to prevent cracking. Shells andbones were turned twice each day to insure uniformdrying. Bones were inspected daily for mold growth and

FRANZ AND FRANZ : New Fossil Land Tortoise in the Genus Chelonoidissigns of degradation. Shells, skull, and most appendicularbones were then immersed in a thin solution of ButvarB-76 and dried. The first treatment was followed by asecond application several days later, and thoroughlydried again. Certain bones were air-dried, but notimmersed in Butvar for dating and DNA recovery. Thebones are maintained in plastic boxes at the preparationfacility. The fossils were assigned individual fieldnumbers, based on the collection site and order of theircollection. Selected specimens were imported to theUnited States with appropriate permits from TheAntiquities, Museums, and Monuments Corporation, TheBahamas Department of Agriculture, and the UnitedStates Fish and Wildlife Service, and are curated in theVertebrate Paleontology Collection of the FloridaMuseum of Natural History. The majority of specimensare retained in Marsh Harbour, Abaco, where they arethe property of the AMMC.Abbreviations and Terminology: UF, Florida Museum of Natural History (formerly Florida State Museum), University of Florida, Gainesville; USNM, UnitedStates National Museum (Smithsonian Institution);AMMC, The Antiquities, Monuments, and MuseumsCorporation; NMB, The National Museum of The Bahamas (under AMMC) (The Bahamas is the officialname of the country), Nassau. ABACO, AMMC preparation center at Marsh Harbour, Abaco; BNM.AB50.T,The National Museum of The Bahamas field numbersfor tortoise fossils (ex. AB50.T2 code for Abaco, Sawmill Sink [50], specific tortoise ID [T2]). The Floridaand Bahamian museum numbers are shortened to Ts inthe body of the text. AMS or accelerator mass spectrometry method was used for radiocarbon (14C) dating.Terminology for scutes and bones followsBramble (1971) and Hutchison (1998); for skulls seeBramble (1971) and Gaffney (1979). Shellmeasurements for the Sawmill Sink fossils and livingspecies are shown in Table 1 and Appendices I-IV. Skullmeasurements are shown in Table 2. Specializeddescriptive terminology has been used for aspects ofthe shell, which deviates from other proposedterminologies. (1) The gular and anal extensions aretermed apices ( projections). (2) The epiplastronconsists of two shapes in Chelonoidis: a) an epiplastralexcavation that forms a prominent shelf on the interiorsurface of the epiplastron that can be partially or deeplyundercut in three of four living Chelonoidis; and b) aflattened epiplastral surface without the presence of ashelf in Bahamian fossils and C. nigra. (3) We use thename gular branching to describe the treelike branchingof gular sulci from the midline sulcus. The tree ispositioned on the external surface of the anterior lobe5of the plastron and can occur either on the epiplastronor entoplastron. The location of this feature has beenused in species recognition. (4) Interclavicular sculptureincludes an anterior elevated mass, a stronginterclavicular keel or ridge, a detached blade dorsal tothe HYO, and a pair of fossa lateral to the midline ridge.We describe the sculpture in the context of a bird facepattern. This feature is distinctive in Chelonoidis. The“bird face” analogy was used by anthropologists and usin discussing the various fossil species (Carlson 1999,W. Keegan and N. Albury pers. comm., and theBahamian field team). The patterns are consistentamong individual specimens within a species, but aredistinctive among species.The following list of abbreviations for scutes andshell bones is repeated in text at their first use.Abbreviations for other features not listed here areidentified in the text at their first use. Roman numeralsfollowing abbreviations indicate bone order.CARAPACE SCUTES: Cervical CER, Vertebral VER, Pleural PLE, Marginal MAR. PLASTRONSCUTES: Gular GUL, Humeral HUM, Pectoral PEC, Abdominal ABD, Femoral FEM, Anal ANA,Auxiliary AXI, Inguinal ING. CARAPACE SHELLBONES: Nuchal Plate NUC, Neural NEU,Suprapygal I SPY I, Suprapygal II SPY II, Pygal PYG, Costal COS, Periperal PER. PLASTRONSHELL BONES: Epiplastron EPI, Entoplastron ENT, Hyoplastron HYO, Hypoplastron HYP,Xiphiplastron XIP. COMMON MEASUREMENTS:Standard Carapace (midline) Length CL, Over-shellCarapace Length OCL, Standard Plastron MidlineLength PL, Greatest Plastron Length (including gularand anal apices) GPL, Greatest Shell Height GSH,Greatest Shell Width GSW.SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGYClass REPTILIA Laurenti 1768Order TESTUDINES Linneaus 1758Suborder CRYPTODIRA Cope 1868Family TESTUDINIDAE Gray 1825Genus CHELONOIDIS Fitzinger 1835Chelonoidis alburyorum n. sp.(Figs. 2-15, Tables 1-2)Holotype.—UF 225400 (NMB.AB50.T1), adult male,includes a complete shell, complete skull (minus themandible), 4 cervical and 16 caudal vertebrae, completepectoral and pelvic girdles, front and hind limbs, and 4terminal phalanges (Figs. 2, 9. 10, 13, 14, 15). The holotype is on permanent loan to the Florida Museum ofNatural History from The National Museum of TheBahamas.

6BULLETIN FLORIDA MUSEUM NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 49(1)Table 1. Shell measurements (in mm) for five Chelonoidis alburyorum specimens from Sawmill Sink, Abaco,Bahamas. T1 holotype. T1 and T4 in UF collection, T2, T3, and T7 in The National Museum of the T4SubadultT7MaleStandard carapace lengthOver-the-shell carapace lengthEnto- plus hyoplastral lengthWidth of shell at midsectionGreatest height of shellMinimum bridge lengthMidline length of plastronGreatest length of plastronAnterior plastral lobe lengthPosterior plastral lobe lengthCombined lobe lengthsNuchal plate length at midlineNuchal plate width at shell marginGreatest width of nuchal plateLength of suture betweennuchal plate & neural IMidline length of neural IWidth of neural I at transverse sulcusNumber of sides on neural IMidline length of neural II1st width on neural II2nd width on neural IINumber of sides of neural IIMidline length of neural IIIWidth on neural III at transverse sulcusNumber of sides on neural IIIMidline length of neural IVGreatest width on neural IVNumber of sides of neural IVMidline length neural VWidth of neural V at transverse sulcusNumber of sides on neural VMidline length of neural VIGreatest width of neural VINumber of sides on neural VINumber of sides of neural .9Est 367.176.8853.059.0453.378.4844.854,4462.170.386

FRANZ AND FRANZ : New Fossil Land Tortoise in the Genus Chelonoidis7Table 1. Continued.CharacterSexNumber of sides on neural VIIILength of sulcus betweensuprapygal II & pygalWidth of pygal at shell marginEpiplastron length at midlineEntoplastron length at midlineEntoplastron greatest widthHy

Shelley Franz was first and foremost an educator. She had taught in public schools in Florida, North Carolina, and Virginia for more than 15 years. . Samuel Harn Art Museum, Watermen's Museum (in Yorktown, Virginia), and Synergy Design . 1 Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville, .

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